ISSN: 1682-3222

Volume 13, Issue 2

Volume 13, Issue 2, Autumn 2013, Page 1-84

Propose New Method to Select Band Combination of Multi - Spectral Image that have Highest Variance for Color Composite Image Display

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 1-10

This paper propose new method for band combination selection that have highest variance from multi-spectral image bands to create color composite image. The proposed method benefit from principal components transform to select band combination. color composite image can be created from information blending of three spectral bands. The proposed method has great importance in displaying high contrasted color images.

The Significance Diachronous Age as an Indicator of the Southeast Advance of the Zagros Orogenic Belt During Campanian, NE. Iraq

Kamal H. Karim; Omar A. Al-Badrani; Rabeea K. Znad

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 1-14

The contact between Bekhme and Shiranish Formations is studied paleontologically in Bekhme gorge and Rawanduz area. The nannofossils are used to prove that the age of the base of the Shiranish Formation is lower late Campanian and middle Campanian in Bekhme gorge and Rawanduz area respectively. The older age of the Rawanduz area is attributed to early drowning (flexing downward) of the forebulge of the Arabian platform due to southwest propagation of tectonic load of the Zagros Orogen during early stage of collision of Afro-Arabian and Iranian plates by which the Tethys ocean closed later.

landuse landcover Change Detection Near Mosul Dam Lake using Digital Image Processing

Bashar M. Yahya; Khansaa A. Ahmed

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 11-22

Time-sequential satellite imagery taken of the same area given a clear analysis on the change range of landuse and landcover in the study area. The united state geological survey system (USGS) was used to classified the land use and land cover. According to the environmental and agricultural activities due to constructing the mosul dam and the north AL-Jezira irrigation project later, the changes in landuse and landcover was analyzed from year 1984 till 2009 using supervised classification and vegetation index (NDVI) to analysis land use land cover using ERDAS IMAGINE v.11 software.

Environmental Significance of Major and Trace Elements in the Soils of Selected Areas in Erbil City, Kurdistan Region, Northern Iraq

Farhad A. Mohammed; Sirwa Q. Smail; Yawooz A. Kettanah

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 15-32

Thirty five elements were analyzed in twenty seven soil samples from six different sites in Erbil city to investigate the possible pollution by heavy metals in these areas. These sites are North Industrial, South Industrial, Erbil Citadel and three sites outside the city as background. Fe, K, Al, Na, P, Li, Be, B, Sc, V, Cr, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Mo, Sn, Cd, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Th, and U have higher concentrations than those of the local background but still have not reached
the pollutant levels when compared with the international standards.The concentrations of Ni, Cu, and Zn have exceeded pollutant levels but still cannot be considered toxic or hazardous because of their immobile nature under the current oxidizing environmental conditions. Meanwhile, Co, Mn and Pb have reached critical levels in the industrial areas; while Ni, Cu, Co, and Mn have critical values in the Citadel soils. The concentration of Ca in all studied areas is higher than those of international soil standards, while Mg is lower. There are high concentrations of P in the Erbil Citadel soil samples which are considered pollutant.

Characteristic Variations of Spectral Reflection of Soil and Rocks in Kand Structure Northern Iraq

Hekmat S. Al-Daghastani; Basman Y. Hameed

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 23-34

Using spectral reflecting curves of selected (soil and rocks) in Kand Structure northern Iraq to emphasis visual and digital interpretation of remote sensing data. Results show high effectiveness in geologic and geomorphic analysis of the study area through identification of most lithologic units that identified from satellite images.
Seven samples taken from the study area had been analyzed using Spectro Radiometer in remote sensing center laboratory. The result of different spectral reflectance curves reflect various types of these samples due to the development stages in Kand Structure and to the exposed rocks of Fatha and Injana formations. The dominant geomorphic process and neotectonic activities play an important roles in the gemorphic evolution of these landforms, and its spectral reflection, as well as in the form and distribution of these soils throw out the study area.

Biostratigraphy by Calcareous Nannofossils and Paleoecology by Ostracoda of Tanuma Formation, Central Iraq

Omar A. Al-Badrani; Sanad A. Al-Khashab

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 33-46

Forty three samples of limestone and shales from Tanuma Formation obtained from East Baghdad well (No. 11) at depths (2067 - 2177 m.) about 110 m. in thickness. Details investigated carried out identify twenty species of calcareous nannofossils, sixteen described from other region and four left open name because of rare and not clear samples. Furthermore, twenty four species of ostracodes belonging to fourteen genera were recorded, these are: Bairdia, Brachycythere, Curfsina, Cythereis, Cytherella, Cytherelloidea, Dolocytheridea, Ovocytheridea, Paracypris, Protocythere, Pterygocythere, Schuleridea, Spinoleberis, Veenia.
The recorded calcareous nannofossils assemblages permits to recognized two biozones these are:

2- Micula cf. decussata Interval Biozone (CC14).

1- Marthasterites furcatus Interval Biozone (CC13).
On the basis of biocorrelation with previous works Coniacian age confirmed for the Tanuma Formation at the studied section. The analysis of the ostracode fauna led to conclude that the palaeoecology of the Tanuma Formation in this section is shallow marine environment at depth about 200m in the neritic zone with warm water, under normal marine water salinity.

The Structural and Tectonic Analysis of Mandan Anticline Northern Iraq

Saddam Essa Mustafa Al-khaton

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 35-56

The study includes the structural and tectonic analysis of Mandan anticline. Mandan anticline consists of Fath'a, Injana and Muqdadiya Formations
(Middle Miocene, Upper Miocene and Lower Pliocene age). Structural and geometric analysis of the three studied traverses revealed its generally asymmetry. It's verging towards the southwest, and it's plunging toword southeast, meet each other with Maqlob anticline from the northwest. Also the fold axis changes anticlockwise from the first traverse to the second traverse, and then clockwise to the third traverse, this is because the influence of fold to three strike-slip faults.
Fourier analysis shows that in traverse II and III the northeast limb of the fold changes from chevron to chevron sinusoidal shape. The southwest limb changes from sinusoidal, parabolic and semi ellipses. The reasons for these changes is attributed to influence of fold to normal listiric foreland fault and two strike-slip faults at the second and third traverses.
The study shows also that the Mandan anticline influenced by two foreland listiric faults. The first was reverse fault affects the fold in the first traverse only then swerves south. The second affects the fold as a whole at the northern limb. This is known from the geometric analysis of the formations at limbs in the second traverse and between the three traverses. Field observations, satellite images and the DEM (Digital elevation model) revealed existence of three strike –slip faults, two are sinistral and the third is dextral, namely Bardarash, Sheikh khalik and the Coma Zard faults.

Paleocene -Eocene Ostracoda From Selected Wells in West, North and Central Iraq

Nisren M. Aziz

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 47-66

Twenty two ostracoda species belonging to eight genera were described
from Avanah ,Sinjar, Khurmala, Aaliji, Akashat and Jaddala Formations, (Paleocene-Eocene) of North, West and Central Iraq of which four species are new, Abyssocypris zumarensis, sp.inov., Argilloecia heijranensis sp. nov., Argilloecia baajensis sp. nov., Schizocylhere anbarensis sp. nov. The identified species
shows strong affinities to those in India, North Africa and the Middle East (Southern New Tethys).

Biostratigraphy of Planktonic Foraminifera of Jaddala Formation (Eocene), Bara area, Northwestern Iraq

Majid M. Al-Mutwali; Inas S. Al-Sharbaty

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 67-84

A surface section of Jaddala Formation was studied near Bara Village in the western plunge area of Sinjar anticline northwestern Iraq . The sequences under study consist of marl, marly limestone and limestone beds. Detailed study of planktonic foraminifera revealed (38) species belonging to (14) genera, the stratigraphic distribution of these species permits the regognition of five zones, these are: Morozovella aragonensis Zone, Acarinina pentacamerata Zone, Acarinina bullbrooki Zone, Globigerinatheka subconglobata Zone and Acarinina collactea Zone. These zones indicate that Jaddala Formation is of Early - Middle Eocene age.