Volume 9, Issue 1, Spring 2009, Page 1-84

Biostratigraphy of the Aquitanian - Lower Early Langhian Successions in Kor Mor Well No.3 at Kirkuk Area, NE Iraq

Thamer A. Agawan Nadia A. Abdu Rahman

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2009, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 1-14
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2009.40566

The present study deals with the biostratigraphy of the Aquitanian -Lower Early Langhian successions age in Kor Mor well No.3 at Kirkuk area.
The studied section includes six formations with a total thickness of about (430) meters.These are: Ibrahim, Azkand, Anah, Euphrates, Dhiban and Jeribe formations.
Eighteen species and subspecies of planktonic foraminifera and twenty one species and subspecies of benthonic foraminifera are recognized.
Also some forams of benthonic foraminifera to the genus level are identified.
Fragments of mullosca shell, echinoderm, green and red algae were recognized from the studied succession.They permit an identification of five biostratigraphic zones and are from younger to older:
Borelis melo curdica Total Taxon - Range Zone.
Miogypsina globulina Total Taxon - Range Zone.
Miogypsinoides complanatus Total Taxon - Range Zone.
Catapsydrax dissimilis Partial - Range Zone (N.5).
Globigerinoides primordius Partial - Range Zone (N.4).
The first two zones are withen Ibrahim Formation, of Early Miocene (Early Aquitanian) age.Whereas, the third zone affilated to Azkand and Anah formations of Early Miocene (Late Aquitanian) age,The fourth zone is related to Euphrates and Dhiban formations of Early Miocene (Late Burdigalian) age. The last zone represent Jeribe Formation of Middle Miocene (Lower Early Langhian).

The Fold Style Variations of Baikher Anticline - Northern Iraq

Safwan T. Al-Hubiti; Nabeel K. Al-Azzawi

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2009, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 1-20
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2009.40586

The changes in fold style of Baikher Anticline were obtained by determining the fold shape, the values of interlimb angle and the degree of cylindricity in four cross-sectional traverses. The fold shape was calculated mathematically using the Fourier analysis method whereas the Ramsay and Huber classification method was applied for deciphering the cylindricity of the fold and the Pi-diagrams for determining the values of interlimb angle in each traverse.
The axial changes of the fold style revealed that the area that is occupied by Baikher Anticline was divided structurally into four segments according to their trend and vergence besides their comparison laterally with the related faults.
Data analysis revealed that Baikher Anticline is double plunging, asymmetrical, open to gentle and cylindrical in the four segments, whereas the fold vergence and shape differ from a segment to another. Baikher Anticline is verged southwestwards in the first and third segments, northeastwards in the second segment and northwards in the forth one. The analyses revealed that the fold shape ranges from chevron to box shape from traverse to another.
The anticline related faults fall into two categories. The first is a set of strike-slip type which influenced the fold trend whereas the second is listric faults that affected the fold vergence.
Vertical investigations of fold style were also carried out in the second and third traverses. The second traverse proved the Middle Eocene reactivation of the foreland listric fault, whereas unexpected vergences showed in the third one.

Gravity Data Reinterpretation of Ba'shiqa Anticline, Northern Iraq

Fawzi Sh. Ahmed

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2009, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 15-22
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2009.40572

The study deals with the reinterpretation of a gravity traverse to the South and parallel to Ba'shiqa Anticline, which trends with the anticline axis. It has been shown the presence of faults perpendicular to Ba'shiqa anticline axis, their effect extend to the Lower Cretaceous rocks.
The first fault near Ba'shiqa where the Upper and Lower Cretaceous Rocks are deep and become shallower to the west of Ba'shiqa due to the fault. The second fault which affects the Upper and lower Cretaceous rocks to the west of Ba'shiqa occurs in the emergence zone between Ba'shiqa and Al-Fadhiliya anticlines, thence the Upper Cretaceous Rocks may occur at shallow depth near Al-Fadhiliya anticline.

Design an Active Method to Calculate the Areas From Remotely Sensed Data by Using Image Processing and Geographical Information System

Khansa A. Ahmed; Sabah H. Ali; Rayan Gh. Thanoon

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2009, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 21-34
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2009.40594

Recently, Satellite images became an important tools which were used in many cases of the practical studies, it has provide a widely view to the land covers and the ability to extract the information by applying the image processing technique on the images. The ability to detect the area of land covers from satellites images is very complex method because it is not only required a high geometrical satellite images but it needs to isolate each class from the classified image dependently from the another classes that viewed in the adopted image satellite. This process is very important to determine the area for each class with an accepted level of accuracy.
In the present study, an active method was design to extract and determine the areas by using digital image processing operations (digital filtering, geometrical registration and supervised classification). Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite image, which covered the study area (Mosul Dam Lake), was adopted as a remote sensing data set for the processing stages. Geographical Information System (GIS) software was applied for the georeferencing process of the TM satellite image (according to UTM-WGS84-38N System) with respect to the georeferencing topographic map of the Mosul Dam.
The result of the applied method was compared with result obtained from the GIS software, Global Mapper 9.2 (GM9.2) for the same study area, and then the output results of the two methods were compared to the traditional method to calculate the area of the class from topographic maps according to their complete and missing squares. A relatively good coincidence between the result of the present study and the other methods. The results and the applied technique of this research are very important in the practical applications related to the field of survey engineering, environmental studies (desertification and environmental pollution), forest, urban planning, geology…etc.

Research Paper

the Impact of Some Lithological and Structural Variables on Geoelectrical Properties of Mishraq Sulphur Field (M-1) Northern Iraq

Marwa Mutaib; Thabit Bashi; Bashar A. Al-Juraisy

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2009, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 23-42
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2009.40569

The research includes subsurface study of Lower part of Fat'ha Formation (productive zone) at Mishraq sulphur field, northern Iraq, before the process of sulphur extraction. The study included the determination of geoelectrical parameters of the zone by mean of analyses to the records of normal resistivity log (N″64) of 41 boreholes distributed in the area recorded before sulphur extraction.
Comparison between the maps elaborated from the geoelectrical parameters and the maps of lithological variables was carried out to find their relationships using statistical analysis. The study indicated a clear relationship between geoelectrical parameters and structural faults, Data analysis of the resistivity maps show that the dominant factors in the behavior of the geoelectrical parameters of the productive zone is the bituminous content and the transmissivity value, and show no significant effect of sulphur content on the geoelectrical parameters.

Larger Foraminifera (Foraminifera) from the Former Qulqula Conglomerate Formation, Kurdistan Region, Northeastern Iraq

Mushir M. Qadir; Imad M. Ghafor

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2009, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 35-54
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2009.40591

The most recent studies reformed the occurrence of Qulqula Conglomerate Formation where they combined with Red Bed Series. The present palaeontological study, in the type locality, aids the recognition of the formation. Twenty species from the three families of Alveolinidae, Soritidae and Nummulitidae are described and figured from the former Qulqula Conglomerate Formation (present Red Bed Series) in Kurdistan Region, Northeastern Iraq. These assemblages indicate the age of the source area as Late Paleocene _ Middle Eocene age. The vertical and lateral distributions of the assemblages are discussed. The pebbles and boulders that bearing the recognized assemblages are derived by erosion from the source area (affiliated to Walash _ Naoperdan Group) and deposited during later ages (younger ages) that more likely they deposited during Late Eocene age

Maturity Index and the Origin of the Source Rocks of Sandstones for Injana Formation in Aqra Region, Northern Iraq

Mohammed A. AL-Rashedi

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2009, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 43-55
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2009.40576

The present study deals with the sandstones components of Injana Formation (Late Miocene) in Aqra area, northern Iraq. The Injana Formation consists of cyclic repetition of sandstones and claystones beds. Nineteen samples from sandstone beds were chosen for point counting and petrographic studies. The classification of these sandstone beds are feldspathic litharenite. Petrographic study shows that the sandstones consist of mono and polycrystalline quartz, K- Na feldspar, carbonate and other sedimentary rock fragments, igneous and metamorphic rock fragments and calcite cement. In addition fine- grained clay matrix. The study marked mineralogical immature and physically submature sandstones.
These sediments were deposited under (semi arid-semi humid) climatic conditions. The origin of these sandstones were recycled orogen and dissected arc – transition arc of the collision zone between the passive Arabian plate and the active Turkish-Iranian plates.
These events lead to sedimentary - tectonic intermeshing of the rocks on both plates which were uplifted as high terrains of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks, which are the source of Injana Formation sandstones.

Historical Development of the Present Day Lineaments of the Western Zagros Fold Thrust Belt A Case Study from Northeastern Iraq, Kurdistan Region

Kamal H. Karim; Azad Ibrahim Hemin Koyi; Amanj I. Fatagh

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2009, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 55-72
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2009.40608

The part of the Zagros within the Iraqi border occupies an area less than quarter of the country. It includes three tectonic zones which can be clearly identified in the field. These are the Low and High Folded, Imbricated and Thrusted Zones. The main lineaments are the axes of the anticlines; transverse and longitudinal faults; lines of distribution of ophiolite and metamorphic rocks; drainage direction discharge and line of distribution of conglomerates. The direction of axes of the anticlines are trending nearly N38W which normal to the direction of the imposed stress by the Iranian plate front. Due to differences in thicknesses and physical properties of the sedimentary rocks, the axes of these anticlines are not continuous they plunge more or less in an en echelon pattern and in some cases are bend. The lengths of most of these anticlines are around 10-30km. The first appearance of the anticlines in the High Folded Zone possibly started at the Eocene while those of the Thrust Zone initiated at Maastrichtian. Some of these anticlines are cut by transverse faults whose ages are not known. These faults trend nearly normal
to the axis of anticlines. Other kinds of lineaments are the distribution of ophiolites
and metamorphic rocks. Historically the first appearance of trace of ophiolites
(as pebbles in sedimentary rocks) has an age of Lower Maastrichtian.
The direction of drainage discharge is nearly towards the south and southwest, which is inherited from that of the Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary paleocurrent directions (sediment transport direction). This direction is related to uplift of the extreme northwestern part of the studied area during Maastrichtian. Evidence for these suggestions is the occurrence of thicknesses of 500m of conglomerates as valley fillings during Late Cretaceous. The depositional axes of the successions was migrated for about 50kms during Cretaceous and Tertiary and becomes younger from northeast towards the southwest as recorded by four narrow belts. The line of migration is nearly coinciding with both directions of present regional slope and the Cretaceous sediment transport.

The Use of Hydrograph Analysis to Evaluate the Groundwater Contribution to Tigris River Flow at Mosul City

Mohammed F. Omar khattb; Thabit D. Mahder-Bashi

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2009, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 73-84
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2009.40600

The flow regime of the River Tigris has been studied during ten successive years from 1975 - 1984. The annual hydrographs of the river were analyzed to determine the ground water components by considering the general form of the river regime, and the minimum flows during recession.
Master recession curve was derived from the river flow records of the studied catchment area by combining the characteristics of various recession records, and used to check the separation of components contributing to the river flow and also indicate the number of aquifers involve in contributing the ground water to the river.
Four major aquifers outside the study area and within the Turkish territory appeared from the analysis contributing ground water of about 58% to 75% percent of the total flow during the ten years period.
The total volume of water in storage from the beginning of recession was also determined along the ten years and was varying between 1.0 x 109 – 6.0 x 10 9 m3/ year.