ISSN: 1682-3222

Volume 13, Issue 1

Volume 13, Issue 1, Spring 2013, Page 1-137

Study of Physical and Chemical Properties of Shallow Water Wells in Kuba -Sherikhan Area Northwest of Mosul City

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 1-14

The aim of this research is to identify the groundwater chemistry and some hydrogeological properties for shallow aquifer in Sherikhan –Kuba area North West of mosul city .Twenty one groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for the major constituents, and salinity, pH and temperature. The result showed a strong correlation of sulphate with calcium and magnesium where r=0.92 , r=0.90 respectively . Factor analysis on hydrochemical variables revealed the domination of three factors that responsible of about 86.6% of the ground water quality variance, the first factor represent the impact of geological formation on ground water quality with 60.29% of variance, second factor represent of impact of agriculture activity on ground water with 13.75 % and the third factor represent of impact of environmental factor on ground water with 11.59%. Observation of water table fluctuation for five month , in order to record the drawdown of water table , it was found that mean drawdown range from 19 to 23 cm/month for the well No.2 and 5 respectively, for the period extended from April to end August 2009 which indicate that good ground water replenishment in summer season in spite of heavy consumption of ground water for irrigation due to continuing recharge from Tigris river.

Impact of Raw Water Characteristics on Aski - Mosul Water Treatment Plant

Sati M. AL-Rawi; Adil A. Bilal

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 1-12

It was claimed that the studied plant did not perform as expected. A careful investigation was carried out to troubleshoot any inconveniences. Many visits to plant site and discussion with managers and operators were made. A series of tests on samples taken from different sites in the river for various quality parameters such as pH, total solids TS, total dissolved solids TDS, electrical conductivity EC, Turbidity, nitrates NO3, phosphates PO4 , total plate bacterial count TPC, and algae were conducted .
The results revealed that the plant suffered a lot of problems. The plant acted as a passing through units. No significant change could be detected in received and treated water characteristics. Maintenance of various units were rarely practiced, and if it was done it would take long time. Pretreatment by alum was not carried out. This would complicate settling of flocs in subsequent units and might lead to growth of microorganisms.
As the plant located downstream a big impoundment lake, the incoming water characteristics were relatively acceptable and bear a sign of eutrophied water particularly phosphates and nitrates. Patches of algae could be seen adhered to sedimentation tank walls.
Backwashing of filters was done by air scour only through the recent 20 years. This led to loss of fines and cracks in filter bed. Gradation of media grains and the depth of sand layer were not adequate. Acid loss of used media amounted to 6.3% which was excessive and beyond authorized criteria
Removal of algae and bacteria was low as filter medium pores were relatively Large due to loss of fines and due to possible contamination.

Study of Trace and some Rare Earth Elements of Hussainiyat Karst Bauxite, Iraq: Leaching Efficiency

Hiyam A. Mohammad

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 13-34

Karst-filling bauxite deposits of early Cretaceous age are widespread in Hussainiyat area to the northeast of Al- Rutba city within the Iraqi Western Desert. Karstified carbonate host rocks represented by the dolostone of the Ubaid Formation (Early Jurassic) contain bauxite lenses preserved inside the karst together with kaolinitic bauxite, kaolinitic clays and sands belonging to the lower clastic unit of the overlying Hussainiyat Formation (Lower-Middle Jurassic). Normative mineralogy reveals that boehmite (up to 47%) and to a lesser extent gibbsite (up to 19%) are the main bauxitic minerals with kaolinite (28%), hematite (2.8%), anatase (up to 4.1%) and calcite (0.4%) as the main accessory minerals. Plots of chemical data against increasing grade of bauxitization show that Al, Ti, Zr, Nb, V, Hf, Th, U, Ga, Cr, Co, Cu, As and W were immobile and highly enriched, whereas SiO2, Fe2O3, CaO, K2O, Na2O, MgO, MnO, Ni, Mo and Gd were mobilized and depleted. Variation diagrams of certain immobile elements indicate that bauxite precursor might be shale derived from acidic granodiorite or its metamorphosed equivalent.

Biostratigraphy of Shiranish Formation in (K-306) Well, Kirkuk Area, Northern Iraq.

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 15-28

Planktonic foraminifera are studied from Shiranish Formation in Kirkuk well No.(306) , north of Iraq between depth interval( 1540-1660 m). Detailed study of the planktonic foraminifera revealed (25) species. The stratigraphic distribution of the Planktonic foraminifera recorded in the section permits the recognition of four zones these are from olderat the:

4- Gansserina gansseri Interval Zone ( Part).
3- Globotruncana aegyptiaca Interval Zone .
2- Globotruncanella havanensis Partial Range Zone.
1- Globotruncanita calcarata Total Range Zone ( Part) .

The zones are correlated with other studies inside and outside Iraq .The present work indicats that Shiranish Formation is of Late Campanian to Early Maastrichtion age.

Using of ASD Spectral Reflectance and GIS Techniques for Mapping and Analyzing of some Salt Soils Distributed in the Northern Al-Jazirah Irrigation Project

Sabah H. Ali; Waleed Y. Al-Ubide; Namik A. Daood

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 35-44

Saline soil problems are one of the most common land processes and reflects severe environmental hazard. In order to study the spectral reflectance characteristics of the soil salinity levels, an area located in the Northern Al-Jazirah Irrigation Project was selected. The main objective of this study is to investigate the potential of identifying and predicting salt content in soils at various irrigated areas according to the spectral reflectance characteristics of the soils Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD) spectroradiometer (in contact probe mode) with spectral range from 350 nm to 2500 nm was used to measure the spectral reflectance characteristics of the collected soil samples.
Laboratory measurements have indicated that saline soils have higher reflectance characteristics than do nonsaline soils. The near and middle infrared bands were superior to the visible bands in detecting different soil salinity levels. The supervised classification of the available ETM+ image demonstrated that spectral separation of different soil salinity levels and various land cover types is an efficient, reliable and dependable tool of using remote sensing to map soil salinity.

SHRIMP U-Pb Dating of Zircon Inheritance in Walash ArcVolcanic Rocks (Paleogene Age), Zagros Suture Zone, NE Iraq: New Insights into Crustal Contributions to Trachytic Andesite Generation

Khalid J. Aswad; Sarmad A. Ali

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 45-58

SHRIMP U-Pb ages were determined on single zircon grains separated from combined samples (i.e. GA8-GA9) belonging to a trachytic andesite, Galalah area,Walash arc volcanic rocks, Northwestern Zagros Suture Zone, NE Iraq. The rock suite in the studied area ranges from calc-alkaline to alkaline (i.e., Ga8-Ga9). The New reconnaissance SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages of GA8 - GA9 reveal two episodes of Palaeoproterozoic inherited zircon growth:

1- 1953±39 Ma cores.
2- ca. 1777±28 Ma rims. This provides evidence for the ancestry of terrane
(i.e. crystalline basement).

which had been pervasively overprinted by Mesoproterozoic thermal events that facilitate the growth of zircon rims.The cathodoluminescence (CL) images show no evidence of the zircon growth during Tertiary magmatism. The rims are wide and darker in CL compared to the cores. The oscillatory zoned cores probably grew from magma of probably dioritic to gabbroic in composition, due to the high zircon Th/U ratio of ~1. The lower Th/U and high-U zircon rims could have grown in a superimposed migmatitic event with the growth of new zircon in localised melting. The core-rim pair of analyses is interpreted as indicating that the zircons are inherited / recycled Paleogene magma due to crustal contamination. The Palaeoproterozoic U-Pb zircon age may be correlated with the Khida terrane (1800-1650 Ma), in the north-westernmost portion of the ‘‘Arabian Craton’’ in Saudi Arabia. Here, a thinned Palaeoproterozoic continental basement fragment in Neo-Tethys might have contaminated the upwelling calc-alkaline magma before erupting.

Paleo and Neo-Tectonics of the Mosul Fault and its Impact on the Tectonics of the Foreland Area of Iraq

Nabeel K. Al-Azzawi

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 59-74

Interpretation of Paleofacies maps was used as a tool to prove that Mosul fault was active since Middle Jurassic or even earlier. This fault extends from the Turkish border to the Lower Zab tributary of the Tigris River dividing the region into Mosul and Sinjar blocks. The sedimentary facies were used as indicators for the fault extension and its vertical displacements. They showed that Sinjar block was uplifted until Cretaceous when the two blocks were at almost a same elevation. Such a situation was remained until Middle Eocene.
During this epoch, the collision between Arabian and Eurassian plates resulted in a relative uplift of the Mosul block and the deposition of the continental Gercus Fm. In the mean time, a thick deposition of the basinal Jaddala Fm. was dominating the subsided Sinjar block. The Mosul block persisted the extremely uplifting until end of the Oligocene. The Early Miocene was characterized by the up- and downward movements of Sinjar block. This was also manifested by the facies alternations of both basinal and lagoonal types although in general the Sinjar block was relatively uplifted. During the Middle Miocene, the deposition of the Jeribe Fm. on the Sinjar block side may indicate that the Mosul block was in a higher position. In Late Miocene the Injana Fm. covered both blocks revealing that their elevation might be on the same level. However, later and according to the presence of the Bakhtiari Fm. the Sinjar Block seemed to be slightly in a higher position.
The paleostress analysis showed that the Mosul fault might be sinistral strike-slip at the extension phase of the Alpine orogeny (Triassic- Upper Cretaceous) then later it was becoming dextral strike-slip during the compression phase from Upper Cretaceous till now. As a result the present day may expose the risk of the fault displacement. Some fractures of such displacement were recorded on the
Al-Shohada' Bridge (the 3rd bridge over the Tigris River) of the Mosul city, which are indicating the existence of the dextral strike-slip neotectonics within the city of Mosul. So it is highly recommended to take such a risk into consideration, particularly when constructing large projects in future.

Fault-slip Analysis and Paleostress Reconstruction at Sara Anticline-Dokan Dam Site Northeastern Iraq

Ibrahim S. Al-jumaily; Saddam I. Al-khatoni

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 75-102

Stress inversion of fault-slip data has been worked by application of improved Right- Dihedral technique, succeeded by rotational optimization (Win-Tensor Software of Delvaux, 2010, version 2.2.3). Attitudes of fault planes, striations and their movement sense, were gathered from quarries and road cut exposures of carbonate rocks at Sara anticline situated in the high fold belt of northeastern Iraq. The obtained paleostress tensors of the current fault-slip analysis are (according to the general trends of δ1 (δHmax.) for strike slip and compressive tensors and δ3 (δHmin.) for extensional tensors): NNE-SSW, NE-SW primary strike slip and compressive tensors; WNW-ESE, NW-SE, NNW-SSE strike slip and compressive subordinate (relaxed) tensors; NW-SE extensional tensor byproduct from the primary tensor sets; and NNE-SSW, NE-SW extensional tensors associated with releasing phase accompanying the final uplift of the main fold. The multitrends of the computed paleostress tensors might be attributed to the oblique convergence and collision of Arabian and Iranian plates along their zigzaged margins.

Pre-collisional Intrusive Magmatism in the Bulfat Complex, Wadi Rashid, Qala Deza, NE Iraq: Geochemical and Mineralogical Constraints and Implications for Tectonic Evolution of Granitoid-gabbro Suites

Ruaa M. Al.Sheraefy Sarmad A. Ali; Khalid J. Aswad

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 103-137

Pre-collisional plutonic rocks of Bulfat Complex, Qala Deza, NE Iraq were emplaced into the ophiolite-bearing terraine (Albian-Cenomenian) shortly after the 45Ma. At Wadi Rashid, the plutonic rocks consist of contemporaneous leucocratic 'granitoid' and melanocratic 'gabbro' rock types, with a “Daly gap” (compositional bimodality) that spans ~50–60 wt% SiO2. The relationship between the granitoid and gabbro magmas at Wadi Rashid in particular is ambiguous. This is attributed to rock types having their own geochemical characteristics. Reconnaissance data suggest that Wadi Rashid granitoid is illustrated by characteristics akin to a volcanic-arc granitoid setting. Their enrichment in the LREE relative to HREE is relatively modest (La/Yb ratios are 4.46-8.61× chondrite), with Eu anomalies that are typically positive. The low HREE in Wadi Rashid granitoid rocks seems to be due to partial melting of metamorphosed oceanic crust leaving REE rich accessory minerals (i.e. garnet) as residual phases in the source. In contrast, the gabbros are all moderately light REE-enriched (La/Yb = ratios range from 1.77 to 3.43× chondrite), and flat heavy REE profiles (chondrite normalized Tb/Yb = ratios range from 1.09–1.28× chondrite) and small negative Eu anomalies
(Eu/Eu*= 0.79-0.91). In primitive mantle-normalized multi-element diagrams, Wadi Rashid gabbroic samples show depletion in Pb and Sr relative to adjacent REE elements, Nb and Ta negative anomalies and flat Zr to Sm profiles similar to those of Enriched MORB. The Hf-Th-Ta, Nb-Zr-Y, Ti-Zr-Y and Ti-Zr-Sr diagrams of Wadi Rashid gabbros support an E-type MORB affinity. The geochemical data indicate that the gabbroic and granitoid rocks at Wadi Rashid are not cogenetically related. The dearth of intermediate magmatic compositions are interpreted as the result of low to medium pressure breakup of pre-existing semi-consolidated and buoyant granitoid material due to density instabilities in the underlying crystal mush of the intruded gabbroic magma.
A puzzling aspect of Wadi Rashid granitoid- gabbroic suite is the variability of magmatic conditions (i.e. temperature, oxygen fugacity (fO2) and water fugacity (fH2O). Based on the empirical thermo-barometric results for kaersutite; The primary liquidus phases (i.e. augite, kaersutite and ilmenite) equilibrated at a nearly constant pressure of about 269-277 MPa and at temperatures of crystallization of about 933–935°C. logfO2 during equilibration of kaersutite in the hosting melanosome is in the range of -12.2 to -12.4 (Δlog fO2 (FMQ) ~ 0.6). The petrography and mineral chemistry of leucocratic rocks indicate that there are two contrasting alkali metaluminous facies: (i) Fe-biotite granitoid and (ii) kaersutite-aenigmatite granitoid. These rocks occasionally encompass primary phases of mafic origin as resorbed xenocrysts (i.e. augite, An-rich plagioclase and ilmenite). Under such contrasting magmatic condition, primary ilmenite was transformed either into agpaitic (kaersutite-aenigmatite) or alkali metametaluminous (Ti-rich Fe-biotite) bearing mineral assemblages. These minerals are frequently observed in late-magmatic phase where the temperature of transformation of ilmenite (Δlog fO2 (FMQ) ~ -4 ) into aenigmatite was about 753°C under H2Omelt poor near-peralkaline conditions where as Ti-rich Fe-biotite equilibrated at about 647°C under H2Omelt rich reducing conditions.
Wadi Rashid composite intrusion (Paleogene age) of arc affinity is unequivocally separated from the Walash-Naopurdan arc-backarc complex (Eocene– Oligocene); found in the same general area but in a structurally lower thrust slice. The Walash-Naopurdan volcanic activity and the intrusion of the multiphase Bulfat Complex indicate the presence of a dual subduction-zone system in Iraqi Zagros Zone.