Volume 10, Issue 2, Autumn 2010, Page 1-110

The Effect of Some Engineering Properties of Rocks on Stress Distribution around the Proposed Sheikh Ibrahim Tunnel -SouthJazirah Irrigation Project- Northern Iraq

Azealdeen S. Al-Jawadi Hadeer G. M. Adeeb

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2010, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 1-18
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2010.5515

This paper tackles engineering properties of rocks and stress distribution
around the assumed tunnel at the proposed site of the Sheikh Ibrahim Tunnel,
South Jazirah Irrigation Project, North of Iraq. A full description has been obtained
depending on available records, that taken from the executed soil investigation
reports of the project. The investigations were done in two stages: the first was the
field investigation and the second was the laboratory. The rock mass in Sheikh
Ibrahim tunnel mainly consists of evaporite, carbonate, and clastic rocks (marl,
sandstone and claystone). Engineering properties have been determined and
evaluated through (13) boreholes as previously mentioned in the records and then
to establish the preliminary design of the tunnel. The data of (129) rock samples,
that conclude laboratory testing (mechanical, dynamical, physical) and field testing
( study of fractures and permeability test), have been used in stress and distribution
analysis around the assumed 10 meters diameter tunnel by using the two
dimensional finite element analysis program.

Mesofracture Analysis of Azmur AnticlineNorth Eastern Iraq

Hadeer Gh. M. Adeeb; Ibrahim S. I. Al-Jumaily

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2010, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 1-24
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2010.5522

Analysis of brittle failure structures carried out throughout a traverse across Azmur Anticline, NE Iraq. This includes widespread joints, mesofaults, planar and enechelon vein arrays and pressure solution surfaces ( stylolite seams ). The aim of this work is for unraveling the tectonic history and detecting tectonic episodes responded for the initiation and modification of such brittle failure structures.Field observations and analysis revealed two subsequent compressive phases. The oldest trending ENE-WSW is normal to the Azmur fold axis, while the second is parallel to it. These directions ascertained by paleostress tensors deduced from slip analysis of striated mesofaults. Reorientation of stress regime from first compressive phase to the second has been attributed to the progressive oblique collision of Arabian and Eurasian plates. Furthermore, a final stretching phase in NE-SW direction had been deduced. This extensional phase which ought to the uplifting stage of fold structure is responsible for bedding parallel stylolite seams with vertical peaks, and normal slip faulting in the studied area.

Research Paper

Planktonic Foraminiferal Biostratigrapy of Shiranish Formation in Makhmur Well No. (1), Makhmur Area, Northern Iraq

Abdullah Al-Hahidi

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2010, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 19-28
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2010.5516

Planktonic foraminifera is studied from Shiranish Formation in Makhmur
well No. (1), North Iraq between the depth interval (657-620) m. Three
biostratigraphy Zones are recognized in these formation:
1. Globotruncanita elevata–Rosita fornicata Zone.
2. Globotruncana aegyptiaca Zone.
3. Gansserina gansseri Zone.
20 عبد الله سلطان شهاب الحدیدی
The results of this study are compared with the work of others inside and
outside Iraq. The age of the Shiranish Formation in the said well is Late
Companian to Early Maastrichtian.

New Species of Ostracoda Genus Cytherella Jones, 1849 from the Upper Cretaceous of Hamrin Area North Eastern Iraq

Saleh K. Khalaf; Waleed Y. AL - Ubide

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2010, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 25-34
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2010.5518

ABSTRACT Four new ostracod species belonging to the genus Cytherella Jones, 1849 described from the Upper Cretaceous succession of Hamrin area NE Iraq namely: Cytherella shiranishensis sp. nov; ; C. iraqiensis sp. nov.: C. mushoriensis sp. nov.; and C. kirkukiensis sp. nov. Keywords: Ostracoda; Cytherella; Cretaceous; Iraq.

Tectonostratigraphy of Lower Cretaceous in Southern Iraq

Wathiq GH. AL-mutury; Rafed A. AL-Muhammad; Kaise Al-Bayatee

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2010, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 29-44
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2010.5517

Stratigraphic units during Lower Cretaceous in southern of Iraq
were affected largely by tectonic agent. Neo-Tethys ocean
occupied the distance between passive margins of Arabian and
Iranian plates. South of Iraq represented the continental shelf of
passive margin of Arabian plate. This tectonic situation made the
sediments in eastern parts of passive margin in south of Iraq
effected by marine agents, and the sediments in western parts was
effected by continental agents, whereas the middle parts was
effected by both agents. As result of that, three sediment regions
were formed in south of Iraq. First, marine sediment region that
occupy the eastern part of south of Iraq near the Iraq-Iran borders.
Second, mixed sediment region that occupy Basra area and extend
toward north. Third, continental sediment region that occupy
western part of Basra near the western desert. Half graben basins
that formed by listric faults in the passive margin caused the local
changes in distribution of sediments in south of Basra. These three
sediment regions formed all during Lower Cretaceous and maybe
extend toward the middle of Iraq and north of Baghdad

Utilizing Hydraulic Barriers to Reduce Leakage of Hot Water and Enhance Sulphur Production at Mishraq MineNorthern Iraq

Thabit Bashi

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2010, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 35-50
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2010.5520

Sulphur is produced at Mishraq mine by hydrodynamic method (modified Frasch method) of injecting super – heated water 165؛C through a special well in to the sulphur horizons to melt the sulphur underground. A seepage of super–heated water at 132؛ C to the Tigris River has been noticed, which cause drop in deposit pressure as well as polluting the river water. A drop of sulphur productivity has also been noticed in some regions of the mine despite of their content of high sulphur percentage, and injection of huge quantities of hot water.Hydraulic barriers were located according to the transmissibility and temperature distribution maps. The barriers consist of wells especially designed for injection of cold water down to the sulphur horizons. The barriers were shown to be very effective in increasing the ground water pressure and decreasing the hot water seepage to the river, and dropped the general hot water factor (m3 water/1ton sulphur), from 20.0 to 12.0; besides, the productivity of sulphur increased from 1.5 ton/hr to 5 ton/hr.

Hydrochemistry and Water Quality of Some Wells Distributed at Wana Area Northern Iraq

Hazim J. M. Al-Nuaimy

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2010, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 45-62
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2010.5521

The present work, deals with hydrochemistry and water quality of some
shallow wells in Wana area, northern Iraq and its validity for irrigation, through
the physical and chemical analyses of 13 water samples selected from these wells
distributed in the study area.
حازم جمعة محمود
The results revealed that there are two factors controlling the hydrochemistry
of water in the area. The first is natural factor represented by type of rock
components of the studied area, and the second is anthropogenic factor which is
human activities. Owing to the natural factor, the analyzed water tend to be of non
carbonate hardness by the influence of the evaporates of Fat'ha formation. Despite
the great influence of Fat'ha formation rocks on water quality in the area, however
the direct feeding of Tigris river to the well waters prevents the increasing of the
concentration of ions and this made these waters valid for irrigation purposes.

Opaque Minerals in Metavolcanic Rocks of the Mawat Ophiolite Complex, NE Iraq: Aspects of Mineral Beneficiation

Hiyam A. Mohammad; Elias M. Elias

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2010, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 51-66
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2010.5519

ABSTRACTSporadic copper – iron opaque minerals are found associated with metabasalts of the Mawat ophiolite complex, NE Iraq. These minerals are found as disseminations and in veins cross – cutting the host rocks. The essential opaque minerals are chalcopyrite and pyrite with minor iron oxide minerals namely magnetite and hematite. Fe – hydroxides and copper chloride minerals represent the secondary products of chalcopyrite oxidation. The presence of these opaque assemblages is related to the tectonic evolution of the Mawat ophiolite complex originated at fore – arc suprasubduction zone ( SSZ ) and is explained by deposition from hydrothermal solutions during basalt – seawater interaction that causes also the metamorphism and alteration of the studied metabasalts.A particular finding of interest was the efficiency of nitric acid to extract measurable amounts of copper. A high copper extraction recovery ( 95% ) was obtained applying ion – exchange method on Dowex 50 resin after dissolving rocks in 4M nitric acid.

Paleoecology of some Upper Cretaceous Formations from Selected Wells Northwest and Middle Iraq

Ibrahim Al-Shareefi; Saleh K. Khalaf; Marwan A. Al-Eisa

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2010, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 67-96
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2010.5523

On the basis of the biocontents, lithological features and analysis of the microfacies, an attempt is made to establish the nature of paleoecology and depositional environments of some Upper Cretaceous formations from northwest and middle Iraq ,of which the successions are represented by the formations from the oldest to the youngest are Khasib, Tanuma, Sa'di, Mushorah, Hartha and Shiranish.A wide spectrum of environmental types distributed between deep and shallow marine environments. The implication of paleoecological interpretations for different Ostrscode species and other fossils recorded in the studied sections highlights the strong correlation between the environmental parameters in particular the depths and the lifestyle of these organisms including specific morphologies and faunal abundance.In addition to that from palaeocological point view the identified biocontents represent a southern shelf tythes fauna.

Recognition Between Eudiscoaster and Heliodiscoaster Using Competitive Neural Network

Omar Ahmed AL-Badrani Raid R. AL-Nima

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2010, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 97-110
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2010.5514

ABSITRACTThis research is aimed to design an Eudiscoaster and Heliodiscoaster recognition system. There are two main steps to verify the goal. First: applying image processing techniques on the fossils picture for data acquisition. Second: applying neural networks techniques for recognition.The image processing techniques display the steps for getting a very clear image necessary for extracting data from the acquisition of image. This picture contains the fossils. The picture should be enhanced to bring out the pattern. The enhanced picture is segmented into 144 parts, then an average for every part can easily be computed. These values will be used in the neural network for the recognition. For neural network techniques, Competitive neural network was used for comparisons. The weights and output values will be stored to be used later in identification. The Competitive network succeeded in identification and attained to (False Acceptance Rate = 15% - False Rejection Rate = 15%).ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ