Volume 9, Issue 2, Autumn 2009, Page 1-65

Treatment of Expansive Clayey Soil in AL-Wahda Districtat Mosul City with Crushed Limestone

Siham I. Al-Azzo

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2009, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2009.39507

The work presented in this paper aims to the improvement of the moderately expansive clayey soil in AL-wahda district at Mosul city, by the addition of crushed limestone obtained from the waste of Masonry Factories presented in the industrial
area, of east side of Mosul City.This abandoned wast material creates serious environmental problem in the area surrounding these factories requiring an urgent solution to dispose of the huge limestone belonging to Fat`ha Formation. Different amounts of the crushed limestone by weight (passing sieve No. 40) were added 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% to the clayey soil from AL-wahda district at Mosul to reduce
its expansiveness and to improve its engineering properties for many earth work construction. The results showed reduction in the plasticity of the clay and significant decrease in expansion to about 72%, which gives good results for road constructions.

Environmental Study in Mishraq-1 Sulphur Field from 2DRI and ARS

Bashar A. Al-Juraisy; Marwan Mutib Thabit D. Mahder-Bashi

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2009, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 1-16
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2009.5491

The study includes the environmental impact of three decades of extraction of Mishraq's Sulphur using offset Wenner measurements by two main methods. The first method is applying 2D resistivity imaging through four lines.Line-1 (800m.length) and line1-1 (99m.length) are situated relatively far from the extraction sites .The results show the resistivity values of subsurface rocks were in agreement with their values calculated from the borehole resistivity logs, which assert the absence of effect for the process of extraction on the rocks at those sites.While Line-2 (800m.length) and line2-1 (99m.length) were fixed near the extraction site. The results obtained show that the resistivity values of most Fat'ha Formation rocks decreased substantially in comparison with those values calculated from the borehole resistivity logs before the process of extraction, which proves the effect of extraction on those rocks.
The second method was done by conducting Azimuthal Resistivity Survey in two regions, one (A1) far from the extraction site, and the other (A2) was near from it. The former results have given a good information which helped in determining some directions of the subsurface fractures, while the results of the latter have indicated that the loss of fractures was due to the effect of subsidence following the process of sulphur extraction.

Mapping of Ground Water Quality of Injana Aquifer South of Sinjar Anticline /Northern Iraq

Umar N. Abdul Qader

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2009, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 11-26
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2009.39514

Fourteen ground water samples were collected from deep wells from Al-Adnanya –Sinjar area. Major hydrochemical parameters were studied to understand the quality of water. The objective of this study is to map the ground water quality of Injana aquifer and to delineate the areal extent of good and poor water. Two types of ground water were recognized in the study area, according to chemical analysis and utilizing the Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA), bicarbonate type and sulphate type, the sulphate type of water is dominant with high concentration of total dissolved solids, total hardness, magnesium and sulphate comparing with bicarbonate type. Mapping results showed that water occur in Telkasab and Al-Kahtanya (poor quality) is unsuitable for drinking, while water occur in Sinjar, Domise, and Rambosy (high quality) desirable for drinking, and water occur in Al-Adnanya and Al-Jazera are not exceeding the maximum permissible limit for drinking. Dissolution of rocks and salts in soil, ion exchange and limited reverse ion exchange in few parts of the area are the main processes controlling the chemistry of ground water. Based on hydrochemical ratio (HCO3/Cl) 71% of the wells were located in recharge zone and 29 % were located in discharge zone.

The Application of Color Composite Image in Detecting and Delineation Difference Reflection of Gypsum in Surface Soil of Al-Jazeera Area in Nineveh Governorate Iraq

Namik A. Daood

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2009, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 17-26
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2009.40347

This work represents an attempt to recognize and delineate the area of different reflection of gypsum in the surface soil of Al- Jazeera region in the Ninevah Governorate, depending on the variations in the spectral reflectance of the gypsum and other landform features in the study area. This investigation utilized the three bands (TM1, TM4
and TM7) of the Landsat7 immerging together by using the ERDAS program to produce single color composite image, including the use of three primary colors (Red ,Green
and Blue) respectively. Given these conditions, the basic principles of visual interpretation of images are all that is required of interpreter to implement them by using the color theory and the available field references about the area. The present study concluded the presence of three different levels of gypsum in the top soil surface of the Al- Jazeera North Western Iraq. which are recognized in the color composite image. These results are confirmed by both field visits and laboratory analysis of soil sample.

Facies Analysis and Sedimentary Model of Jeribe Formation (Lower Early Langhian) in Kor Mor Well No.3, Kirkuk Area –Iraq

Thamer A. Aghwan; Nadia Abdulrahman

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2009, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 27-40
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2009.5490

The Jeribe Formation in Well Kor Mor /3 is divided into two microfacies and five submicrofacies identified on the basis of different sedimentological and paleontological criteria.
The first microfacies is lime mudstone which is divided into two submicrofacies: Algal lime mudstone and planktonic foraminiferal lime mudstone, while the second microfacies is fossiliferous lime packstone which is divided into three submicrofacies: Miliolidal lime packstone, pelecypodal lime packstone and echinodermal lime packstone. On the basis of facies properties, sedimentological and paleontological
characteristics, the depositional environments were established. These contain spectrum of depositional sites from inner lagoon to supratidal environments.

The Impact of Some Lithological and Structural Variableson Geoelectrical Properties of Mishraq SulphurField (M-1) Northern Iraq

Thanoon H. AL-Dabbagh; Salim Q. AL-Naqib

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2009, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 27-38
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2009.5539

This work includes the preparation of aerial photogeological map and the study of many geological profiles. It also involves the study of stratigraphical division and correlations of the exposed bedrocks at Butmah-East and Raven anticlines, particularly the Fat'ha Formation near Mosul Dam northern Iraq.
It is evident that the sinkholes persisting through the area in question were initiated primarily within the upper part of the upper member of Fat'ha Formation. These were produced from the dissolution of thick gypsum beds in addition to the structural interplay and intersections of lineaments and faults. It can be concluded that the recent sinkhole in the tourist city is a product of faults crossing and the study could predict a new sinkhole development about 200m to the southeast of the present one.

Pollution Caused by Vehicle Exhausts and Oil Trash Burning in Kirkuk city

Farhad A. Mohammed

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2009, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 39-48
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2009.5494

This study included the collection and analyses of twenty six soil samples, (twenty one samples) from dust residing on the main streets of Kirkuk city, and the remaining five were collected from different localities of older deposits which covered the ancient Kirkuk citadel. The analyses showed that there are an increase in the concentrations of Lead (pb), Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu) and Zinc (Zn) in the dust specimens. These elements regarded as polluting materials in the environment when compared with the natural limits of their concentrations in soil. The analyses of dust specimens showed an increase of the concentration of these elements when compared with those collected from older deposits covering the ancient Kirkuk citadel. This is due to heavy traffic and burning of petroleum trash in this city.Vehicle exhausts are the main source of high concentration of these elements, as well as the presence of Northern Oil Company in Kirkuk city.Fuel burning causes disorder in the concentration of these elements in different environments, thus reaching the human body via air, water and food.

The Programming Development for Processing and Interpretation of the Earth Resistivity Sounding

Zuhair D. AL-shaikh; Marwan Mutib

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2009, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 41-58
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2009.39512

The research contains the explanation, exploitation and development of igital technique in design of stripping, partial and modification modeling or resistivity sounding data. Resistivity transforms of field observations are determined from the digital linear filtering operation which depends on fourier transform and convolutions of two functions.
The calibration and adjustment of zonal parameters are conducted with the rule of excellent relationship between each field observations branch and associated zonal parameter section.The final model is computed according to equivalence rules with automate approach.
The present designed program (MAK) has got three formats with 6 , 8 and 12 field measurements per the logarithmic decade depends on filter length.The type of geoelectrical study (environmental, engineering, hydrogeology, stratigraphy …etc ) is defined the format of the chosen filtar

Physical Properties and Compressive Strength of the Technical Plaster and Local Juss

Auday M. Al-Rawas; Zeki A. Aljubouri

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2009, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 49-58
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2009.5489

Five physical properties (water/powder ratio, setting time, fineness, porosity and dendsity) and compressive strength were determined and compared for technical plaster and local juss.Data were monitored using a standard dental stone. The relationships between these properties were also studied. It was revealed that local juss has inferior properties compared with technical plaster. It has lower compressive strength; higher water/powder ratio; shorter setting time; larger grain size and higher porosity. There is an inverse relationship between compressive strength and the two properties water/powder ratio and porosity. There is a direct relationship between compressive strength and the two properties particle size and density. There is also a direct relationship between setting time and the two properties particle size and water/powder ratio.