Volume 22, Issue 1, Spring 2022

Research Paper

Geomorphological Assessment Using Geoinformatics Applications of the Sloping System of Al-Ashaali Drainage Basin at Iraqi Southern Desert

Bashar Maaroof

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 38-54
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2022.133146.1009

: The research dealt with the study of the slope systems of the Ashaali drainage basin in the southern Iraqi desert, using the geoinformatics technique, digital elevation models (DEM), satellite images of the Landsat ETM+8, topographic, geological, and hydrological maps. The slope systems of the study area were studied through 4 topographic sectors (longitudinal and transverse) that represented the stages of geomorphological development of the drainage basin according to the Davis erosion cycle, as well as by knowing the regression categories according to the young classification, the direction of the slopes, the sloping parts and the types of slopes (straight, convex, concave). The results showed an increase in the area of the slope category 5-10, which reached 25.499%, as well as an increase in the percentage of the direction of the southwestern slopes, which reached 16.277%, which is the highest percentage. As for the sloping parts, the maturity area recorded the highest percentage, estimated at 251 slope parts. In addition, the results showed that there is variation in the types of slopes, and the central basin area (maturity stage) of the geomorphological cycle represented all types.

Detection of the Bathymetry and Shoreline of Terkos Lake- Turkey Using Digital Image Processing and GIS

Khansaa Abdulelah AHMED

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 55-64
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2022.133434.1011

Bathymetry can be defined as the study of water depth, in other words, it is the topography of the bed of sea, ocean and lake floor. In this study, the bathymetry of Terkos lake northern of Istanbul-Turkey was prepared using field work points and remote sensing data. More than 70,000 eco-sound points were collected; manipulated and entered to GIS geodatabase in order to create the bathymetric map, digital Image processing for remote sensing data was also used to produce the map. The shoreline of the lake was detected using Iso Cluster unsupervised classification tool in spatial analyst arc tool from the most recent satellite image captured by Landsat 9 in 25th of March 2022. ARCGIS geodatabase was built in order to create a 0.5m interval bathymetric contour lines showing the bathymetry of the Terkos Lake bed. The Lake level, surface area, water volume curve for the lake was drawn using the results of lake water budget analysis. Results show the possibility of using remote sensing data as an aid to assist in field work related to the production of bathymetric maps, these maps give an indication to decision maker for the amount of sediment in the lake, water bodies data bank also provides a dynamic database of related measurements as surface area, water volume knowing the water level.

Determination of the Petrophysical Properties of the Khasib Reservoir, East Baghdad Oil Field, Middle Iraq

Muneef Mohammed; Ashraf Naif Hameed; Hussain Najem Abd

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 65-75
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2022.133567.1013

This study aims to determine and evaluate the petrophysical characteristics of the Khasib Formation, which represents the main oil-producing reservoir in the East Baghdad oilfield. To accomplish the aim of the study, the log data for five wells have been interpreted using the Schlumberger Techlog 2015.3 software. The main lithology of the Khasib Formation has been determined as limestone based on the interpretation of neutron, density, and sonic logs and using the M-N cross plot method. The shale volume was determined based on the gamma ray log, and the results showed that the shale volume in the Khasib Formation ranges from about 15% to about 27%, and this value increases toward the top of the formation. The total porosity of the Khasib Formation has been determined based on the density and neutron logs, and it is value ranges from about 12% to 23%. The effective porosity was calculated depending on the relationship between the total porosity and shale volume, and the value of this type of porosity ranges from 8% to 18%. The study showed that the B and C units of the Khasib Formation represent the best hydrocarbon-bearing zones, where these units are characterized by high values of effective porosity and oil saturation.

The Effect of Terrain on the Variation in Rainfall Between Mountainous and Plains Areas in Northern Iraq

Asaad Ahmed Al-Hussein; Mohammed Ali Sulaiman; Safa Ahmed Khalil

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 27-45
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2022.133832.1015

تعتبر التضاریس أحد أهم العوامل المؤثرة على تباین کمیة التساقط المطری فی أی مکان فی العالم، ویظهر تأثیرها بشکل واضح فی منطقة الدراسة، لذا جاء هذا البحث لیسلط الضوء على دراسة التباین فی کمیات الأمطار المتساقطة على المناطق الجبلیة والسهلیة للمحافظات الشمالیة من العراق. واظهرت النتائج زیادة تدریجیة فی کمیات الأمطار من الجنوب الغربی إلى الشمال الشرقی لمنطقة الدراسة والزیادة تتناسب مع ازدیاد المسافة والارتفاع. وبالمقارنة ما بین المُدد الزمنیة الثلاث لمحطات منطقة الدراسة تبین وجود اتجاه عام واضح جداً نحو الانخفاض فی قیم التساقط المطری خلال المدة الثانیة فی کل محطات منطقة الدراسة فی المناطق الجبلیة والسهلیة، وظهر خلال المدة الثالثة تباین ما بین المحطات فبعضها سجلت ارتفاعاً فی قیم التساقط والبعض الآخر سجلت انخفاضاً مستمراً خلال هذه المدة والبعض الاخر اظهرت استقراراً فی قیم التساقط المطری.
بعد تطبیق معادلة الانحراف المعیاری لوحظ بان هنالک علاقة طردیة ما بین معدلات الأمطار السنویة والانحراف المعیاری، حیث کلما زادت معدلات الأمطار کلما ادت إلى الزیادة فی الانحراف المعیاری، ویزداد الانحراف المعیاری تدریجیاً کلما ابتعدنا عن المناطق السهلیة المنخفضة واقتربنا من المناطق الجبلیة بسبب زیادة کمیات التساقط المطری فی المناطق المرتفعة. وبعد تطبیق معادلة معامل التذبذب فی قیم التساقط المطری اتضح بان هنالک علاقة عکسیة ما بین معدلات التساقط المطری ونسب التذبذب المطری، حیث کلما زادت معدلات التساقط المطری السنویة قلت معامل التذبذب والعکس الصحیح، وبصورة عامة تقل معامل التذبذب تدریجیاً کلما اتجهنا نحو الشمال الشرقی من منطقة الدراسة. وبتطبیق معادلة معامل الارتباط لقیاس علاقة التساقط المطری بالارتفاع بلغت نسبة الارتباط (0.7)، وتشیر إلى ارتباط قوی بین التساقط والارتفاع.

Calculation of Mineralogical and Chemical Weathering Indices (Xd, MIA and CIA) and their Significance in Soils at Selected Areas in Northern Iraq

Muhamad Aswad

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 1-14
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2022.174660

This study is conducted using data analysis of minerals gained from X-ray diffraction (XRD) as well as by using the data of chemical analysis of the main elements measured by the X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) at selected areas in northern Iraq Thirty samples (twenty soil and ten rock samples) are collected distributed through five regions (Qayarah, Hamam Alil, Tel kaif, Duhok, and Zakho) with four depths and two rock samples for each section in order to calculate the index of weathering mineral (Xd) and mineralogy index of alteration (MIA) as well as chemical index of alteration (CIA). The aim is to measure the amount of decomposition relative to the resistant minerals in soils and rocks, as well as to assess the amount and capability of these soils as evidence of the degree of development, and then the possibility of classification depending on the degree of resistance to weathering processes. The results show transaction weathering in these areas varying in degree and ability of these soils in resisting weathering processes at different locations and the nature of the original material. The study shows that Zakho soil samples have a high degree of weathering; on the contrary, Qayarah soil samples have a very low degree of weathering due to different topographical and climatic conditions of these two regions. The remaining areas are intermediate in the degree of weathering, considering that these areas have received variable amounts of rain precipitation ranging between 1,000 mm / year as in Zakho and 250 mm / year in Qayarah area. The topography of these areas is different being high in Zakho and low in Qayarah area

Using Remote Sensing Techniques and GIS to Study of PM2.5 and PM10 Concentrations in the Atmosphere of Mosul City, Iraq

Amina Basil Mohammad; Sabah Hussein Ali; Riyad Fathi

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 15-26
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2022.174661

In the current study, remote sensing dataset and GIS are used for measuring the spatial distribution of the concentration levels of PM2.5 and PM10 in a selected area of Mosul City (right and left sides) for the period of September 2020 to February 2021, then compared these measured concentrations with the Iraqi and international standards. These pollutants have a negative impact on the environment, human and societal health. Temtop monitor (model: M2000) was used for measuring the concentration levels of PM2.5 and PM10 in the selected areas whose geographical positions (latitude and longitude) were determined using a GPS (Global Positioning System) instrument (model: GPSmap76CSx). For the purpose of comparison with satellite data, dataset of (PM2.5, PM10) is downloaded from the (European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites: EUMETSAT) which are mainly based on Copernicus that supervised by the (European Space Agency: ESA). The results reveal that all PM10 concentration levels have exceeded the limits set given by WHO as well as the Iraqi standards around all sampling stations except in Al-Maidan and Nergal neighborhoods. The results also showed the high concentrations of (PM2.5 and PM10) measured locally with the data taken from the (CAMS) website based on the satellite dataset.

Planktonic Foraminiferal Biostratigraphy of Shiranish Formation in Sara Anticline in Dokan Area, Northeastern Iraq

Yassen Hassan; S. AL-Hadidi S. AL-Hadidi

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 1-14
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2022.174662

Planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy of Shiranish Formation was studied in Sarah's anticline at the Dokan area, Sulaymania governate in, northeastern Iraq. The studied section consists of marl and marly limestone, Sixty-three Planktonic foraminiferal species belonging to seventeen genera have been recognized which permits the recognition of six zones; these are from older at the base
6- Abathomphalus mayaroensis interval zone (Part).
5- Gansserina gansseri interval zone.
4- Globotruncana aegyptiaca interval zone.
3-Globotruncanella havanensis interval zone.
2- Globotruncanita calcarata total range zone.
1-Globotruncana ventricosa interval zone (Part).
The Planktonic foraminiferal zones were correlated with other zonal schemes in and outside Iraq. They are considered to be extending from Middle Campanian to Late Early Maastrichtian.

Ostracoda Assemblages of the Hartha Formation (Late Campanian - Early Maastrichtian) from Balad (8) well, Central Iraq

Muhanad Zuhair Hamid; Ibrahim Younis Al-Shareefi

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 15-37
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2022.174663

Fundamentally, the current study is concerned with the investigation and diagnosing of Ostracoda fossils from the subsurface section of the Hartha Formation (Late Campanian - Early Maastrichtian) from (Ba-8) well at central Iraq. Fifty-nine Ostracoda species belonging to (29) genera/ subgenera from (13) families are diagnosed and classified to their ranks according to the standard systematic paleontology. Whereat (57) species are attributed to species previously described from local and regional studies. Two species are left under open zoological nomenclature basically because of lack of specimens. As a result, the study inferred that the species diagnosed in the Hartha Formation belong to the Late Campanian - Early Maastricht. As These species are very similar in terms of the external appearance and geologic age to the same species that were compared with them and which were previously described in the regions of East, West, and North Africa as well as the Arabian Gulf region.