ISSN: 1682-3222

Volume 18, Issue 1

Volume 18, Issue 1, Spring 2018, Page 1-183


On some Species of the Ostracode Genus Polycope from Baluti Formation (Upper Triassic), Northern Iraq

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 1-8

Five ostracode species belong to the genus Poloycope have been described from Baluti Formation (Upper Triassic) of North Iraq, these are: P. aghdarbandensTollman 1991, P. bourquinaeCrasquin and Gradinaru 1996, P. spp. Forel and Crasquin 2011, P. sp.A Rosenfeld and Honigstein 1998 and P. sp. Monostori 1996:
P. aghdarbandens Tollman 1991, P.bourquinae Crasquin and Gradinaru 1996, P. spp.Forel and Crasquin 2011, P. sp.A Rosenfeld and Honigstein1998 and P. sp. Monostori 1996.

Segmenting of Remote Sensing Images into Different land Cover Types using Otsu Thresholding

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 1-10

Image segmentation is an important initial operation before building databases for GIS use. Otsu method is a fast and efficient thresholding approach because it is minimizing within class variance. In this study image segmentation has been done by using Otsu thresholding. First, an image contains two main cover types processed by Low Pass filter to enhance separation between classes.
ضياء حازم سميمان البرىاوي
2
Then, use thresholding to segment image into distinct regions (classes), water and land cover. Finally, each distinct region will store in binary image to uses in later image processing.
Keywords: Segmenting of remote sensing, thresholding approach, binary image.تعتبر عممية تقطيع المرئيات من الم ا رحل الأولية الميمة من م ا رحل إعداد قواعد البيانات لنظم
المعمومات الجغ ا رفية ) GIS (. حيث تم في ىذا البحث استخدم طريقة حد العتبة ) Otsu thresholding )
لإنجاز عممية تقطيع المرئيات الفضائية ) segmentation Image ( نظ ا ر لكونيا طريقة سريعة وكفؤة وتقمل
التباين ضمن الصنف الواحد. حيث تم تطبيق الد ا رسة لمعالجة أحد المرئيات التي تحتوي عمى نوعين رئيسيين
من الأغطية الأرضية والفصل بينيما. تم معالجة المرئية أولا بمرشح الترددات الواطئة لتحسين الفصل بين
الأصناف الموجودة ضمن المرئية الواحدة، ثم انجاز عممية التقطيع بواسطة استخدام طريقة حد العتبة Otsu .
حيث تم تقطيع المرئية الى منطقتين متميزتين ىما منطقة مياه البحر ومنطقة الأ ا رضي اليابسة. بعد انجاز
عممية التقطيع تم خزن كل صنف متميز عمى شكل مرئية ثنائية ) Binary image ( ليسيل التعامل معيا في
عمميات المعالجة الرقمية اللاحقة.

Geobotanical Study of Some Areas South-Western Mosul by using Remote Sensing and ASD Dataset

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 9-26

To investigate the health of vegetation and soil purity in some areas south- western Mosul city, multi spectral remote sensing and Analytical Spectral Device (ASD) field spectrometer were used. Landsat ETM+ image was used to identify tonal spectral anomaly after correct it spectrally by using ENVI’s FLAASH method. A combination of False color composite image (FCC) based on the spectral characteristics of vegetation and soils was selected. This combination consists of (Band7-Red, Band4-Green, Band1-Blue) and also used to express the subtle grey tones as color variations and then some of anomalous reflectivity zones were extracted. Field spectral measurements were applied to determine the spectral reflectance anomaly of vegetation and soils. The spectral measurements of the samples were made in spectral analysis laboratory at (Remote Sensing Center- Mosul University) on a number of samples with a full-range of ASD spectrometer (i. e. 350m to 2500m), both on and off the anomalous spectral zones in order to compare the spectral changes between them. The results confirmed to the existing these reflectance zones by determination an increase in the reflectance at the chlorophyll absorption as well as a shift in the position of the red edge. The results also have indicated that the anomalous relationship between the occurrence of hydrocarbon seepages and anomaly reflectance zones. In this context, the migration of hydrocarbons has a predominantly structural control, related to the listric fault and accompanying fractures..

Spectral Signature Extraction of Pegmatite Intrusions and Determine it by Using Supervised Classification, Bulfat Complex, Qala Deza, NE Iraq

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 11-28

Pegmatite intrusions represent one of the distinguished geological features which are exposed in the north western part of Zagros Suture Zone-ZSZ whose forms appear like dikes and its contain of Volcano-Sedimentary units. In order to determine these features in some areas northern Iraq, remote sensing techniques were used by applying selective image processing methods for determining the spectral signature of these intrusions. Lithological samples were collected and analyzed geochemically and specify Mode analysis of minerals phases and consequently determination the suitable samples for spectral extraction. Depending on the extracted spectral, digital classification was applied on the corrected satellite images to extract the compatible spectral signatures between pegmatite intrusions (in satellite images) and pegmatite field samples. The results showed coincident between this two pegmatite and also determine another zones of pegmatite out of studied area. The density of pegmatite is more in the zone which is located northwestern part from samples area and low density in the other area. The research method gave good efficiency in pegmatite investigation by clarifying these features on the satellite images.ً.

Some Ostracoda Species of Tanjero Formation (Late Campanian- Maastrichtian) of Diana Area, NE Iraq.

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 27-40

Eleven ostracode species belonging to eight genera were described and illustrated for the first time from Tanjero Formation (Late Campanian- Maastrichtian) at Diana, North East Iraq, which six species are new: Cytherella suranensis sp. nov.; Cytherella omarians sp. nov.; Bairdia dianaensis sp. nov.; Bythocypris sirwanensis sp. nov.; Bairdoppilata halabijaensis sp. nov. and Limburgina kaniensis sp. nov.:
Cytherella suranensis sp. nov. ; Cytherella omarians sp. nov.; Bairdia dianaensis sp. nov.;Bythocypris sirwanensis sp. nov.; Bairdoppilata halabijaensis sp. nov. and Limburgina kaniensis sp. Nov

Structural and Tectonic Study of Brifka Anticline, Northern Iraq

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 29-58

A structural and tectonic study was carried out in the area between Baikher and Shaikhan anticlines. It is revealed that the main distinct structural feature is an anticline extending 16 Km northwest – southeasterly obeying the Zagros Range trend. This anticline with 6 km width and 16 km length called Brifka Anticline.
Several geologic formations are exposed in the studied area, ranging in time span from the Paleocene to Miocene periods. These formations are Kolosh, Khurmala, Gercus, Avanah and Pila Spi where Kolosh represented the core and Pila Spi makes the carapace of the anticline.
The geometrical analysis of this fold along four selected traverses revealed that the anticline is asymmetrical, mostly overturned and verged towards southwest, except in the fourth traverse it is appeared verging towards south. The anticline axis is oriented northwest -southeasterly in the first three traverses whereas it trended towards east- west in the fourth one.
The study included the vertical investigation of fold style of folded formations. It appeared that the anticline axis in Pila Spi Fn. is slightly changed from that of Kolosh Fn. in the first and forth traverses, whereas it changed anti clockwise 11-16° from Kolosh to Pila Spi formations in the second and third traverses.
The present study showed that the systems okl>c and hol>c are the most dominant joints in the first three traverses whereas hko>a system and ac set are abundant in the fourth traverse. It also revealed that the system hko>a are more abundance than hko>b system which indicate that the compression phase was tensive than the alternative tension.
Faults were investigated by field work and satellite image interpretation. It revealed three strike-slip faults inclined to the fold axis. They are BF1, BF2 and Besary faults. Another fault was concluded from the geometric properties and vergency of Brifka anticline. It is a foreland listric fault. This was followed by the determination of the formation thicknesses in order to conclude the sense of displacement of this fault. The determination appeared that the thicker sediments are in the area of the southwestern limb reflecting that the fault is reactivated as reverse foreland listric fault.(.

Late Tithonian Ammonites from Chia Gara Formation at Maten Anticline, Northern Iraq

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 41-54

The present study included identification and systematic description of some ammonites from the upper part of Chia Gara Formation, on the southern limb of Maten anticline at Amadia area, northern Iraq. Six species belong to five genera and three families were described. The two species; Berriasella privasensis and Parodontoceras calistoides were previously identified, and four species were left under open nomenclature, due to bad preservation and lack of material, these are; Parodontoceras sp., Spiticeras (Kilianiceras) sp., Substeueroceras sp. and Haploceras sp.
The studied ammonites occur as an assemblage fauna in the Durangites Zone, which indicates Late Tithonian age for the upper part of Chia Gara Formation in the Amadia area..

Rock Magnetic Properties during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM): Records from P/E boundary Sections (Sinjar, Shaqlawa) in Iraq

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 55-74

Rock magnetic properties have been investigated across the Paleocene/Eocene boundary in two distally separate sections of Paleogene marine sedimentary rocks from Iraq, namely the Sinjar and the Shaqlawa sections. The sediments at the studied sections belong to the Aaliji and the Kolosh formations respectively, which were previously examined for their biostratigraphy by the authors using planktonic and benthonic foraminifera to delineate the Paleocene/Eocene (P/E) transition. Measured magnetic properties include; bulk magnetic susceptibility, hysteresis cycles, isothermal remnant magnetization (IRM) acquisition, and thermomagnetic curves analysis. Rock-magnetic results (i.e. low magnetic coercivity component) indicate greigite as the main magnetic phase at Aaliji rocks, while a mixture of magnetite and greigite with high magnetic coercivity has been observed at Kolosh clastics. Magnetic susceptibility is induced by related to both biogenic minerals (mainly at Aaliji Formation) and transported terrigenous material sources. Multi varied magnitude phases of high bulk rock magnetic susceptibility observed in both formations along PETM lithosomes are attributed to two sources: greigite or biogenic iron oxides source and increase in terrigenous discharge source as inferred by anoxic to suboxic iron - sulfate-reducing conditions and lithological change respectively. Both sources referred to some of environmental conditions associated with Paleocene - Eocene thermal maximum events such as methane dissociation, water stratification, enhanced hydrological and weathering cycles..

Analysis of Slope Failure at the Southwestern Limb of Perat Anticline - NE Iraq Using Stereographic Projection

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 59-76

Rock slopes analysis in south western limb of Perat anticline, near Bekhme village, were studied. Seven stations were chosen to study these slopes which distributed along several exposed formations of Bekhme, Shiranish, Tanjero, Kolosh, Khurmala, and Gercus interbeded with Pila Spi according to their existence on the road, beginning from the Iron Bridge of Bekhme.
Stereographic projection technique was used in analyzing and classifying these slopes. Plane sliding along bedding planes and joints is the predominant in the formations of Bekhme, Shiranish, Pila Spi and some of khurmala Formation. Clastic rock Formations of Tanjero, Kolosh, and Gercus help to failure in steep and moderate slopes. Because of no distinctive favorable discontinuities to slide along, these slopes are suffering from raveling processes which means granular disintegration into small components by different processes. The rock slopes of Khurmala Formation are affected by wedge sliding along discontinuities intersections with bedding planes.

2-D Seismic Refraction Tomography for Site Investigation of the Teaching Hospital Project at Mosul University

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 77-86

The study includes seismic refraction tomography, along 12 traverses with a total area of 35140m2, for the Teaching Hospital Project at Mosul University. The aim of the study was to detect the thickness and types of the different subsurface layers. The survey conducted by the Swedish ABEM Terraloc Instrument. The data processed and presented as tomography sections by SeisImager/2D Program Packages. The study shows the presence of three different subsurface layers. The first layer represents the topsoil layer having velocity ranges between (350 m/sec-700 m/sec), and thickness up to 3.2m. The second layer having velocity ranges between 840-1700m and thickness between (3m-14.7m), mostly representing the river deposits, composed specially of river terraces and clays. The third layer was having velocity ranges between (1900 m/sec-2800 m/sec) and depth ranges between (3.0m-17.9m) representing the hard bed, which is mostly composed of marl layers belong to the upper part of Fat’ha Formation.تضمنت الد ا رسة إج ا رء مسح زل ا زلي انكساري تصويري لمشروع المستشفى التعميمي في جامعة الموصؿ
عمى امتداد 12 مسا ا رً بمساحة إجمالية مقدارىا 35140 متر مربع. اليدؼ مف المسح الزل ا زلي ىو الكشؼ
عف نوعية وسمؾ الطبقات الصخرية وامتدادىا. ت المسح بوساطة جياز ) ABEM Terraloc Mk6 )
السويدي الصنع وتمت معالجة البيانات الحقمية وتمثيميا باستخدا مجموعة برنامج SeisImager™ /2D
لعمؿ مقاطع تصويرية (Tomography) لمطبقات تحت السطحية. بينت نتائج المسح الزل ا زلي الانكساري
وجود ثلاث طبقات في منطقة الد ا رسة . الطبقة الأولى تمثؿ طبقة مف الترب السطحية والتي تمتمؾ سرعة
زل ا زلية تت ا روح بيف) 350 /ثا 700 /ثا ( وسمؾ يصؿ إلى ) 3.2 ( - ، والطبقة الثانية تمتمؾ سرعة زل ا زلية
- تت ا روح بيف ) 840 1700 /ثا( وسمؾ يت ا روح بيف ) 3 - 3 14.7 ( وىي عمى الأغمب تمثؿ طبقة مف
الترسبات النيرية (River deposits) والمتكونة بصورة خاصة مف المدممكات النيرية (River terraces)
والمواد الطينية. أما الطبقة الثالثة فتمتمؾ سرعة زل ا زلية تت ا روح بيف) 1900 /ثا 2800 /ثا ( وعمؽ يت ا روح -
بيف ) 17.9 3.0 (، وىي الطبقة الصمبة والتي ىي عمى الأغمب طبقة مف صخور المارؿ العائدة إلى -
الجزء العموي مف تكويف الفتحة.

Structural and Tectonic Analysis of Bashiqa and AL-Fadhlya Anticlines- Northern Iraq

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 87-116

The present work includes structural analysis and synthesis of Bashiqa and AL-Fadhlya Anticlines, located (25) km northeast Mosul City – northern Iraq. These structures extend in NW – SE trend for about 25 km within the Foreland Fold Belt of Iraq.
Geometrical classification of these folds based on stereographic analysis refers that they were developed by horizontal compressive stress in NE – SW direction. Furthermore, Fourier analysis revealed that SW limbs of both folds are relatively more developed than their NE limbs. This might be ought to higher stress intensity developed within SW limbs of both Anticlines. Such a higher stress intensity expressed in further flexure of SW limbs a round secondary hinges, multi reverse slip faults in SW limb of Bashiqa Anticline, local overturning and minor folding in SW limb of AL-Fadhlya Anticline.
The study also revealed a marked variance in detachment depth and shortening percentage between these structures. Bashiqa is deeply detached and less shortened than AL-Fadhlya. Detachment depth variance might be attributed to inversely reactivation of two en – echelon arranged, varied depth, Foreland verged detached faults beneath Bashiqa and AL-Fadhlya folds. Inverse reactivation of these detachment faults during compressive phase led to differential folding and hence detachments of the two folds across a dextral subsurface strike slip fault transverse to these folds. The later one may play as an accommodation fault for differential reverse movement on the varied depth detachment faults beneath these folds. However, wide hinge area of Bashiqa Anticline, disruption of its both limbs by many reverse slip fault have contributed in depletion a considerable amount of shortening compared with AL-Fadhlya Anticline shortening.
التحميل التركيبي و التكتوني لطيتي بعشيقة والفاضمية المحدبتين – شمالي الع ا رق 89
The structural model proposed here for Bashiqa and AL-Fadhlya Anticlines is
such that: the transversal subsurface strike slip faults (SF3, SF4 of Mutab, 2000) are
lateral ramps of Foreland verged detachment faults beneath these structures. The main
reverse slip faults on both limbs of Bashiqa fold and that one disrupting (SW) limb of
Maqlub Anticline, might linked at depth with the proposed main detachment fault
deep seated under Bashiqa structure. Inverse reactivation of this as well as the other
shallower under AL-Fadhlya Anticline together with resulting synthetic and antithetic
reverse slip faults have effectively contributed in folding process and its style in this
area.تتضمن الد ا رسة الحالية طيتي بعشيقة والفاضمية الواقعتان عمى بعد 25 كم شمال شرق مدينة الموصل
ضمن نطاق طيات الفورلاند في الع ا رق. تمتد ىاتين الطيتين لمسافة حوالي 25 كم بأتجاه شمال غرب جنوب –
شرق. التحميل اليندسي لمطيتين يشير إلى أنيما قد تكونتا نتيجة اجيادات أفقية قادمة من جية الشمال الشرقي،
وان التحميل الرياضي لمطي )تحميل فورير( يظير بأن الجناح الجنوبي الغربي في كل من الطيتين ىو أكثر
من الجناح الشمالي الشرقي، إذ ان شدة الإجياد في الجناح الجنوبي الغربي أدت إلى تكوين خط مفصل ˝ تطو ا ر
ثان لمطيتين في ىذا الجناح، وكذلك إلى تعدد الفوالق العكسية في الجناح الجنوبي الغربي لطية بعشيقة،
فضلا عن الانقلاب الموضعي لمطبقات وتكون طيات ثانوية في بعض المواقع في الجناح الجنوبي الغربي لطية
الفاضمية.
أ وظيرت الد ا رسة تباينا في عمق سطح الانفصال ونسبة التقصير بين طيتي بعشيقة
)أكثر عمقا واقل تقصي ا ر( و الفاضمية )اقل عمقا وأكثر تقصي ا ر(. أوعز اختلاف عمق سطح الانفصال إلى
احتمال وجود فالقي انفصال فورلانديي الاتكاء ومختمفي العمق ومفصولين تناسقيا بفالق مضربي. إن انعكاس
الحركة عمى ىذين الفالقين في فترة الانضغاط ساىم في طي الطيتين بشكل أدى إلى انفصاليما عبر فالق
مضربي يميني تحت سطحي مستعرض. وىو فالق توفيقي لمحركة العكسية عمى فالقي الانفصال المتباينين في
العمق تحت الطيتين. إن تفاوت الطيتين من حيث الحجم قد يكون سبباً في تباين نسب التقصير بين الطيتين
)بعشيقة اكبر بكثير من الفاضمية(.
يشيييير المودييييل التركيبيييي المقتيييرح فيييي الد ا رسييية الحاليييية إليييى أن الفيييالقين المضيييربيي الإ ا زحييية تحيييت
السيطحيين ) SF3,SF4 ( ىمييا عبييارة عيين مصيطبتين جييانبيتين لفييالق الانفصييال الفورلانييدي الاتكياء تحييت طييية
بعشييقة. و قيد تيرتبط الفواليق المعكوسية الرئيسية فيي جنياحي طيية بعشييقة والفيالق المعكيوس اليرئيس فيي الجنياح
إب ا رىيم سعد إب ا رىيم ألجميمي و أحمد غانم نايف الع ا زوي
88
الجنيوبي الغربيي لطيية مقميوب فيي الأعمياق ميع فيالق الانفصيال اليرئيس. كميا أسييم انعكياس الحركية عميى فيالق
الانفصال الرئيس وما نتج عنيا من فوالق عكسية متوافقة وغير متوافقية بشيكل فعيال فيي عمميية الطيي وطي ا رزه فيي
طيتي بعشيقة والفاضمية.

Comparison Between Visual and Digital Interpretation of Lineament Features in Allan Anticline Northern Iraq

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 117-134

This study included a comparison between both visual and digital interpretations of lineament patterns, which are located in Allan anticline Northern Iraq, using remote sensing techniques.
Results of field measurements of joints pattern that located in the central ridge of Allan anticline, showed a clear correlation with lineaments pattern which are
Hekmat S. AL-Daghastani
Remote Sensing Center
University of Mosul
Basma Gh. Ghanem
Department of Geology
College of Science
University of Mosul
مقارنة بين التفسير البصري والرقمي لممظاىر الخطية في.............
118
interpreted by both (visual and digital) interpretations. The dominance trends in the directions of Lineaments are include: North East- South West and North West- South East as well as the trend North – South. These trends correspondence with the prevailing faults pattern in Allan anticline and the trends direction of tectonic forces in the region.
Digital analysis results of lineaments using PCI Geomatica program in the foot slope region of Allan anticline showing anomaly in some directions due to determine non-structural Lineaments which are reflect the boundaries of agriculture fields, therefore the integrations between the visual and digital interpretation of lineaments is very necessary to support morphotectonic analysis.شممت الد ا رسة مقارنة بين أسموبي التفسير البصري والرقمي لنمط الخطيات المتواجدة في طية علان
المحدبة شمال الع ا رق، باستخدام تقنيات التحسس النائي.
أظيرت نتائج القياسات الحقمية لنمط الفواصل المتواجدة في النطاق المركزي لطية علان بأن
ىناك ارتباط اً واضح اً مع نمط الخطيات المفسرة بالأسموبين حيث أن اتجاه الخطيات السائدة كانت
شمال شرق جنوب غرب وشمال غرب جنوب شرق اضافة الى الاتجاه شمال - - - جنوب. وقد تطابقت
ىذه الاتجاىات مع نمط الصدوع السائدة في طية علان واتجاىات القوى التكتونية المؤثرة في المنطقة.
اظيرت نتائج التحميل الرقمي لمخطيات باستخدام برنامج PCI Geomatica في نطاق أقدام
الانحدا ا رت لطية علان شذوذا في بعض الاتجاىات وذلك لتحديد خطيات ذات اصل غير تركيبي والتي
عكست حدود الا ا رضي الز ا رعية، مما يجعل ضرورة مكاممة ىذا التحميل مع الأسموب البصري، وذلك لدعم
نتائج التحميلات المورفوتكتونية لممنطقة.

Applicability of Using the Earth Resistivity in Evaluating of Some Engineering Parameters for Road Subgrade/Naynawa Governorate

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 135-148

The present research includes studying the electrical resistivity and some engineering parameters (plasticity index, California Bearing Ratio, dry density, clay content, moisture content) for the Soil subgrade of the roads. Six sites were selected to conduct the study at Nineveh Governorate in Northern Iraq. Three of them are located to the east of Tigris river while the others to the west of it. Each site contains four locations, each of them includes five traverses with five sounding points in each traverse. The Constant Separation Traversing and Vertical Sounding are employed for delimitating the resistivity parameters, horizontally and vertically, with Wenner deployment. The field data were represented with six isoresistivity sections which indicate lateral and vertical variations reflecting subgrade soil inhomogeneities in the study area.
The required laboratory tests are carried out for the recognition of the physical characteristics for soil classification and determination of the engineering parameters. As well, the present study tried determining relationships between electrical resistivity and engineering parameters through the results of the statistical correlation analysis.
The study recommended the possibility of using isoresitivity sections in selecting for the proper sites for subgrade soil samples, and subsequently ending the random method in collecting the samples which always used.تضمن البحث الحالي د ا رسة المقاومية الكيربائية وبعض المعاملات اليندسية )دليل المدونة ونسبة
التحمل الكاليفورني والكثافة الجافة ونسبة الطين ومحتوى الرطوبة( لمتربة المستخدمة كطبقة أساس لمطرق.
تشمل منطقة الد ا رسة ستة مواقع مختمفة من محافظة نينوى في شمال الع ا رق، ثلاثة منيا تقع إلى الشرق من
نير دجمة اولثلاثة الأخرى في الجانب الغربي لمنير. يتضمن كل موقع أربعة م واضع ويشمل كل موضع
خمسة أو ستة مسا ا رت لمقياس حيث يتألف كل مسار من خمسة نقاط جس كيربائي بخمسة فاصلات قطبية
في كل نقطة جس. تم استخدام أسموبي التحري ثابت الفاصمة والجس العمودي وذلك لتحديد معاملات
المقاومية أفقيا وعموديا بترتيب وينر. رسمت البيانات الحقمية عمى ىيئة مقاطع تساوي المقاومية في ستة
مواقع وبينت النتائج وجود تغاي ا رت أفقية وعمودية متباينة في المقاومية الكيربائية اولتي تعكس عدم التجانس
لمكونات تربة طبقة الأساس في منطقة الد ا رسة.
أجريت الفحوصات المختبرية اللازمة عمى عينات التربة لمتعرف عمى الخصائص الفيزيائية وتصنيف
التربة و ايجاد المعاملات اليندسية ليا. كما حاولت الد ا رسة الحالية ايجاد علاقات بين المقاومية الكيربائية
والمعاملات اليندسية من خلال نتائج تحميل الارتباط إحصائيا لقيميا. توصي الد ا رسة بإمكانية الاعتماد عمى
مقاطع تساوي المقاومية في اختيار المواقع الصحيحة لأخذ عينات تربة طبقة الأساس لمطرق لإنياء الطريقة
العشوائية في جمع العينات والمعتمدة غالبا.

The Effect of Dolomitization on Mergi Formation Sequences (Cenomanian- Early Turonian ) at The Type Section, Northern Iraq

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 149-164

In order to study the effect of dolomitization on Mergi Formation sequences (Cenomanian – Early Turonian), Field and petrographical examinations were carried out on fourty six meters (46m) of the type section of this formation. It has been observed that the formation is highly affected by diagenesis processes, especially dolomitization. On the other hand, the effects of other processes such as. cementation, dissolution, micritization and compaction in its both types, physical and chemical were less than dolomitization. Dolomite crystals appeared as rhomb-shaped euhedral to subhedral. The main diagnosed fabrics were Aphanotopic, Contact-rhomb porpherotopic, fogged mosaic, Sutured mosaic, Saddle dolomite and Cloudy-centered clear-rimmed dolomite fabrics. It is concluded that formation of dolomite was by the mechanism of mixing zone model and subsurface dolomitization model.(.

Using of Image Processing for a Multi-Spectral Bands Image to Specify the Rock Units in Gara Barran Anticline/ Duhok Northern Iraq

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 165-183

A variety of image processing techniques were applied by the use of ENVI 5 program, on Landsat 7 ETM+ for a part of Bekhair anticline which is called Gara Barran anticline. It is located in the north of Duhok city, northern Iraq. Image processing methods were carried on (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7) image bands included: numerous false color combinations (RGB composites of three bands) were applied, and the best (741 RGB) was chosen. It was used as a base image for the two types of classification and geological mapping. It was comparted with a published geological map for the same area to indicate the name of the exposed geological formations in Gara Barran anticline which was identified at the field. Several image ratios were applied, and the best (2/3, 3/1, 2/5, 4/3, 5/7, 7/3 7/5) were chosen. In addition, the principal component analysis (PCA) (for all bands of Landsat7 image) was applied, only three of the resulted six components (PC3,PC4,PC5) were better and more useful than the other to discriminate some of the geological formations at Gara Barran anticline. Visual interpretation was applied on resulted images to identify the geological formation outcrops in Gara Barran anticline and the vegetation covered areas were also detected. Then all results were used to identify the exact training areas which were used in the supervised classification. Digital geological map was produced by the use of resulted images which were overlaid in Arc GIS 10.1 program and the transparency of the upper image was increased to 50%. By this way, the effect of vegetation cover was defeated then a digital geological map was exactly detected the geological formations with its contactsاستخدم برنامج ENVI 5 لتطبيق المعالجات الرقمية المختمفة عمى مرئية لاندسات 7 ETM+ لتحديد
الوحدات الصخرية في طية كا ا ربا ا رن والتي تعد جزءا من طية بيخير الكبيرة والواقعة شمال مدينة دىوك في
شمالي الع ا رق. تضمنت المعالجات ال م نفذة عمى حزم المرئية (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7) مايأتي: عممية الدمج
الممون الكاذب بعدة توليفات، واختيار أفضل توليفة والمتمثمة ب 741 RGB) (. إذ تم اتخاذىا كأساس في
عمميتي التصنيف والترسيم الخ ا رئطي ومقارنتيا بخريطة جيولوجية منشورة لذات المنطقة لمتعرف عمى أسماء
التكاوين الجيولوجية المنكشفة في طية كا ا ربا ا رن والتي تم تميزىا الزيارة حقمي اً. تطبيق المرئيات التناسبية
بصيغ مختمفة وكانت أفضميا (2/3, 3/1, 2/5, 4/3, 5/7, 7/3, 7/5) . وتحميل المركبات الأساسية لجميع
حزم مرئية لاندسات 2، لينتج عنيا ستة مركبات أساسية، كانت أكثرىا فائدةً في تحديد امتدادات بعض
التكاوين الجيولوجية في طية كا ا ربا ا رن المركبات الأساسية (PC3, PC4, PC5) . تم تفسير نتائج المعالجات
الرقمية المختمفة بصرياً لتحديد امتدادات التكاوين الجيولوجية المنكشفة في طية كا ا ربا ا رن وتحديد
مناطق انتشار الغطاء النباتي الذي يغطي أج ا زء من المكاشف الصخرية في الطية. استخدمت
المرئيات الناتجة من المعالجة الرقمية في تحديد عينات مناطق التدريب لكل تكوين جيولوجي بدقة
)استنادا الى المرئيات المستحصمة من المعالجات في أعلاه( لاستخداميا في عممية التصنيف الموجو. ولرسم
وانتاج الخريطة الجيولوجية الرقمية، تم تطبيق العديد من عمميات المطابقة (Overlays) لممرئيات الناتجة
من المعالجة الرقمية مع تنظيم مستوى الشفافية (Transparency) لممرئية العميا الى 11 % من خلال
برنامج نظم المعمومات الجغ ا رفية ArcGIS10.1 مما ساعد في التغمب عمى تأثي ا رت الغطاء النباتي في
نبيل قادر الع ا زوي ريان غازي البناء مثنى محمد ثابت
قسم عموم الأرض مركز التحسس النائي قسم عموم الأرض
كمية العموم جامعة الموصل كمية العموم
جامعة الموصل جامعة الموصل
نبيل قادر بكر الع ا زوي و آخرون
566
حجب الرؤية في بعض أج ا زء طية كا ا ربا ا رن ورسم خريطة جيولوجية رقمية حددت بدقة إمتدادات التكاوين
الجيولوجية والحدود الفاصمة فيما بينيا.