Volume 14, Issue 1, Autumn 2014, Page 1-89

Effect of Water Content on Brightness Temperature and Emissivity of Soil for Passive Remote Sensing Applications

Falih A. Aziz

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2014, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 1-18
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2014.87473

The relative complex dielectric constant (Ɛr= Ɛ1- jƐ2) of a number of sandy soil samples from the Markib seashore, in Libya has been measured
as a function of moisture content at microwave frequency in the X-band
(f=10.7 GHz, λ=2.8 cm) and L-band (f=1.4 GHz, λ=21 cm). A knowledge of the complex dielectric constant of soils is essential in the interpretation of microwave airborne radiometer data of the Earth's surface. The reflectivity and emissivity of smooth surface have been calculated in both polarizations at various nadir angles using the measured laboratory data. It has been found that the emissivity decreases at larger angles of incidence for horizontal polarization, whereas it increases at vertical polarization with increasing incidence angle
to a maximum at the Brewster angle. It has also been observed that the incidence angle, at which the Brewster angle occurs, shifts toward grazing for higher percent moisture content. The brightness temperature of dry and wet soil has been computed in both horizontal and vertical polarization mode as a function of physical temperature and dielectric constant of each soil with varying moisture content. The brightness temperature of dry and wet soil depend on dielectric constant, physical properties, polarization and the angle of incidence of microwaves. These facts are especially important and can be used as diagnostic tool for water prospecting in deserts.

Hydrogeochemistry of Selected Wells on Both Banks of the Tigris River in Mosul Area/ Northern Iraq

Oday M. S. O. Al-Bachachi

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2014, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 1-18
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2014.87483

The present study included the evaluation of ground water at two areas; Gobba on the left and Hawi Al-Kaneesa on the right bank of the Tigris River at city of Mosul. Water evaluation was carried out through the comparison of the analytical dataofwater samples collected from wells at the two areas and the determination of their suitability for irrigation, as the two areas are within the utilized agricultural areas in Mosul governorate.
Chemical analysis for the major cations (Ca+2, Mg+2,Na+1, K+1) and the anions (HCO3-1, Cl-1,SO4-2) were carried out. Also, some physical and chemical properties related to water specification, like hydrogen ion Concentration (pH), electrical conductivity (EC), total hardness (TH) and total dissolved salts (TDS) were determined.
For the purpose of evaluation of water quality for irrigation, some water classifications were carried out. Results have shown that most of Hawi AL- Kaneesa well water were relatively rich in the determined cations and anions. This is attributed to the relatively high solubility of Fatha formation evaporates. These well- waters are considered to be a mixture of recent deposits and Fatha formation ground waters. Also, rain waters rinse and dissolved the outcrops of this formation in this area. There is also the effect of the sulphur springs present at or near the study area like Ain–Kibrit (sulphur spring) and other springs along the fault of Hawi AL-Kaneesa that result in increasing (SO4-2) as significantly observed.

Ostracode Biostratigraphy of Shiranish, Hartha and Mushorah Formations from Selected Boreholes Northwest and Central Iraq

Saleh K. Khalaf; Ibrahim Y. Al-Shareefi; Marwan A. Al-Eisa

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2014, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 19-38
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2014.87475

Ostracode biostratigaphy were investigated in detail from three formations (Shiranish, Hartha and Mushorah ) in subsurface sections of four boreholes Northwest and centre of Iraq.
On the basis of the ostracode species distribution, the studied formations were divided into four ostracode biozones as follows:

Biozone 1: Cytherella IRC 22 Interval zone. (Early Campanian).
Biozone 2: Occultocythereis elongata Interval zone. (Late Campanian).
Biozone 3: Krithe sp. M 1113 Interval zone. (Early Maastrichtian).
Biozone 4: Holcopocythere bassiporosa Interval zone. (Late Maastrichtian).

Depending on the above biozones correlated with other previous works from Iraq and the Middle East regions the following ages were proposed for the studied formations:

Shiranish Formation: Late Campanian - Maastrichtian.
Hartha Formation: Late Campanian - Early Maastrichtian.
Mushorah Formation: Early Campanian.

Petrography of Sandstone for Hussainiyat Formation and the Climatic and Tectonic Evidence in Western Desert-Iraq

Abed AL-Satar A. Al-Sanjary; Ahmad N. Thanon; Rafe I. Al-Ehmeedy

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2014, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 19-32
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2014.87484

The petrography of the detrital part of Hussainiyat Formation Jurassic
(Upper Liassic) in its ideal section, at the western Desert, Iraq, was studied. The aim of this study was to infer the climatic and tectonic evidence that affected the deposition of the sandstones of this formation.
It has been shown that the most abundant mineral in these sandstones was quartz. These sandstones were derived from a scarce area with relatively low relief topography with an equatorial humid environment.
Most of these rocks were derived from continental regions of cratonic zones. However, some of them were derived from orogenic belt marginal to continental regions as a first cycle, them recycled into deposits within the craton. These rocks are mostly of granitic igneous origin, and to a less extent of metamorphic and redeposited sedimentary rocks derived from the Arabian shield.

Palynostratigraphy, Age determination and Paleoecology of Butmah Formation in borehole Kand-1 Northern Iraq

Yasser H. Kddo; Amer D. Nader

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2014, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 33-48
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2014.87486

Eight samples (K1-K8) from borehole Kand-1 covering (190) meters thick stratigraphic section were palynologically studied. They yield (36) species of sporomorphs belonging to (24) genera, three species were expected to be new. The miospore species recoved in this study indicate late Triassic age (Norian) and characterized by the dominance of many species of bisaccate non-striate pollen such as:
Alisporites australis, A. dunrobinensis,
warepanus, Falcisporites tecovasensis, Pityosporites scaurus, Protodiploxypinus acutus, P. americus, Samaropollenites speciosus.
In addition to monosaccate (Vesicate sporomorphs) represented by:
Patinasporites densus, Vallasporites ignacii, Enzonalasporites vigens.
The dominance of monosaccate pollen grains and the presence of the acritarchs, foraminiferal lining (acid-resistant inner coat) and fresh water algae in the lower part of stratigaphic section (K1-K3) indicate deposition in lagoonal environment with relatively high salinity and little supplies of fresh water. The increase of bisaccate pollen grains in the upper part of the sections (K4-K8) indicate deposition in relatively deeper environments (Inner shelf environment).

Detachment Surface Morphology and Shortening Distribution in the Foreland Folds of Iraq

Mahmood A. Al-Sumaidaie; Saddam E. Al-Khatony; Nabeel K. Al-Azzawi

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2014, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 39-58
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2014.87479

Determinations of detachment surface depth and amount of local shortening were carried out in the more specific location foreland folds of Iraq. Twenty one traverses of anticlinal structures which are normally distributed on the study area were used for this application.
Two types of deformation styles were found in the study area. They are thin-skinned and thick-skinned tectonics. Depth of the detachment surface generally increases towards east with as abnormal case appeared in Aqra Anticline. Westerlythe depth becomes shallower depth from the south towards Dohuk Anticline and it returns to increase toward the north. In Ain Zala, Butma West, Dohuk and Dahqan Anticlines and some parts of Bekhair Anticline, thin-skinned style was indicated.
The shortening generally increases towards the north and northeast, with specific anomaly at Permam Dagh. It increases in the area after Permam Dagh to the north and northeast. However southeast of this area has low amount of shortening and the lowest appears in Qara chauq Anticline.

Porosity of Avanah Formation and its Stratigraphical Distribution in Selected Wells of Kirkuk Oil Field

Mohammed A. M. Sulaiman; Abdalaziz M. AL-Hamdany

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2014, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 49-66
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2014.87488

The dolomitic and recrystallized carbonates of Avanah Formation (Middle - Late Eocene) successions are characterized by relative high porosity and permeability. These successions, in the selected wells (K-432,K-117,K-149,K-319,K-339), start with brown-white, fractured, rigid and porous at lower dolomitic unit, overlain by dense-fractured, high porous, relatively rigid and brown dolomitic limestone; and finally ending by low-fractured, moderately rigid and porous white limestone. The rocks of the formation are rich in sieve mosaic dolomitic texture with lesser suture, spotted, fogged and poikilotopic textures, in addition to another diagenetic features, which are formed due to recrystallization, cementation, dissolution, physical compaction, dedolomitization and micritization. It is obvious that the dolomitization and dissolution have played a positive role in improving the porosity of specified rock units. On the contrary of the upper unit, both lower and middle units are characterized by their high porosity (vuggy, intercrystalline, fractured and moldic), whereas the porosity of the upper unit is restricted to fracture and intergranular types. By merging density and neutron logs for calculating the total and effective porosity of the successions, it is revealed that they are of high porosity (2-30%) which is coincident with the results of the plotted density - neutron log values on (b-ØN) chart. It is believed that the relative domination of diagenetic porosity diagnosed in the rocks of lower and middle successions of the formation, and its observed association with fractured porosity (Hybrid-2) on the other hand have improved the porosity and permeability of these rocks making them efficient to store and produce hydrocarbons.

Passive Microwave Technique for Estimating The Brightness Temperature of Mediterranean Sea Surface

Falih A. Aziz

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2014, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 59-77
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2014.87481

The current study is conducted to investigate the insolation parameter in measuring sea surface temperature of Libyan city of Lipda. The process was accomplished at different bands (from 0.7 to 31.4 GHz), by using a laboratory system for microwave remote sensing in which the insolation parameter was studied with regard to temperature as well as frequencies.
In the present study, the dielectric constant of several water samples from Mediterranean sea were measured at (0.7 to 31.4 GHz) bands. The amount of reflectivity was hence calculated by Fresnel's law and then the amount of emissivity was found. The "Radiation transfer model" mathematical model was adopted in the current study to calculate the brightness temperature of the seawater as a function of angles with atmospheric effect and non-atmospheric ones. The study has come out with the conclusion that the non-atmospheric effects are less than the atmospheric ones. Sea surface temperature can be used operationally to assess eddies, fronts and upwelling for marine navigation and to track biological productivity.

Hydrochemistry of Tigris River Water from its Iraqi‘s Territory Entry to Baghdad city

Hisham Yahya Dhannoun; Hazim Jumaa Mahmood

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2014, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 67-89
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2014.87490

The present work deals with hydrochemistry of the major elements in Tigris River water, along the area stretching from the beginning of the river entry into Iraqi territory in the north, and to Baghdad city in the south.
The results revealed an increase in the concentrations of the major elements in general, during the trajectory of the river to the south, as well as a relative increase in the concentrations of the elements during the winter, compared with their concentrations during the summer. The result also clarified that the composition of the river basin rocks plays the main control of the major elements hydrochemistry. The results indicated that the controlling rocks type of the Tigris main reservoirs are rang between carbonate and silicate compositions.