Volume 8, Issue 1, Spring 2008, Page 1-63

Indirect Evaluation of Chemical Composition in Illite/

Khalid J. Aswad; Faraj H. Tobia

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2008, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1-11
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2008.39197

A total number of 22 samples representing the Jurassic Formations (Hussainiyat, Amij and Muhaiwir) from the clastic units were collected and used for mineralogical studies.
X-ray diffraction studies have proved that kaolinite is the dominant clay mineral, the mixed layer illite/ smectite is randomly interstratified and rich in K-poor illite. Based on x-ray pattern decomposition of 001 reflection in conjunction with the chemical
analysis of the clay fractions, it has been found that there is a difference in K
replacement by H2O between illite of the southern parts, having the formula of
[H2O1.2K0.3Al4(Al0.3Si7.7)O20(OH)4], and the illite of the northern parts
[ H2O0.9K0.6Al4(Al0.6Si7.4)O20(OH)4].
Based on illite/ smectite composition there is a variation in pH of the deposi-tional environments and the intense weathering between northern and southern parts of the Formations. The variations have been deduced from the clay mineral assemblages.

The Using of the Resistivity and Gravity Geophysical Methods in the Detection of the Subsurface Geology in Asky Mosul

Muneef M. Al-Mahjoob; Bashar A. Mahmoud; Ayman M. Ahmed

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2008, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1-13
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2008.39203

Present research includes application of the methods of electrical resistivity and gravity to explore and determine the subsurface geology in a part of the Asky Mosul area situated to the north-west of Iraq. The gravity survey included (51) stations distributed along (6) traverses extended towards the northwest-southeast, and drew Bouguer anomaly map.
As for the geoelectrical survey has included measurement of (24) vertical electrical sounding points distributed along (4) traverses in the same direction of the gravity traverses above. All the (VES) points are interpreted quantitatively using the (IPI 2.1 Win) software.
Through the interpretation of the geoelectrical results and link them with the boreholes sequences within the study area, we identified the subsurface stratigraphical sequences in the study area which appeared as the lower member of the Al-Fatha formation. The study also showed that the area is affected by set of step faults which divided the area to some horst and grabben structures.

Diagensis and Factor Analysis of Sandstones of Injana Formation in Selected Sections Northern Iraq

Nabil Y. Al-Banna; Thamer A. Aghwan

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2008, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 11-23
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2008.39210

Three sections of Injana Formation are studied in selected areas at Northern Iraq. Tewenty seven samples of sandstone are chosen for point counting and diagensis studies. The classification of these sandstone beds are feldspathic litharenite. A diagenetic study elucidates the presence of carbonate, iron oxide, clay and silicate cements, as well as compaction, replacement, recrystallization and alteration processes.
Factor analysis shows three main factors controlling the distribution of mineral and rock fragments in sandstones reflecting the type of source rocks and the maturity of the sandstone beds. The first is diagensis , the second is metamorphism of the source rocks, while the third factor is the mechanical erosion of the source rocks. The study of minerals and factor analysis indicate an acidic igneous rocks affected by differential metamorphism of the source rocks with sedimentary rock (carbonate and clastic) and immature texture of sandstone rocks.

A Theoretical Study Using Geographic Information Systems to Harvest Rain Water in Kand Structure Area Northern Iraq

Bashar M. Al-Shakergee

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2008, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 14-24
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2008.39211

In order to reach to the fundamental basis of this research, a theoretical study was carried out for a suitable application of rainwater harvesting in the seasonal valleys. Wadi AL-Malh were selected in Kand Structure, located in northern Iraq to design rainwater harvesting techniques where two of this techniques was applied in the study area.
The Geographic Information Systems database was initiated using (Arc View GIS V.3.1) software. A thematic map was prepared to detect the beast locations to construct rainwater harvesting techniques.

Biostratigraphy of the Balambo Formation (Lower Cretaceous ) in Jebel Azmer – Sulaimaniya Area, Northeastern Iraq

Rund A. Hammoudi; Tarik S. Abawi

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2008, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 24-33
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2008.39215

The Balambo Formation (Lower Cretaceous), exposed on Jebel Azmer in Sulaimaniya area northeastern Iraq, consists mainly of well bedded hard limestone. Outcrop of 224 m of the upper part of the Balambo Formation are well exposed on the surface with a steeply dipping angle. Planktonic foraminifera represent the major microfossil assemblage of the Balambo Formation. Nineteen cosmopolitan planktonic foraminiferal species were recorded from 92 samples. The identified planktonic foraminifera are of typical Tethyan character. Biostratigraphically the exposed part of the Balambo Formation is defined by four zones and two subzones, these are in ascending chronological order: Ticinella primula Zone, Biticinella breggiensis Zone which is divided into two subzones (Ticinella praeticinensis and Rotalipora subticinensis Subzones), Rotalipora ticinensis Zone and Rotalipora appenninica Zone. Accordingly the age of the Balambo Formation in Jebel Azmer is Middle–Late Albian. The presence of a major hiatus at the end of the Rotalipora appenninica Zone delineates the upper boundary of the formation in the studied section.

Facies Analysis and Sedimentary Model of Burdigalian Stagein Kor Mor Well No.3, Kirkuk Area-Iraq

Thamer A. Aghwan; Nadia A. Abdul Rahman

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2008, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 25-40
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2008.39220

The present study describes the sucessions of the Burdigalian stage, which includes: Euphrates, Dhiban Formations and intervening of Serikagne Formation with Euphrates Formation.
Numerous microfacies are identified, based on different criteria. The microfacies of Euphrates Formation are: algal lime mudstone - wackestone, algal lime wackestone - packstone, lime packstone-grainstone, oolitic lime grainstone, and planktonic foraminiferal lime mudstone which represent the intercalation of Serikagne Formation with Euphrates Formation.
The microfacies of Dhiban Formation are: lime mudstone, miliolidal lime grainstone and anhydrite lithofacies.
On the basic of their properties and other sedimentary and biological features, the depositional environments are inferred. These contain a spectrum of depositional sites from outer lagoon to supratidal environments.

Local Shortening of Folds and Detachment Surface Depth withExamples from the Foreland Belt of Iraq

Nabeel K. Al-Azzawi

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2008, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 34-43
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2008.39222

The percentage of local shortening of the Foreland Folds is quantified on the basis of simple geological trend and calculations of appropriate mathematical approaches.
The quantification method includes the measurements of the amount of the tectonic uplift of a measurement datum as well as, the amount of the entire uplifted mass represented in cross section by the area of the structural relief.
The application of the present method at two separate areas of the Foreland Belt of Iraq was lead to encouraging results and confidence in uses for tectonic analysis. The obtained results comply with the tectonic concepts of the area, and in the mean time it is compatible with other relevant studies.

Adverse Impact of Al-Khoser River upon Tigris River at Outfall Area

Hazi m J . Al-Nuaimy; Mohammed F.O. Khattab; Mazin N. Fadhel

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2008, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 41-55
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2008.39226

The present study included assessing current pollution of Al-Khoser by heavy metals and bacteria, which is one of the largest tributaries of the Tigris river in the left bank within Mosul city. The samples were collected from five estuary locations of the khosar river and actually two duplicate samples from each location and through two seasons had been taken, the first in April (spring) and the second in August (summer) 2006.
The first collected samples used in the analyses of heavy metals included (Zn), (Cd), (Cu), (Co), and (Pb). While the second collection were used in the calculation of the total bacterial count (TBC) and measure the concentrations of nutrients nitrate and phosphate.
The analyses of heavy metals showed higher values relative with in comparison with Tigris River. Both cadmium and copper were found over the limits for drinking water. This is resulting in a significant risk to living organisms in general. The analysis of bacterial count reflects the contamination of Al- Khosar river water.
The interpretation of the results revealed an affection of Tigris river water by Al-Khosar river water and this cause a risk limits within 300 meters down stream its estuary.

The Effect of Adjacent Magnetic Sources on the Interpretation of Magnetic Anomalies

Abdaladeem M. Al Mashhadani

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2008, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 44-53
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2008.39227

In interpreting magnetic profiles from the aeromagnetic map of Iraq, it is usually assumed that the observed anomalies are caused by homogeneous magnetic bodies forming the basement that is concealed beneath a thick cover of sediments.
Many unknowns are faced in interpreting magnetic anomalies related to such deep sources. Among these: direction of magnetization in these sources, magnetic susceptibility and the contributions of the adjacent sources are the most important unknowns. Therefore, it is to be assumed that these anomalies are related to igneous bodies within the basement rocks and magnetized by induction only from the present earth’s magnetic field. In other word, the study is focused on one of the unknowns mentioned above, which is the effect of contribution of adjacent igneous body at different depths and sizes on the shape of main magnetic anomaly.
Previous studies related to interpretation of aeromagnetic anomalies in Iraq, have assumed that these basement anomalies are not affected by adjacent igneous masses and as such not taken in consideration, (Al Mashhadani, 2000, Najar, 1999, Mohammed 1981, Mahmood, 1981, Aziz, 1981).
In this paper ,the effects of such close magnetic sources will be considered . The suggested method is designed at estimating the amount of change in the -ve part of the anomaly occurring between two igneous sources, which in turn depends on how close the adjacent igneous sources to the main one.

Structure and Geomorphology of Shaikhan Anticline- Northern Iraq

Alaa N. Hamdoon; Nabeel K. Al-Azzawi

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2008, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 54-63
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2008.65696

Tectonic analysis of the Shaikhan Anticline in northern Iraq has been carried out using the available remote sensing data. The interpretation of aerial photographs and satellite images was correlated in the field with the ground truth, namely structural and geomorphologic features. It has been shown that the Shaikhan Anticline is located over and parallel to a listric fault in the basement rocks. Reactivation of this fault was basically responsible for the geometrical configuration of the Shaikhan Anticline. The listric fault is manifested in the form of a lineament on the satellite imagery and aerial photographs. This fault has cut through the sedimentary cover by normal sense of movement. It shows a small displacement on the beddings of the Pila Spi Formation along the northeastern limb of the anticline.