Volume 21, Issue 1, Spring 2021


Research Paper

Selection of the Optimum Sites for the Wind Turbines Installation in Nineveh Governorate by using GIS

Ghada Younis; Sabah Ali

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 1-16
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2021.170376

Green energy, including wind energy, becomes a vital component of reducing air pollution and enhancing its sustainability. Wind energy production increases rapidly due to its significant turbine technologies, compatible with sources of energy-environment friendly in reducing Carbon emissions. This paper presents an evaluation of wind power potential of Nineveh governorate in the northern part of Iraq based on the GIS technique using 20 years daily wind speed and direction at elevation 10m, 50m on earth surface covering the period of 2000 to 2019 obtained from NASA agency. It is observed that Nineveh Governorate and its surrounding have a wind speed between 2.8 and 3.7m/s at 10m, and wind speed between 3.9 and 5.3m/s at 50m. The annual mean power density ranges from 54 to 124 W/m2 at 50m.These results indicate that the monthly variation recorded for the speed is maximum 3.7m/s at 10m and a value of 5.3 m/s at 50m in the northwest direction in Hadhar site which matched with the results obtained by GIS/ IDW interpolation map of the power density.

Some records Ostracod species of genus Paijenborchellina from the Middle Miocene Fat'ha Formation, Eastern Butmah Anticline, Northwestern Mosul City, Iraq

Maha Mohammed; Ibrahim Al-Shareefi

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 1-19
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2021.170377

Through a comprehensive taxonomic study of the ostracoda fossils in Fat'ha Formation in the stratigraphic section exposed within the eastern limb of Butmah anticline northwestern Mosul city, several genera and their belonging species of ostracoda have been identified from this previously unexamined section in terms of fossils. However, the focus in this research is on the genus Paijenborchellina and its species as it indicates an important environmental, age and geographical indications Six species belonging to this genus have been diagnosed as follows:
Paijenborchellina  keeni Gammudi & Keen, Paijenborchellina  libyca Szczechura,
Paijenborchellina cf. kausalis Khalaf, Paijenborchellina (Eupaijenborchella) iraqensisKhalaf, Paijenborchella (Eupaijenborchella) pronaLyubimova and Guha,andPaijenborchella (Eupaijenborchella) royi Khosla.
 

The Study of Lithology by Using the Cross-Section Profiles of The Logs of Shiranish and Mushorah Formations in Ain Zalah and Butmah Fields, Northwestern Iraq

Faris Hassan; Wissam Mohamed; Wafaa Yunus; Abdul-Salam Salih

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 17-26
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2020.170378

This study deals with the determination of lithology in the Shiranish and Mushorah Formations in wells (Az-24, Az-29, and But-15). The graphical representation of the neutron porosity log (NØ) and the bulk density ρ)b(, shows that the Shiranish (Late Campanian – Early Maastrichtian) and Mushorah (Early Campanian) Formations consist of limestone and dolomite, as well as shale. The proportion of dolomite and chert increases at the expense ofcalcite in the Mushorah Formation. Also, the graphical representation results of the M-N profile for each well indicate that the limestone of the Mushorah Formation were affected by the dolomitization with the development of secondary porosity. Moreover, the limestones were suffered silicification in the form of chert nodules. The MID profile, used in this study to determine the mineralogy gives better and more precise results than that of the M-N profile. The results showed that the dominant minerals are calcite in the Shiranish Formation while dolomite and quartz in the Mushorah Formation, regardless of the gas effects within the studied wells.

Factors Controlling the Mineralogical and Geochemical Distribution of Phosphatic Deposits, Western Iraqi Desert

Kotayba Al-Youzbakey

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 20-41
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2021.170379

The Iraqi phosphorites distributed in western desert belong to Tethys phosphorites. They are found in Al-Rutba- H3, Al-Ga'ara, Akashat, and Al-Ethna and in the western wadi Aakash areas.
The statistical factor analysis shows that the main five factors playing great roles in phosphate formation in the congenital shelf are the more active factors that control the mineralogical and geochemical distributions in phosphorites; they are (1) Phosphorus enrichment factor, which led to apatite (francolite) formation. (2) Depositional environment factor, which represents the deposition of phosphates in continental shelf of the southern part of Tethys Sea. (3) Mg withdrawing from sea water, the factor which controlled by clay mineral transportation like palygorskite and some dolomite that contributes to form apatite. (4) The slightly increased saline factor. (5) The cyclic alternative deposition factor, which represents the sequence deposition of phosphates, carbonates and cherts periodically.

Geological history, Ichnofacies and Sequence Stratigraphy of the Eocene – Oligocene Boundary at Sinjar Area, Northwestern Iraq

Majid Al-Mutwali; Hiba Al-Rubai

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 27-45
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2021.170380

Three outcrop sections for the Eocene- Oligocene boundary have been studied in Sinjar anticline northwestern Iraq. This study includes the lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy and the identification of trace fossils and related ichnofacies in order to report the geological history of this boundary in the frame of sequence stratigraphy. Jaddala Formation, which is composed of marl and marly limestone, represents deep (outer shelf-upper bathyal) Eocene facies, Palani and Tarjil formations represent deposition in deep basinal environments during Early and Late Oligocene sequences.
    The Eocene- Oligocene boundary in Sinjar area represents a disconformity surface, where the deposition ceased in the Middle Eocene (Lutetian) at the end of Jaddala Formation, forming  the firmground  Glossifungites Ichnofacies which embrace  Thalassinoides ichnotaxa in Jaddala section, and the hardground  Trypanites Ichnofacies  in Sharafiddin section, while at Sinjar section, a chalky limestone bed deposited at the Early Oligocene (Rupelian) Palani Formation representing Skolithos Ichnofacies.
    A rapid wide transgression took place at the end of Early Oligocene (Rupelian) leading to the deposition of Palani Formation, and continued through the Late Oligocene (Chattian) leading to the deposition of Tarjil Formation.

Validity of clay for Al-Fat’ha and Injana formations for the brick and ceramic industry in Nineveh Governorate

Azealdeen Al-Jawadi; Salim Al-Naqeeb; Thanoun Thanoun

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 42-53
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2021.170381

The scarcity of clay and alluvial deposits in the valley of the Tigris River and its tributaries in the northern region of Iraq called for the search for suitable clays for the construction ceramic industry in geological formations. A geological survey of the mudstone layers of the Al-Fat’ha and Injana formation rocks was conducted in the districts of Al-Hamdaniya, Telkaif, and Al-Shekhan in the Nineveh Governorate. Samples were taken of the layers that have an appropriate thickness and a topographical and mining position that facilitate exploitation in the event of the success of the raw materials for the industry. The study was conducted on five selected clay models from the village of Mehiwarat and the intersection of the Wana-Mosul Dam road, with two models, the village of Al-Nouran and Ain Al-Nouran. The results showed that most of the muddy geological layers are characterized by a high percentage of calcium and magnesium carbonate, and that the lowest percentage of calcium carbonate was in the layers of the Injana Formation taken from the village of Mehiwirat, which amounted to 16.83%, and that its classification is low-liquidity clay. Through the plasticity coefficient diagram and the plasticity limit, it was found that the clays of the Muhiwirat and Al-Nouran areas fell in the preferred range, while the rest were in the acceptable range. The prepared from Mehiwarat clay was characterized by a volume shrinkage of 16.1% and a weight loss of 23.4%, while the results of the tests indicated the brick models prepared from the clays of the intersection of Wana - Mosul Dam Road and Al-Nouran Village were within the category B, all according to the Iraqi standard specifications.