ISSN: 1682-3222

Volume 10, Issue 1

Volume 10, Issue 1, Spring 2010, Page 1-90


Planktonic Forminiferal Biostratigraphy of Kolosh Formation (Paleocene) in Dohuk Area North Iraq

Majid M. Al-Mutuuali; Alaa M. Al-Wazan

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 1-22

الملخص A surface section of Kolosh Formation was studied near Dohuk city, North Iraq. Detailed study of the planktonic foraminifera revealed (47) species. The stratigraphic distribution of the planktonic foraminifera recorded in the section permits the recognition of five zones and two subzones these are from base to top.

5- Morozovella aeque / Acarinina esnaensis Zone (P5).
4- Globanomalina pseudomenardii Zone (P4) Late Paleocene
3- Morozovella angulata Zone (p3) (Thanetian)


2- Praemurica uncinata Zone (P2). Early Paleocene
b.Globanomalina compressa Subzone (P1c). (Danian)
a.Subbotina triloculinoides Subzone (P1b).
1- Parasubbotina pseudobulloides Zone (P1).

These zones were correlated with other studies inside and outside Iraq. the present work indicate that Kolosh Formation is of Early Paleocene (Danian)- Late Paleocene ( Thanetian) age.

Stratigraphy of the Dokan Formation (Upper Cretaceous) JebelAzmer- Sulaimaniya Area, Northeastern Iraq

Rund A. Hammoudi; Tarik S. Abawi

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 1-10

ABSTRACT Contrary to the present opinion regarding the Balambo Formation exposed in Jebel Azmer, Sulaimaniya area, northeastern Iraq, this study shows that the upper part (63 m) of the Balambo succession actually belongs to the Dokan Formation. The major hiatus between the lower part of the succession which represents the Balambo Formation and the upper part of the succession which we claim to represent the Dokan Formation together with the lithological differences give strong reason to characterize the studied section as the Dokan Formation. Dokan Formation in the studied section consists of light brown and white massive not well bedded limestone. Nineteen planktonic foraminiferal species have been identified from this section. The age of the Dokan Formation in the Jebel Azmer area is Middle - Late Cenomanian and is assigned to Rotalipora cushmani Zone; this indicates a major hiatus between the Dokan Formation and the older Balambo Formation of Middle-Late Albian age in this area.

Study of the Incrustation Tendency of Groundwater on a Filter Pipe of Water Wells for Selective Areas Around Mosul City

Bashi; Thabit D. Mahder

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 11-18

ABSTRACTWater tends to deposit mineral on the screen (filter) surface and in the pore spaces of the formation just out side the filter, such deposit plug both the filter openings and the formation. Twelve water samples were collected from different formations/aquifers around Mosul City and analyzed to show their tendency to incrustation. The incrustation tendency for each sample was calculated and showed that it is changing from 0.02 to 130 in Al-Mahed1 and Mishraq localities respectively.

Some Recent Gastropoda From Khor Al-Zubair, Northwestof Arabian Gulf

Ramzi K. Al-Naser Mohammed W. Al-Abbasi Ali H. Elewi

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 19-30

ABSTRACT Khor Al-Zubair channel is a shallow arm of the Arabian gulf, it is located between shatt Al-Basrah from the north west and the Arabian gulf at the south east. Six species belonging to six genera and four families were identified in this study. These are; Euchelus (Euchelus) asper, Clypeomorus clypeomorus, Hexaplex (Muricanthus) kusterianus, Murex (Murex) tribulus, Nassarius (Nassarius) arcularius and Thais sp. The presences of there in a sandy and muddy sediments is more likely indicate that their distribution occur between the Sub to the Middle littoral environment of Khor Al-Zubair channel with depth ranging between (1-15m).

Study of Raw Water Pollution and its Impact on Water Supply Quality of Al Qasr Water Treatment Plant / Northern Iraq

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 23-32

The present work included the study of Tigris River raw water, supplying Al-Qasr water treatment plant, 15km south of Mosul city, Sulfate water spring near the station were also studied. Field observation together with chemical analysis suggested that the area of study is affected by the water of sulfate springs, resulting in high concentration of major cations and anions of the water of the station. Trace elements, like (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) also showed relatively high concentrations
The treated water of the plant is out of the recommended of the international standards of drinking water, to evaluate its water quality for human consumption. They are polluted with the heavy metals mainly (Cd, Ni and Pb).

The Structural Analyses and Tectonic Interpretations of Shaikhan Anticline- Northern Iraq

Saddam E. M. Al-Khatony; Nabeel K. Al-Azzawi

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 31-52

Structural analyses including fold geometry, Harmonic (Fourier) analysis, vertical investigation of fold style, thickness change test and joints analysis were carried on Shaikhan Anticline which is one of the Foreland Folds of Iraq. Geometrical analysis of five traverses revealed its asymmetry except the area of the second traverse which shows symmetrical form. It is verging towards the north except the area of the first one. The anticline axis changes its direction along the anticline. It trends east-southeast in the eastern part, swings towards the east-northeast and returns to the first direction in the west. These swings were caused by two sinistral strike-slip faults displacing oblige to the fold axis.Fourier analysis revealed that the fold has low developed shape at the plunges. It is of chevronic-sinusoidal shape. While it has high developed shape (Parabolic-semi Elliptical) at the central part, along the third traverse which influenced by the transpression of the strike-slip fault.The vertical investigation of fold style showed that the fold axis direction was constantly anticlockwise changing from the Late Eocene to Middle Miocene and rotated clockwise from the Middle to Late Miocene. This axis also has a specific direction difference, in the folded strata between the Gercus And the Pila Spi formations. This was considered as an indicator for the listric fault reactivation. The suture listric fault was forced the anticline to the northward vergence. Formation thickness changes confirm the presence of this fault revealing that the formations younger than the Gercus are thicker in the southern limb. This indicates that the suture listric fault is of normal type.

Study of Silica Occurrence in the Raw Materials of HammamAl- Alil Cement Plant

Ameer H. Khalid; Thanoon A. Thanoon

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 33-46

Investigations of the nature, distribution, contents and size of free silica in the raw materials currently quarried and used at Hammam Al-Alil Cement Plant have been carried out. The raw materials are limestones and clays, being extracted from Taqtaq quarry and Mshirfa valley. Limestones and clays from Tweba and Jahuni areas have been assessed in order to be used as substitute materials for the purpose of lowering silica content, silica ratios and improving clinker properties. Chemical, mineralogical and textural examinations revealed that the silica contents are high in the currently quarried limestones and clays, while it is rather low in limestones from Tweba area. The free silica is represented as quartz and opal grains, ranging in size between (50-300) microns.

Types And Origin of Travertine Deposits In Wadi Garmawa -Dohuk area / Northern Iraq

Omar K. M. Sajed

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 47-64

Travertine deposits occur in Wadi Garmawa about (3) km northeast Dohuk city in adistinct cave and adjacent areas above exposed carbonate rocks of Shiranish Formation (Late Campanian - Maastrichtain).
These deposits are divided according to their field location into hypogean and epigean travertine . Hypogean travertine occurs inside the cave as a variety of carbonate cave deposits (Speleothems) associated with distinct karstic features including high porous tufa , massive or thin laminated travertine and moonmilk deposits occurring at different sites; and were formed by seepage of surface water, bacterial activity, seasonal alteration and chemical weathering alternatively. While the epigean travertine is found along the outcoming water stream either laminated or massive travertine pools and dams alternatively and repeatedly.
Both laminated and massive epigean travertine are produced from coating the algae with calcium carbonate at the water stream due to the process of photosynthesis by algae. Most of travertine deposits in the study area are associated with the released sulphur which is thought to be formed predominantly by the oxidization of H2S in the presence of oxygen and/or bacterial activity in the presence of light.

A Proposed Triangular Net (DSP) for Index Physical Properties of Rocks and Its Possible Uses

Mohammad Q. H. Al-Jumaily

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 65-80

الملخصتعد الخواص الفيزيائية الدالة للصخور، خصوصا الكثافة (D) والوزن النوعي (S) والمسامية (P)، خواصا مهمة في علاقتها بالمقاومة الصخرية. لقد حاولت هذه الدراسة دمج هذه الخواص الثلاثة وحسب العلاقات الرياضية بينها في شبكة مثلثية اطلق عليها اسم (DSP). يمكن استخدام هذه الشبكة المثلثية اولا لتوضيح التأثيرات الناتجة عن العلاقات المتداخلة بين الخصائص الفيزيائية المميزة للصخور، ان هذا الاستخدام يتضمن قواعد علمية لدراسة العلاقة بين الخواص الفيزيائية والمقاومة الميكانيكية للصخور. وثانيا لتمثيل وتقدير الخواص الفيزيائية لعينات الصخور المختلفة. وثالثا لتصنيف الأنواع الصخرية المختلفة إلى مجاميع متباينة. يعبر عن كل مجموعة برمز يتألف من ثلاثة أحرف أبجدية. ورابعا لتوقع مدى ملاءمة الصخور للاستعمالات المتعددة في صناعة البناء. هذا الاستخدام قد استند على الانطقة الاربعة والتي قسمت اليها الشبكة المثلثية. اختبرت القابلية التطبيقية لهذه الشبكة المثلثية المقترحة ووجد ان النتائج كانت مقنعة تماما.

The Investigation of Subsurface Channels in the Western Part of Mosul Dam by Seismic Refraction

Bashar A. Al-Juraisy; Nabil H. Al-Saigh

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 81-90

Fourteen seismic refraction traverses with a total length of (3255) m were distributed in the nearby area of the western part of Mosul dam in its downstream side. The aim of the survey is to investigate the possibility of presence of shallow subsurface channels that led to the formation of five sinkholes in the area and to establish the source of the channels' water.
The survey indicates the possibility of the presence of a shallow subsurface channel. The depth of the upper part of this channel ranges between (2 and 5) m below the ground surface. The shape of this channel represents a curved line bends across the western end of the dam body and joined the five sinkholes. The study showed that the source of the water is Mosul Dam Lake, where the landing boat area represents the main water intake and discharge to the Tigris River in the downstream side of the dam causing many sinkholes in the area.