Volume 22, Issue 2, Autumn 2022

Research Paper

Palynostratigraphy of Late Visean – Serpukhovian from Borehole Akkas-1, Western Iraq.

Yasser Hassan Kddo

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 1-31
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2022.133386.1010

The present study depends on (9) samples of the stratigraphic section between the depths (1120.5-1197) m from Akkas-1 borehole, western Iraq. These samples yielded enrichment of well-preserved Miospores except for one sample at (1178) m, which is of poor preservation.
These samples yielded (129) species of Miospores belonging to (57) genera, and (16) species are expected to be new species. The Index species of the studied stratigraphic section indicate Late Visean - Serpukhovian age including:
Aratrisporties saharaensis, Kraeuselisporites ornatus, Colatisporites denticulatus, C.decorus, Rotaspora knoxi, Prolycospora rugulosa, Spelaeotriletes spp., Vallatisporites spp. Savitrisporites nux, Waltzispora polita, W. planianulata, Raistrickia accincta, R. nigra. The sedimentary basin of these samples was promoted by the swampy and Lagoon ecosystem and the presence of some acritarchs indicating a periodic connection with the sea. The ferns of the plant's group Petridophyta include the presence of genera:  Vallatisporites, Kraeuselisporites, Densosporites, Raistrickia, and Spelaeotriletes, which belong to herbal lycopods within the group of ferns, give us a conviction of the presence of forest conditions adjacent to the swamps

Review Paper

Environmental Geochemistry of the Euphrates River from Al-Qaim to Basra Governate, Iraq: Articles Review

Ruaa Issa Muslim; Mohanad Al-Owaidi; Najah Alwan Al-Ghasham

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 32-46
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2022.134663.1019

The Euphrates River is one of the lengthiest rivers in West Asia. Its length is 2786 km. The river basin has an area of 440,000 km². It enters Iraq, north of Huseiba on the Iraqi-Syrian borders, and cuts through carbonate bedrock forming a very slim strip flood plain. This study describes and explains the hydrochemistry, water quality, water plus sediment pollution assessments, and sediment geochemistry of the Euphrates River within Iraq by reviewing several environmental, geochemical, and environmental pollution in previous papers.
The water chemistry of the Euphrates River revealed good and clear results during years 2012 and 2016 and it is characterized by dominant SO4 and Cl ions in 2013, although the water was chemistry altered through the year 2021. The high temperatures and the absence of rainfall contributed to the deposition of large quantities of gypsum on the river bed, which caused the depletion of SO4= in the river water. By way, the sequential of the salt’s precipitation and ions solubility was increased.
From 1995 to 2020, it is clear that there are increasing concentrations of toxic trace elements in sediment such as Cu, Ni, Co, and Cd. The content of these elements in the Euphrates River sediments increased towards Basra City with an increase in water salinity due to the climatic changes that occurred in recent years and the desertification of the region. Also, agricultural and industrial activities, domestic wastewater discharge, and irregular continuing human consumption of the river water had the greatest role in causing pollution.

Research Paper

An Industrial Evaluation and Chemical and Physical Properties of the Clay from the Taq Taq Area in Northern Iraq for some Ceramic Applications

Zirak Yaseen; Ahmed M. Aqrawi; Idrees N. Ahmed

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 47-66
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2022.134616.1018

Claystone beds exposed in the Mukdadiyah (Lower Bakhtiyary) and Injana (Upper Fars) Formations at Taq Taq in the Kurdistan Region-North of Iraq will be used in this study for Ceramic Industry. The estimation of qualitative variation of Clay beds is dependent on the chemical, physical, and mechanical properties of the ceramics industry. The claystone is sandy mud composed of 49-58% clay, 22.6 – 31.6% silt, and 10.4-31.4% sand. Linear shrinkage was seen in the Fired claystone specimens between - 0.23 to 4.32
%. bulk density 1.02 – 1.42 gm/cm3, and the efflorescence is varied from nil to Heavy. The main constituents of the investigated clays are SiO2, CaO, and Al2O3 ranging between (39.4 -43.3%,11.6-16.32%, and 8.52-10.17%) respectively. A significant amount of Fe2O3 is recorded in the samples, ranging from 4.87 – 6.02%. As per Iraqi Standard Standards No. 25, the claystone of the studied area is an appropriate content for the construction of pierced and conventional bricks in classes B and A for the wall tiles are class B3, Grade 2 and 3 for Roofing tiles.

Geochemical Parameters for Evaluating the Aptian-Albian Kaolin Deposits at Abu Darag Region, Gulf of Suez: Implications for the Paleoclimatic Conditions in the Depositional Environments

Hatem El Desoky; Mohamed Wageeh Abdel Moghny; Nabil Ali Abdel Hafez; Osama Ramzy El-Shahat; Sherif Farouk; Hossam Sharaka

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 67-89
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2022.135180.1025

The mineralogical and geochemical constituents of the Aptian-Albian Malha Formation at the Abu Darag region, Gulf of Suez, Egypt, can be discussed here. These constituents are related to paleoweathering and paleoclimatic circumstances that managed the depositional settings. The present study aims to evaluate the geochemical conditions that have control over the depositional environments and characterizes them in terms of lithological, mineralogical, and chemical composition. To achieve this aim, selected kaolinitic clay samples were geochemically and mineralogically examined. Kaolinite and quartz are the main constituent minerals in the investigated samples, whereas anatase and hematite serve as auxiliary minerals. The presence of hematite minerals indicates precipitation in an oxidizing environment, whereas anatase is related to basaltic rock. Bivariate discrimination provenance diagrams, major oxides, and trace elements all identify felsic-intermediate igneous source rocks as the leading contenders. The examined samples were deposited in non-marine environments and underwent weak to moderate chemical weathering as well as severe physical induration in tropical climates.

Assessment of Limestone of Jeribe Formation for Ordinary Portland Cement Industry in Bekhair Anticline, Duhok Governorate, Iraqi Kurdistan Region

Hasan Abd Khudhur; Ahmed M. Aqrawi

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 90-104
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2022.135129.1022

The limestone of Jeribe Formation in Bekhair anticline, Duhok Governorate, was assessed as raw materials for the Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) industry. Four sections were selected; the formation consists of fossiliferous limestone and thin layers of dolomitic limestone. The petrographic study showed that the main mineral of limestone rocks is fine calcite with a size less than 0.25 cm. The chemical analysis revealed that the mean concentration of CaO is 51.77% which dominates over other oxides, including MgO (2.06%), SiO2 (1.95%), Al2O3 (0.60%), and, Fe2O3 (0.22%), While the remaining oxides (K2O, Na2O, TiO2, MnO, P2O5, and SO3) are present in traces. The lime saturation factors (LSF) of the studied sections range from (1651.70 to 2334.89), which are over the limits necessary for high-quality cement; thus, a claystone rock from the Fatha Formation was added to achieve the best point of clinker LSF. The physical and mechanical tests of samples indicate low porosity, and the compressive strength range between (168-1291 kg/cm²), which are acceptable for the cement industry and make the rocks easy to crush and grind during the preparation of the mixture. According to the results of the analyses, we conclude that the mixture of limestone ranges between (65.9-69.3) and claystone ranges between (30.7-34.1) in the study area are of good quality and meet international standards for ordinary portland cement.

Review Paper

Lithological Variations and Facies Analysis of the Lower Part of the Bekhme Formation in Specific Outcrops from Dohuk Area, Northern Iraq

Weam muzahem Al shareeda; Jamal S. Al-Ghrear

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 105-120
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2022.135153.1023

The present study concerns the sedimentology of the lower part of The Bekhme Formation at the Bekhair anticline, Dohuk area, northern Iraq. This part shows a high spectrum of lithological and petrographical variations of allochthonous and autochthonous carbonate sediments. Accordingly, the formation divides into 3 Facies
1. Random clasts Carbonate Megabreccia .
2. Planktonic Foraminiferal Wackestone.
3. Rounded Clasts Intraformational Carbonate Conglomerate.
The facies analysis and their deposition mechanism suggest that the area's deposit environment represents carbonate slope, which was affected by local tectonism of syndepositional normal faulting. The architectural analysis of the sedimentary environment shows that this fault had affected the facies directly, giving considerable variation in the sedimentary environment ( depth, oxygen percent, and bioactivity). These variations are reflected in the carbonate rock types, sedimentary structures, and the early diagenetic processes. The constructed sedimentological model for the basin in this particular environment proposed that this syndepositional normal fault was directly responsible for the type of the carbonate rocks at the lower part of the formation ( the older three facies), and this was reflected by increases in the angle of carbonate slope and also increasing of carbonate sediments mobility towards the half-graben made by the fault. The Bekhme Formation represents part of the main mega sequence (AP9). Within the Late Campanian – Maastrichtian age, This period was characterized by local subsidence caused by secondary normal faults, which are responsible for the formation of the secondary basin. The proposed fault in this study is one of these faults.

Research Paper

Seismic Refraction Tomography and ‎Geotechnical Parameters‎ to Assess the Chaqchaq Dam failure in NW ‎Sulaimani City, Kurdistan Region, Iraq

Ezzadin N. M.Amin Baban; Abdulla K. Amin; Sazan S. Mohammed

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 121-139
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2022.135251.1027

This study is conducted along fifteen seismic refraction traverses in ‎the reservoir part of the failed ‎Chaqchaq dam NW of Sulaimani City. The results show that ‎the area consists of three ‎geological layers. ‎The first layer ‎consists of soil with a thickness ‎ranging between 0.05-3.10m, whereas the second layer ‎consists of rock fragments ‎ranging between 1.93-13.11m and the ‎third layer is specified as a ‎consolidated and cohesive ‎limestone of the Kometan Formation that lies at a ‎depth ranging between 2.0-16.2m. The ‎‎Kometan limestone ‎surface‎ is irregular due to weathering and fracture as a result of tectonic movement ‎leading to the collapse of the area and later on filled with sediments ‎of recent deposits, or maybe decamped by ‎water then karstification ‎occurred.‎
‎Based on the estimated geotechnical parameters from ‎Vp and Vs and measured density, the result will ‎‎indicate that the first and second layers is weak and fissured and subjected to ‎sinkholes buried with recent sediments. ‎Whereas‏ ‏the third layer ‎indicates the harder-to-fracture rocks, the research would find the linear‏ ‏‎relationship between Vp and Vs of the first, second, and third layers. The relationships between ‎‎Poisson's ratio and Vs/Vp for the first layer and Vs/Vp for the second layer are pointed as ‎inverse ‎relationships. This means that increasing Poisson's ratios reduces both Vs/Vp ratio and the brittleness ‎of the materials. Also, the elastic modulus and shear (rigidity) modulus as well as bulk modulus values ‎are directly proportional with increasing depth, especially within the hard and cohesive Kometan Fn.‎
‎The results also show the basic design of the dam construction was not done scientifically. The beginning parts of most traverses appear to the presence of sinkhole that was related to the filling of the layers with water during the winter rainy season and then penetrating deeply, which leads to the collapse of the layer and forming this sinkhole, this sinkhole can be considered as the reason for the dam collapsing.

Drought Monitoring Based on Predicted SPI Using Fuzzy Controller System

Bashar Moneer; Dursun Zafer Seker; Khansaa Abdulelah AHMED

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 140-152
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2022.176633

Drought monitoring is one of the most difficult steps required for optimal planning it must be diligently calculated to ensure success in future plans. In this study, a fuzzy logic control system was developed to monitor drought in the long term based on the values of the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI-12) and several climate variables. The system applied meteorological data obtained from the meteorological station of the city of Mosul northwest of Iraq and showed that the predicted data confirms the observed data. To verify this conformity further, the accuracy of the prediction and the errors were calculated to test the validity of this system in drought monitoring and the performance efficiency of the system was found to be equal to 82.3%. The system showed high flexibility and capability to represent several different scenarios because of its wide range in designing and selecting Membership Functions and the number of data variables that can be used as its input. Based on the output data and the accuracy of the operation of the system, this system can be recommended to serve as an effective tool for long-term drought monitoring to develop optimal future plans in environmental and agricultural fields in the study area.

Investigation of Hydrogeological Parameters in the Eastern and Western Catchments of Erbil City, Northern Iraq

Hana Jalal; Rebwar N. Dara

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 153-165
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2022.135434.1028

In Kurdistan Region-Iraq, drilling wells and extracting groundwater for agricultural purposes, household, and industrial reasons have increased rapidly over the last several decades, making groundwater an essential water supply. This study aims to evaluate groundwater aquifers' hydrogeological conditions and hydraulic properties in the eastern and western sites of Erbil Basin (north Iraq). The groundwater-bearing formations in the study area are the Bakhtiari and Recent formations. Thirty-six (36) groundwater boreholes in which eighteen (18) for each part of the Erbil Basin were taken to characterize and compare the hydrogeological parameters of the area.
In Kurdistan Region-Iraq, groundwater uses as one of the significant resources for household, agricultural and industrial purposes have increased rapidly over the last several decades. This study aims to evaluate groundwater aquifers and hydrogeological conditions in the eastern and western sites of Erbil Basin, northern Iraq. The groundwater-bearing beds in the study area belong to the Bakhtiari formations and Recent deposits. From thirty-six groundwater boreholes, in which eighteen (18) water samples for each part of the Erbil Basin, are collected to characterize and compare the hydrogeological parameters of the area. The transmissivity, hydraulic conductivity, and storativity derived from pumping test data are calculated using (Cooper-Jacob and Theis Recovery).  On the eastern side, the results of transmissivity, hydraulic conductivity, and storativity by the Cooper-Jacob method are between 0.30 - 28.19 m2/day, 0.001 -0.116 m/day, and 0.03 - 0.98, respectively. On the western side, the transmissivity, hydraulic conductivity, and storativity are between 0.42 - 141.6 m2/day, 0.001 - 0.701 m/day, and 0.01- 0.92 respectively. Using the recovery method, the results of transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity on the eastern side are between 0.28 - 52.52 m2/day and 0.001 - 0.217 m/day, respectively, while on the western side, the transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity were between 2.64 - 161.33 m2/day, 0.011 - 0.798 m/day respectively. Generally, the results of the pumping test by both methods show that the transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity rate on the western side are higher than on the eastern side. The pumping test method is a successful method for identifying hydrogeological parameters of aquifers, highlighting its potential to monitor aquifers and groundwater resource management in the Erbil basin.

Implications for Geochemistry of the Egyptian Clay Deposits and their Suitability for the Vitrified Clay Pipes Industry

Hatem Eldesouky; Ahmed Wahid; Osama Ramzy

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 166-191
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2022.135553.1029

Combined geology, mineralogy, and geochemical data of some Egyptian clay minerals have been proved to be a powerful tool in evaluating these clay deposits for the vitrified clay pipes industry. Representative samples underwent mineralogical and geochemical analysis involving major and trace element analyses. A geochemical study of clay deposits from the different formations in Egypt was carried out to determine the environmental deposition, provenance, chemical index of alteration, and paleo-oxygenation conditions. Mineralogical studies using X-ray diffraction analysis revealed prominent kaolinite, montmorillonite, and illite peaks; harmful accessory minerals included quartz, hematite, halite, calcite, and dolomite. The total silica content is high in Mendishia, Monkar El-Wahsh, Bahariya, Wadi Natrun, Sebaya, Gabal Hamza, and Qasr El-Sagha clay deposits while Heiz and Arish clay deposits have lower silica content. The studied clay deposits are characterized by high alumina (11.5% to 18.3%) and silica (45.6% to 60.2%) contents. The CaO and MgO are high in Heiz and Arish clay deposits which implies that carbonates are present. They are characterized by very high Fe2O3, Ba, Sr, and Zr as well as low K2O, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Y, Pb, Ga, and Nb contents. The Heiz and Arish clay deposits characterized by high content of Na2O. The studied characteristics are relevant for the properties of vitrified clay pipes and that three clay deposits of (Heiz, Gabal Hamza, and Monkar El-Wahsh clay deposits) exhibit the required characteristics.

Biostratigraphy of Eocene Sediments from Naopurdan Group, Chwarta Area, Kurdistan Region, NE Iraq: Paleogeographic Implication

Imad Ghafor; Hemn F. Muhammad

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 192-208
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2022.135618.1031

The main purpose of the present work is to describe the microfossils and biostratigraphy of marine Eocene deposits, which described and studied in detail from carbonates of the Naopurdan Group, Chwarta area, Kurdistan Region, Northeastern Iraq, in order to define the main important index fossils and to give the biostratigraphy and age determination of the study area. A total of thirty-eight samples spaced ca 0.5 to 1 m apart, have been collected from the field, approximately 60 thin sections were examined and the microfossils have been identified by using polarized microscopes. Three main biozones were recorded in the studied section, these zones are: (Nummulites globulus - Nummulites planulatus zone, at the bottom of the section and assigned to the Early Eocene (Ypressian) age, Nummulites mamillatus - Nummulites alsharhani zone, which collected from the middle part of the section is assigned to the Middle Eocene (Lutetian) age and Nummulites fabianii - Assilina exponens zone which collected from the upper part of the section is assigned to the Early Bartonian age, so the studied section of the Naopurdan Group suggest to be Ypressian - Early Bartonian age, these three biozones were correlated with the other zones inside and outside Iraq

Application of Remote Sensing and GIS to Mapping Groundwater Potential Zones of Khazir River Basin, Northern Iraq

Jalal Younis; Chiman I. Ahmed

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 209-230
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2022.176650

The Khazir River Basin is among the most important areas in terms of agricultural importance and diversity of agricultural crops; therefore, groundwater is extensively pumped in this area which is the main resource of water for domestic and agricultural purposes. The purpose of this research was to locate and map this crucial and significant water resource in order to better understand the occurrence and distribution of groundwater potential in the basin. This can be achieved through utilizing remote sensing data from Sentinel-2B with 10m resolution for obtaining Land use/Landcover (LULC) maps and lineament density., DEM (30m resolution) was used for drainage density and estimating the slope map of the area.  In addition, the geological map and interpolated rainfall data were used as well.  GIS has also been used for running the model to obtain Groundwater Potential Zones (GWPZs) map. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method is used for mapping the potential groundwater zones. The results indicate that approximately 89% of the studied region falls inside a zone with a high or very high groundwater potential.