Issue 1

The Petrography and Mineralogy of Technical Plaster and Local Juss

Zeki A. Aljubouri and Auday M.Alrawas

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2006, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 1-11

The petrography and mineralogy of two types of technical plaster, an English dental stone and two types of local juss were studied.
Thee petrography of the studied thin sections, revealed that technical plasters consist of dispersed prismatic, monoclinic crystals, with ill – defined edges ( bassanite of the β –hemihydrate). Dental stone consists of more packed, prismatic monoclinic crystals with well defined and sharp edges (bassanite of the α – hemihydrate ). Some crystals are pseudo- hexagonal. Bassanite of local juss in thin sections is identical to that of technical plasters.
x-ray diffraction studies proved that technical plaster consist of about (95%) bassanite and (5%) gypsum, compared with (99%) bassanite and (1%) gypsum for the English dental stone. Local juss consists of anhydrite (63-70%), bassanite (20%) and gypsum (10-17%).
The three mineral phases, in the final product, the juss, exist as a mechanical mixture, rather than transformation phases. The occurrence of a phase is a function of the distance of raw material, the gypsum from fire source.

Study and Analysis of Landforms and its Application in the area Between Tiara and Allan anticline,North of Iraq using Remote Sensing Data

Hekmat S.Al-Daghstani; Mohamud F.Hussein Bassman Y.Al-Ta

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2006, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 1-16

Remote sensing data are used as one of the new tools to draw a series of thematic maps to evaluate the suitability of land areas for a variety of landuse and economic planning in the area between tiara and allan anticlines, north of Iraq. Geomorphological analysis has shown nine geomorphological units, which reflects the impact of geological and geomorphological processes of each landforms and its genetic origin. Landuse and landcover maps depending on (usgs) system showed all the apparent activities up to the third level. (19) classes of landuse have been shown of these different classes were measured together with their percentages within the total are of study.
Our emphasis in this study is to determine the impact of sinhareeb dam upon all the apparent landuse and land cover activities. The area of different classes, which will be going to sub merge under lake level s were measured together with there percentages within the total area of study, in order to be utilized as information datum upon which future decisions will be made.

Groundwater Quality Problems of a Gypsiferous and Urbanized area,Kifri city Northeast of Iraq

Diary AAmeen and Hiwa S.Ahmed

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2006, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 12-28

The ground water in kifri city is being subjected to anthropogenic activities and enrichment of sulfate ions via high soluble rocks. The results showed that there are seasonal changes in ion concentrations due to dilution by rainfall, also the study concluded that the Fat'ha formation has great impact on enriching the groundwater with sulfate ions, and the groundwater is polluted with nitrate and phosphate. The water type of the studied area is Ca-SO4 when applied to piper classification. From the areal map of ion distributions it is clear that the center and southern parts of the city contain high values of ions due to anthropogenic activity. The water samples are not sutiable for drinking but are suitable for agricultural and some industries like textile, chemical pulp and paper industry.

Geothermal Investigation in the plain Between Sheikh Ibrahim and Atshan anticline southeast of Talafar Northweast of Iraq

Saeed; Ahmed M; Marwan Mutib

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2006, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 17-32

Geoelectrical investigations were carried out in the area that located between atshan and sheikh Ibrahim anticline and south west respectively the vertical electric sounding was applied by using the collinear and symmetrical schlumberger array with maximum spacing interval for the current and potential electrodes (840 and 90m. respectively ) the sounding station were located in 64 sites through four traverses trending NE-SW. the field curve were interpreted by the partial matching method and the initial models were adjusted by using KMM program with digital partial matching technique. For electric zones were distinguished, the first one represent the surface soil while the second zone reflect of two lithofacies which belong to the upper member of al fat'ha formation while the fourth zone represent a lateral resistivity contrast which reflect lower member of al fat'ha formation and the unit D of the upper member.
Those lateral variations were explained by the geoelectrical traverses which indicate longitudinal fault. More ever geoelectrical section delinated type of this normal fault with about 90m through and 25 degree dipping

Enhancing landform Phenomena by using False color composite Techniques to images taken from Different Sensors

Rayan Gh. T.Al-Banaa; Abeer A. M.Al-Allaf

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2006, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 33-45

False color composite images created in normal method by merging three images.
Each one of them has a wavelength range portrayed from one sensor . the aim of the present study is to complete te missing band by depending on the same bands in other sensor. Geometrical properties of a satellite images are varied between each type of sensors therefore the geometrical corrections methods were used to unify the geometrical distortion between the images tat used in present study. Histogram equalization were used to enhance pixel reflectance of the images. The produced image from previous processing was giving a high accuracy through increase the enhancement of land feature phenomena and this was noted when it is compared with the same images without processing.

Depositional environment as Interpreted from facies analysis of Injana Formation in Kand fold North Iraq

Thamer A.D.Aghwan; Mohammed A. M.Al-Rashedi

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2006, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 46-63

Facies analysis of sandstone in the injana formation of kand anticline indicated the presence of : intraformational conglomerate facies (Gm), trough cross –bedded sandstone facies (st), planar cross-bedded sandstone facies (sp), horizontal bedded sandstone facies (sh). Massive bedded sandstone facies(sm), horizontal laminated sandstone facies (fl), ripple cross –laminated siltstone facies (sr) and massive mudstone facies (fsm).
Facies association in the lower part of the succession has affinity to river – dominated delta sequences characterize by small - scale coarsening – upward cycles , while the upper part shows diagnostic thick fining upward sequences of meandering river. Paleocurrent analysis indicates a unidirectional south – south west trend.

Reconnaissance Detection of caves and subsurface channels by Horizontal Electrical profiling

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2006, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 64-73

The present study has applied wenner's resistivity profiling for the investigation of caves and subsurface channels in the al- mogher area / south of mosul . the measurements were carried out through nineteen traverses with N-S trending.
The apparent isoresistivity showed the presence of elongated anomalies with moderate values (300-500) ohm.m. by compairing the longitudinal nomalies with the position of the caves and underground tunnels that appear on the surface, it has been concluded that there is a coincidence between these position and the anomalies. This indicates that the anomalies reflect the position of subsurface tunnels and caves.

Morphological change in Mam Shivan vally basin Dohok Governorate

Ziad R.Elias

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2006, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 74-88

The different values of bifurcation ratios of the six basinal ranks reflect the effect of structural geology and the shape of mam shivan located in( dohuk governorate north east Iraq ). The drainage density of the basin attains a value of (7.28 km/km2). Geomorphological analysis revealed that there are five drainage patterns which are the result of structural and climatic effects. On the other hands the opening phenomenon in the south of the valley is most likely due to structural pattern. Type of the rocks , base level change and vertical incision at (450m) level. The longitudinal valley profile reveals the existence of the four kink point which reflect the adjustment of the valley to the new tectonic activity.