ISSN: 1682-3222

Volume 11, Issue 2

Volume 11, Issue 2, Autumn 2011, Page 1-99


Strontium Isotope Ratios as a Tool for the Origin of Barite Mineralization of Marsis and Lefan Deposits/Northeast Zakho / Iraq

Faraj H. Tobia

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 1-10

Veins, vienlets, pockets and cavity- filling deposits of barite are found to be associated with Upper Jurassic Formations (Marsis deposit) and Upper Cretaceous Bekhme Formation (Lefan deposit). The strontium isotope ratios of barite are presented here and the data have been used to understand the source and origin of barite. The relation of barite mineralization with carbonate host rocks reveals a stratabound epigenetic origin for barite. The obtained 87Sr/86Sr ratios range from 0.708226 to 0.708452; these values reveal the possibility of involvement of crustal Sr in the deposition of Marsis and Lefan barite. Isotopic data reveal that strontium in barite is derived from coeval seawater of Late Cretaceous and other processes like mixing of low temperature hydrothermal solution derived from the crust that is rich in radiogenic 87Sr.

Stratigraphical and Structural Geology of Hamdania Area from Geoelctrical Survey

Nabeel H. Al-Saigh; Yousif F. Eclimes; Zuhair D. Al-Shaikh

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 1-14

In Hamdania governate a detailed geoelectrical survey for about 950km2 from its area has been carried out, through carrying out 53 VES measurements using Schlumberger arrangement. For most measuring points the maximum distance AB for the current electrodes was 1500m and for the potential electrodes MN was 80-120m.
The survey reveals the presence of four geoelectrical zones representing different geological formations. The first zone represents the topsoil layer underlying Bi-Hasan and Mukdadyia Formations. The third geolelectrical zone represents Injana Formation, which is the main distinguished zone in the area in its thickness and extension. The fourth zone however, which is the deepest zone represents Fat'ha Formation. The survey also shows the presence of two main faults in the area F1 and F2 running parallel with Tigris River.

Determination some of Physical and Geotechnical Properties of the Calcareous Rocks in Kufa Quarry Using Ultrasonic Velocities

Haider H. Faraj; Emad H. AL-Khersan Salman Z. Khorshid Haider H. Faraj

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 11-36

Ninety eight oriented hand samples were collected from five sites represent calcareous outcrop of Euphrates Formation. These sites were chosen as a completed recovery for a region located at Kufa Quarry-Bahar Al-Najaf
area / Middle of Iraq, in order to perform a geophysical study aimed to measure some of the geotechnical and physical properties for these rocks using New Sonicviewer instrument. Moreover, isotropy and seismic impedance were also determined. Longitudinal and Transverse seismic wave velocities had been measured for all samples. The average value for longitudinal velocities is 4294 m/sec and for the transverse velocities is 1870 m/sec. High consolidated limestone, dolomitized limestone and dolomite rock samples show highest longitudinal and transverse seismic velocity values, however, marl rock samples reflect the lowest values. Seismic velocities were measured in three directions;( bed strike, true dip and vertical on bedding plane). Therefore, isotropic factors were determined. It shows the existing of anisotropy between the different types of the considerable rocks of the area.. Finally, Vp, Vs, geotechnical and physical properties were measured for 17 saturated rock samples belong to site four. The results were compared with that of dry samples tests; however, saturated samples give clear decline in their values related to velocity and most of the remaining properties

Relationship Between Geomorphic Landforms, Landuse, Drainage System and its Benefit in Water Harvesting of Badoosh Basin, Northern Iraq

Hekmat S. Al; Daghastani; Basman Y. Hameed

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 15-32

The importance of morphometric analyses of surface drainage basins are presented by developing of the relationship between landforms characteristics and landuse to benefit of it in identify potential sites for water harvesting exploitation. Thematic Landsat imagery had been analyzed to determine landform characteristics of Badoosh ephemeral stream basin and its relation with water harvesting search concept. The outline of a technique that can aid in the integration of the morphometric analysis with the Geographic Information System had been used in the selection of the best places to built three barriers. A special purpose map was prepared showing the best location sites for small dams on the main flow of the valley. Detailed examination of the geomorphic features was made to identify the best location to convert the main channel flow of the near by catchment and or the scheme of South Al – Jazeera Irrigation Canal to recharge this basin.
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Lepidocyclina (Nephrolepidina) kirkukensis n. sp., a new Larger Foraminifera from the Late Oligocene of Kirkuk Area,Northern Iraq

Imad M. Ghafor; Qahtan A. Mohammad

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 37-50

ABSTRACTLepidocyclina(Nephrolepidina) kirkukensis a new Foraminifera is recorded from the Late Oligocene Baba Formation (Kirkuk and Bai-Hassan Oil Fields, North Iraq). The new species is described and figured based on variations in (Ai, C and α ) parameters in agreement with the principles of nepionic acceleration as defined by Tan Sin Hock. The paleoenvironment of the Lepidocyclina (Nephrolepidina) kirkukensis is concluded as shallow marine according to the lithological features and faunal association.

Hypogene Processes of the Gypsum Beds in Sangaw Sinkholes, Kurdistan Region, NE-Iraq

Bakhtyar M. Ameen

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 51-64

The Sangaw region is located at the western part of Zagros orogenic belt at the boundary between Low and High Folded Zones, Sulaimani governorate in Kurdistan region. The area characterized by low amplitude folds that are trending northwest southeast and arranged in en echelon pattern. The exposed formations are Eocene Pila Spi (limestone), middle Miocene Fat`ha(lagoon) and Upper Fars (clastics) formations. Many large and small sinkholes are found around Ashdagh anticline; some of them about 50 m in diameter and about 30 m deep. Some are developed into complicated cave systems with collaps blocks and breccias in addition to narrow passages and fissures. The largest of them is located directly to the west of Darzilla village at the southeastern plunge of Ashdagh anticline. The sinkholes occur in Fat`ha and in the Pila Spi Formations. The walls of the sinkholes are covered by secondary gypsum, sulfur, bitumen and secondary calcite. Inside the cave collapse, breccias and blocks with lensoidal stratified clayey sediments as weathering product could be seen. The water is acidic (pH=4) inside the caves and discharges as large spring (200L/S) with white milky color; it is called in the local Kurdish language, “Awa Spi “which means white stream. The weathering of the carbonate rocks is intense inside the cave and appears as honeycombs and rills mark which have very rough surface with dull color. The sinkholes were produced from the dissolution of thick gypsum and limestone beds. The origin of these caves has been proposed to be hypogenic speleogenesis due to the presence of gypsum and bitumen. These materials with the aid of bacteria enrich the water with H2S which aciditfies the water and precipitates the sulfur and secondary gypsum on the cave wall. The formation of H2SO4 by oxidaton of H2S is the main reason that aid the sinkhole hypogene generation in Sangaw area. A realistic model is drawn to interpret and connect the following:1- The stratigraphy and structure of the area encourage the generation of underground stagnant pond suitable for reacting with the emanating H2S necessary for the hypogene generation of the sinkholes and precipitation of secondary native sulfur and gypsum.2- dissolution of gypsum and its reduction by bacteria. 3- upward migration of bitumen from nearby oil traps(hydrocarbon accumulation).

Nannobiostratigrphy of Shiranish Formation in Balad Well No. 8, Northern Baghdad, Iraq

Omar A. Al-Badrani

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 65-80

ABSTRACTEight samples of Shiranish Formation were obtained from Balad well No. 8, (northern Baghdad) central Iraq. Details investigated carried out identify calcareous nannofossils, where identified sixteen species; eleven descried from other region and five left under open name because of lack of material or rare of samples, On the basis of stratigraphic distribution of the species, two biozones proposed these are :

Biostratigraphy of Bluish Marl Succession (Maastrichtian) in Sulaimanyia, Area, Kurdistan Region NE- Iraq

Polla A. Khanaqa; Kamal H. Karim; Khalid M. Ismael

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 81-99

Recently a new lithology is found at the middle part of Tanjero Formation (Maastrichtian) and consists of a bluish marl succession about 100m thick in Sulaimayia area. This succession is lithologically similar to Shiranish Formation and has nearly same color and stacking pattern which didn’t described in the original description in the type section of Tanjero Formation. Geographically
it can be seen in Piramagroon and Sharazoor plains, Chaqchaq valley
(to the northwest of Sulaimani City) and Dokan area. The biostratigraphy of this succession indicates Early Maastrichtian to Early Late Maastrichtian which includes four interval zones of:
Racemiguembelina fructicosa Interval Zone (CF4) (Early late Maastrichtian), Pseudotextularia intermedia Interval Zone (CF5) (Early Maastrichtian)
Contusotruncana contusa Interval Zone (CF6) (Early Maastrichtian)
Gansserina gansseri Interval Zone (CF7) (Early Maastrichtian)
As concerned to the affinity of this succession two possibilities can be assigned:
1-Middle part of Tanjero Formation.
2-lentils of Shiranish Formation inside Tanjero Formation.
This study prefers the first assignation as the foraminiferal assemblages show that the marly succession is not belonging to Shiranish which has, in the studied area, the age of Campanian. Another reason for this assignation is that the environment and sequence stratigraphy, tectonics of Tanjero Formation is more understandable than the first assignation (If it is included in the Shiranish Formation). The record of this new lithology and submergence of the type section of the formation under the water of Darbandikhan (dam) impose selection of a new type section or a supplementary type section for the formation either in Dokan or Chwarta areas where there are representatives of the new lithology inside the Tanjero Formation and the sections are well exposed.