Volume 19, Issue 2, Autumn 2019

Research Paper

Using Surveying and Computer Techniques to Calculate (R.A) & (RMSE) for Digital map of Technical Institute/Mosul

Mohammed Al–Taee

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2019, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 1-14
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2019.170273

The aim of the present research is to calculate the Relative Accuracy (R.A) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) for the location of Technical Institute, Mosul in Nineveh Governorate, Iraq.  at the northern part of Mosul city by using surveying Instruments (GPS 1230 , Total Station 06 & Level NAK2), to calculate the coordinates and elevations of (16) Ground Control Points which covered the study area.
The field data, remote sensing techniques and GIS software (Arc Map GIS10.3) are used to check the digital map of study area that helped the administrator to take the correct decision, determining positions of the future expansionist for buildings, roads, measuring lengths, areas and there coordinates, directions as well as the total costs estimation needed for any development from the final map.
The gradient percentage between the highest and lowest points is calculated to be (9.954%). Relative accuracy for the based measured points (R.A) = 1:60000), and Root Mean Square error in Easting coordinates (RMSE) = ± 0.102m, in Northing coordinates (RMSN) = ± 0.096m, the Root Mean Square for the resultant (RMSR) = ± 0.099m, and Root Mean Square for Elevations ( RMSRL)= ± 0.005m.
We Matched and correlated (10) measured points from study area with their graphic data positions on the aerial photo, determining the offsets for position and elevations as follows: (RMSE = ± 0.076m), (RMSN = ± 0.125m), (RMSR = ± 0.088m), and (Root Mean Square for Elevations = RMSRL= ± 0.045m).
This research enable us after checking the results to produce new maps from Aerial photograph or Digital Image to use it for land uses and future extensions in whole study area.

Morphometric Characteristics of Wadi Koysenjaq Basin In Erbil Using GIS

Asaad Al-Hussein; Abdulrahman Yahyaa

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2019, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 15-40
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2019.170275

This study aims for building a database of the morphometric characteristics of the valley of Koysenjaq basin throughout the analysis of the digital elevation model (DEM), using a range of geographic information systems, such as (Arc GIS v. 10.3), (Global Mapper v.18), as a means of measuring raster, linear and areal elements. They integrate together to produce a large number of variables and morphometric measurements. The study has adopted digital elevation model data accuracy of distinctive accuracy (14) meters in addition to a range of maps and satellite images.
The basin is located in the southeast southeast of Erbil Governorate and has a small area of about (549.56) km2, with a length of (34.26) km and long Perimeter compared with its large area (133.92) km. The basin has characteristics of different morphometric features as a result of the different climate change, geological nature, morphology, and characteristics of the soil, which indicates that the basin is at the beginning of its geomorphological cycle. The quantitative analysis shows that the value of the elongation is (0.68), circulation is (0.38) and the form factor is (0.46). This means that it is rectangular, and irregular in shape, and it obvious from the study of the characteristics of terrain that the value of basin relief is high (28.27) m/km, and passes in the early stage of maturity according to hypsometric integration value. The study shows the characteristics of the drainage network in the basin consists of (433) tributary distributed (6) arranged according to Strahler classification with low-density drainage (1.13) km/km2 and stream frequency for basin (0.78) stream/km2. This indicates that the number of tributaries of water is few compared with the area of the basin, so that the basin was not exposed to floods. 
The study recommends the use of more geographic information systems in determining the extent of seasonal drainage of the basin valleys in order to control the future flood risk, and good planning of the investment of these valleys in different fields through the construction of dam at the end of the basin for the purpose of harvesting water, and conducting morphometric studies compared to other river basins in Erbil Governorate to understand in detail its morphometric properties. 

Biostratigraphy Study of Planktonic Foraminifera in Shiranish Formation and its Contact with Aaliji Formation in Pulkana Well No. 7 North Iraq

Abdullah Al-Hadidi; Mohamed Ahmed

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2019, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 41-59
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2019.170276

Planktonic Foraminifera is studied from Shiranish &Aaliji formations in PulkanaWell No. 7 North Iraq between the depth intervals (1948-2240) m, six biostratigraphy zones are recognized in the formation as arranged from bottom to top:
1. Globotruncanita stuarti–stuartiformis Partial Range Zone.
2. Globotruncana aegyptiaca Interval Zone.
3. Gansserina gansseri Total Rang Zone.
4. Morozovella angulata  Partial Range Zone.
5. Globanomalina  pseudomenardii  Total Rang Zone .
6. Morozovella velascoensis Partial Range Zone.
The result of this study is compared with the work of others inside and outside Iraq, The age of the Shiranish Formation is Early Late Campanian to Earliest Maastrichtian whereas Aaliji Formation is Late Paleocene.

Evaluation and Modeling of Ground Water for Aqra Aquifer

Nour Al-Islam Ahmed; Kamel Almohseen

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2019, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 60-79
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2019.170277

From the hydrogeologist point of view, Aqra area in northern Iraq is considered as a significant area, where rainfall average in Aqra station was 654.6mm for period 2000-2016, while rainfall was 597.7mm has calculated for six stations for period 2012-2014 by Isohytal via ArcGIS in the area. The area is surrounded by the Upper Zab river from the east, and the Khazer river from the west, while Zanta river runs from its east.
Due to previous and wide use of groundwater in study area, the knowledge of the response of the aquifer to different stresses is important to predict its uses in the future to optimal utilization of this aquifer. Consequently, in this study MODFLOW model under GMS platform has been used to evaluate the groundwater availability and examine response of the aquifer to stress conditions. The model has been calibrated in steady state using trial and error procedure, and verified in two states steady and unsteady, and then used for predicting purpose under two scenarios:  
Scenario–I running the model by pumping with recharge over 5 years the average of heads has been downed 4 meters but over 10 years has been downed 5 meters. Phase-II running the model by pumping without recharge over 5 years the average of heads has been downed 7 meters and over 10 years has been downed 8 meters. The heads have downed a little due to thickness and extend of aquifer.

Calcareous Nannofossils Biostratigraphy of Shiranish Formation (K-306) well, Northern Iraq

Maryam Al-Maamari; Omar Al-Badrani

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2019, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2019.170278

Twenty Samples of Shiranish Formation from the well (K-306), Kirkuk area, northern Iraq, are collected and studied on the basis of stratigraphic ranges of the recorded calcareous nannofossils. Eighty-nine species in the studied section reveals five biozones arranged from oldest to youngest as follows:
1.Quadrum trifidum Interval Biozone (CC22) Part
2.Tranolithus phacelosus Interval Biozone (CC23)
3.Rienhardtites lives Interval Biozone (CC24)
4. Arkhangelskilla cymbiformis Interval Biozone (CC25)
5. Nephrolithus frequens Rang Biozone (CC26) Part
These Biozones are correlated with other calcareous nannofossils biozones, from both local and regional sections, leading to conclude the age of Campanian- Maastrichtian.

Environmental Criteria of Stromatolitic Limestones in The Barsrain Formation from Surface Sections, Northeastren Iraq

Mauj Al-Badrani; Rafee Al-Humaidi

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2019, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 80-99
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2019.170279

The rock successions of Barsarin Formation Late Kimmeridgian was studied at three surface sections the type section "17m", Sarglu "19m" and Rania "10m"; northeastern Iraq. The detailed sedimentological study reveals that the formation consists mainly of dolomite and dolomitic limestones. A wide spectrum of diagenetic – processes are recognized in the rock successions; these are dolomitization, compaction, cementation, micritization, dissolution, replacement, neomorphism and silisification. By the far, dolomitization and compaction are the most common and widespread processes. Stromatolites are the dominant primary sedimentary structures in this Formation. Based on field observation and textural characteristics four stromatolite types are distinguished: planar, wavy, domal, and bedded. They are normally formed by carbonates (lime muds) and extensively suffered early dolomitization

Inferred Inversely Reactivated Listric Fault at Chia Gara Anticline, Northern Iraq

Ibrahim Aljumaily; Nazar Abdullah

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2019, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 11-25
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2019.170280

Chia Gara anticline is an E-W extending doubly plunged fold, parallel to the Taurus Mountains having about (80) km length and (12) km width. It is located within the high folded zone of northern Iraq. The exposed rocks range in age from Late Triassic to Late Miocene. Structural analysis of the anticline performed through three traverses transverse to the general fold trend from western plunge zone towards east. Geometrical analysis of fold elements shows that Chia Gara anticline is asymmetrical vergingtowards north in both first and third traverses, whereas it is more or less symmetrical in the second traverse. Meanwhile, results of Fourier analysis demonstrates that the fold form is more developed in the northern limb of the anticline than in its southern limb, in the first and third traverses. Nevertheless, in the second traverse, the fold form seems more developed in the southern limb compared with the northern limb. The northern vergence of the anticline and its advance development in northern limb in the first and third traverses may reflect the impact of a suture vergent reversely slipped listric fault beneath the anticline sectors in these traverses. However, the obscure of such listric fault in the second traverse may be due to the effect of a sinistral (BF1) and a dextral (BF2) subsurface strike-slip faults transverse to the trend of Chia Gara anticline on either side of the second traverse. The surface expressions of them, as well as others like Zewa and Deralok faults (dextral) are evident in satellite image of the area. The southward pushing of the wedge between (BF1) and (BF2) had opposed the northward reverse displacement of the proposed listric fault beneath thesecond traverse. The effects of these strike-slip faults (BF1) and (BF2) are evident also in anticlockwise deflection of both axial plane and fold axis attitudes from first to the second traverse, and vice versa from second to the third traverse.

Geochemistry of Phosphorite and Associated Rocks of Akashat Formation (Middle Paleocene) in Akashat Mine, Iraqi Western Desert. Part II: Trace Elements

Kotayba Al-Youzbakey; Salim Al-Dabbagh

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2019, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 100-118
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2019.170282

Akashat Formation is an important formation due to its content of the Hirri member, which includes phosphorites and phosphatic limestones, that are rich in P2O5. These rocks are mainly composed of apatite and calcite. In addition to other minor and trace minerals like palygorskite, quartz, dolomite and secondary gypsum. All these minerals are hosted the most trace elements in the Akashat rocks. U, Sr, Y and Zr are related to apatite more than other minerals. While Ga, Rb and Ti are almost correlated with the clay minerals. The rest trace elements are distributed among other minerals and organic matter. The hosting of trace elements by a mineral takes place in many cases as substituted in Ca(I), Ca(II) and phosphate tetrahedron in Francolite, Ca site in calcite, in clay mineral phases, or adsorbed on clay mineral faces, organic matters and in the crystal channel of francolite.

The Structural Development of Folds Shapes in the Western Zagros Fold/Thrust Belt of Iraq Using Fourier Analysis

Nabeel Al-Azzawi; Nazar Numan

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2019, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 26-41
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2019.170283

Depending upon the geometrical shapes of the fold profiles, the Western Zagros Fold/ Thrust Belt of Iraq has been subdivided into different geometrically distinctive and genetically significant four sectors using Fourier ratios suggested by Hudleston classification. Furthermore, the same belt has been subdivided into eight sectors using Singh and Gairola's classification. The sector names of the former are chevronic–sinusoidal, sinusoidal–parabolic, parabolic–semi elliptical and semi elliptical–box fold styles. Whereas in the later division, the sectors are almost chevronic, chevronic–sinusoidal, almost sinusoidal, sinusoidal–parabolic, almost parabolic, parabolic–semi elliptical, almost semi elliptical and semi elliptical–box fold styles.
         The investigation involves harmonic analysis (Fourier analysis) of the fold profiles by solving Fourier equations using the Gauss elimination method, determination of Fourier coefficients and Fourier ratios for forty major anticline structures that cover fairly evenly the Western Zagros Fold/ Thrust region. The procedure of harmonic analysis is carried out with FOLDN, a GWBASIC program written for this purpose. Fourier ratios are utilized for distinguishing different types of fold shapes.
         In general, the map of these sectors shows that the folds become progressively more developed in shape towards the north and northeast. The arrangement of the obtained fold sectors in the studied area, matches the folds initiated first near the Alpine Suture and with time, they propagated south and southwestward across the axis of orogeny. In addition, probably the process is still going on.

Paleoecology and Statistical Study of Ostracoda, Fat'ha Formation (Middle Miocene) from Bazian Anticline, Al- Sulaymaniyah Area, Kurdistan Region, Iraq

Zahida Al-Hadithi; Nisreen Aziz

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2019, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 119-135
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2019.170284

Ostracoda assemblages have been studied from Fat'ha Formation (Middle Miocene) at SW limb of Bazian anticline, Sulaymaniyah,Kurdistan region, Iraq.  The Paleoecology of ostracoda assemblages points to shallow marine water that changes to barrier lagoon water setting due to tectonic activity event. The application of statistical analysis (Simpson index) leads to the subdivisions of Fat'ha Formation into five ecozones in the studied area.

New Petrophysical Equations for Hartha-Tannuma Interval in the East Baghdad Oil Field

Maan Al-majid

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2019, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 136-152
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2019.170285

This study deals with empirical equations linking density and porosity with depth. The density and porosity information were taken from five well logs distributed in the East Baghdad oil field. New empirical equations (porosity - depth, density - depth) for two geological formations (Harta and Sa'di) within Hartha- Tannuma period were produced. The correlation coefficient (R) of these equations ranged from -0.37 to 0.68, which was attributed to variability in lithology and compaction. The depth data of (133) points suited at seismic lines grid scattered in the field were used for applying the new equations. After the new empirical equations that are applied on the whole field, porosity and density contour maps for the period (Hartha- Tannuma) and the two formations (Hartha and Sa'di) were plotted. The high porosity zones were identified, are related to the compaction and petroleum distribution in the field.