Volume 6, Issue 2, Autumn 2006, Page 1-84

Analytical Comparison Study Between Khabour and Tanjero Formations Northern Iraq

Kamal H. Karim

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2006, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 1-12
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2006.36358

Tanjero Formation is one of the best studied stratigraphic units and recently shown to be deposited in foreland basin in different shallow and deep environments. Conversely, Khabour Formation is not studied in detail in term of environment, tectonic and sequence stratigraphy. Therefore, the lower part of the former formation assigned as a norm or model for comparison for the latter one. The comparison is achieved concerning the stratification characteristics; types of trace fossils, type of system tracts, type of environments, source area tectonics and their relation with red beds. The result of this comparison revealed that Khabour Formation, in many aspects, is analogous to lower part of Tanjero Formation. The result of the comparison is showed that Khabour Formation is deposited in different environments include fluvial, deltaic, shelf, slope and deep marine. Among these, now, only the sediments of shelf and slope are cropped out. The thick succession of sandstone with interbeds of shale of this formation is deposited in lowstand system tract forming lowstand wedge. The paleocurrent was possibly toward southwest and the basin may be bordered by active fault during Ordovician. The source area was dioritic or gneissoid body which was possibly weathered in wet climate.

Implications and Influences of Length Variations of the Forward Filter Using the Convolution Approach

Marwan Mutib

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2006, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2006.36474

The research aims at the study of convolution implications for1-D forward filter length variation using different apparent resistivity patterns with sampling intervals depending upon number of filter coefficients . Three geoelectric models were obtained for each pattern by applying three filter frequencies. Each geoelectric model contains resistivity reflection coefficients, transversal resistance ratios, Longitudinal conductance ratios and Dar Zarrouk parameters.
It has been found that the reflectivity coefficients were the least affected with the changing of the filter length while there is an obvious contrast in other geoelectric parameters. The study has shown that variations in filter length has no relation with variations in maximum penetration depth or with the length and dip of the field curve branches. However, it is possible to exploit multi-sampling technique of the field curve for diagnosing the length of the forward filter which determine the upper value of the maximum depth of penetration.

Petrography and Diagentic Processes in Sandstone of Injana Formation in Kand Fold, North Iraq

Mohammed A. AL-Rashedi Thamer A. Aghwan

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2006, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 11-24
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2006.36490

The sandstone of Injana Formation (Late Miocene) in Kand anticline consists dominently of carbonate rock fragments, among other types, followed by quartz, feldspars and mica. The ground mass is represented by higher amount of calcite cement in comparison to silica, clay and ferrigenous cements.
Classification of the sandstones indicates their calclithic litharenite type. The source rocks embrace sedimentary, metamorphic and igneous rocks.
The sandstones have been affected by early-diagentic events which mainly include carbonate cement and consequently subduced compaction. The processes of early-mesogentic diagenesis resulted in a decrease of primary porosity with a concomittant increase of secondary porosity during late diagenetic stage due to dissolution of carbonate cement.

Facies Analysis and Depositional Environment of Khurmala Formation in Bekhair Anticline –Dohuk Area, North Iraq

Nabil Al-Banna; Majid M. Al-Mutwali; Jamal S. Al-Ghrear

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2006, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 13-22
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2006.36375

The studied surface section of Khurmala Formation which lies in the northeast of Dohuk city north Iraq consists of mixed carbonate and clastic sediments, package about 60 meter thick of Early Eocene age. The carbonate sediment is comprising four microfacies association allocated to shoal bank (Kh2), lagoon (Kh1), intertidal (Kh1, Kh3), and supratidal (Kh4), while the clastic sediment included two lithofacies affiliated to estuaries depositional environment. A depositional model of the Khurmala Formation was proposed.
Diagenetic processes of dissolution and dolomitization are recognized in microfacies (Kh3).

Sequence Stratigraphy of Gercus Formation (Middle Eocene) in Sulaimaniya Area, Northeastern Iraq

Bakhtiar M. Ameen

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2006, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 23-32
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2006.36387

The Middle Eocene Red Beds known as typical facies of Gercus Formation in north and northeastern Iraq. In the field they cropout as red succession of claystone, lensoidal sandstones and conglomerates. Tectonically the beds are exposed in the folded area of the Zagros Fold-Thrust belt of northeastern Iraq. The whole formation consists of major low stands system tract within stratigraphic record of Tertiary which belongs to 2nd order sea level change. This major lowstand system tract is divided into two depositional sequences named upper and lower sequences which are modulated within 3rd order sea level change. About 90% of its thickness is deposited in the lower sequence, and 10% in the upper one. The lower sequence bounded by SB1 and SB2 from the bottom to the top respectively. It is comprised of SMST, TST and HST. Only the LST of the upper sequence is represented in the Gercus Formation, while the other systems tracts are possibly included in the carbonate of Pila Spi Formation. The SMST consists of alternation of red claystone and marl which are locate at the top of Khurmala Formation.
The TST (middle part of Gercus Formation) is composed of grey marl and laminated marly limestone. The HST consists of alternation of red claystone, laminated sandstone and calcareous shale.
The LST consists of 1-4m of rounded and sorted conglomerate located at the upper part of Gercus Formation. This system tract is underlain by an erosional unconformity. The inferred depositional environment is most possibly braided delta plain which is prevailed by fresh water influx and flooding by marine water. This is shown in the field by mud cracks, marl marine sediments and laminated sandstone which deposited in upper flow regime.

Comparison in Morphotectonic Analysis of Selected Basins in Nineveh Governorate North of Iraq

Hekmat S. Al-Daghastani Rayan Gh. Al-Banaa

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2006, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 25-44
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2006.40524

The present study deals with morphotectonic analysis of eight surface drainage basins which varies in their basin geometry. These basins are distributed within the major structural zones in Nineveh Governorate north of Iraq. Analysis of longitudinal valley profiles of these basins indicated their effects by a group of morphotectonic variables, which characterized each distinct segments differently.
Both bifurcation ratio and mean order length relationships against the drainage basin orders showed clear evidences to differentiate between effected and non effected basins with active tectonic deformation. These comparisons demonstrate a new concept that might be able to utilize in morphotectonic comparison studies.

Stratigraphy of the Gulneri Formation (Upper Cretaceous) in the Type Section, Dokan Area, Northeastern Iraq

araz o.al-khafaf; Tarik S. Abawi Ru hammoudi

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2006, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 33-42
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2006.36394

Eight planktonic and six benthonic foraminiferal species were recorded from the type section of the Gulneri Formation at the site of Dokan Dam, Dokan area, northeastern Iraq. The sediments of the Gulneri Formation consist basically of organic–carbon rich black shale and represent a record of the ocean anoxic event 2 (OAE2) across the Cenomanian–Turonian boundary. The planktonic foraminiferal assemblages of the Gulneri Formation indicates an Early Turonian age for the formation .

Kyanite and Staurolite Detrital Grains: Chemistry and Occurrence in Recent Sediments of Tigris River, Northern Iraq

Ali I. Al-Juboury; Mohsin M. Ghazal

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2006, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 43-52
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2006.36420

The present work describes the mineralogy and optical properties of the detrital kyanite and staurolite occurring in the recent deposits of Tigris River and its tributaries in northern Iraq using thin section microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, chemical analyses are obtained using electron microprobe analyzer for the detrital kyanite and staurolite grains and then were used as indicators to elucidate the provenance; by comparing their chemistry with the same minerals in the metamorphic rocks of Turkey. There is a good similarity in mineral chemistry between them affirming that the detrital kyanite and staurolite are derived from the metamorphic rocks (schist) that contain kyanite and staurolite, which are transported by Tigris River to the Iraqi territories after the process of disintigration.

The Effect of Using the Waters of Ain Alsafra Spring on Jaundice Disease / Northen Iraq

Khalil H. Yousif; Abdul Hadi Y. AlSayegh

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2006, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 45-56
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2006.36531

The studied Area is situated at a distance of (28 km) east of Mosul . It is lying between longitudes (43o 22´ 30") and (43o 30´ 00") and latitudes (36o 20 00") and (36o 24 00") . The major part of the area consist of Pila Spi Formation (M.U. Eocene) .
The present study has involved in the determination of concentration of essential chemical elements for the health of human being with five water springs :(Ain Alsafra, Squf, Karawan, Semmak and Baadra) These elements are (Ca, Mg, Zn, Mn, Cu, Ni, Co). The highest concentrations for these element were in Ain–Alsafra waters.
It’s worth mentioning that (Mn) is only present in AinAl-safra waters and having a concentration of (0.36 mg/ L), which makes up about (30 %) of body requirement for these elements.
The present study has concluded that the healing effects from jaundice of Ain Alsafra waters among other waters within the area are due to it’s concentration with the above mentioned elements especially manganese (Mn), with concentrations meeting most of requirements of patient for these elements.
It is worth mentioning that local residents of nearby villages, who used the Ain Al-safra waters have developed an immunity from jaundice which has never been recorded in this area for decades.

A Mathematical Technique for Analyzing Folds With the Computer Program “FOLDPI”

Nabeel K. Al-Azzawi

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2006, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 53-74
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2006.36429

A mathematical technique for analyzing folds was proposed instead of the tedious and slow graphical method. Procedure of this technique comprises converting the data of bedding planes to pole attitudes, calculation of the mean pole vector of fold limbs, obtaining the best fit π-circle, determining the fold geometric properties and finding fold cylindricity. This procedure was carried out by FOLDPI, a GWBASIC computer program written for the purpose of this application. Most of the geometrical properties of fold were dealt with. In addition, an example taken from the Sinjar Anticline was used for testing the validity of this technique. The results of testing the program against manually obtained solutions proved that this technique can be very helpful in getting faster and more accurate results

Hydrogeological study of Hamdania area in the light of geoelectrical investigation

Y. F. Eclimes; N. H. Al-Saigh; Z. D. Al-Shaikh

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2006, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 57-68
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2006.65700

A geoelectrical study of the Hamdania area, east of Mosul city, indicates presence of four geoelectrical zones represent different geological formations.
Correlation of VES data with boreholes information indicate that Injana Formation and the overlying beds, up to the topsoil surface layer, represent the main aquifer in the area. It is an unconfined aquifer and the movement of water is from north and north east to south and southwest towards Tigris river, following the topography.

Measurements of Detergents Concentration (Linear Alkyl Benzene Sulfonates LAS) for Tigris River Water in Mosul City and Treatment with Sulphurized and Phosphorized Granular Activated Carbon

temad A. Taha; Dr. Huda A. AlBakry; Dr. Arwa M. Othman

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2006, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 69-84
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2006.65794

The present study depended on (54) samples of water, nunicipal wastewater (39) samples Tigris river water (north, middle and south) of Mosul city (9) samples and water supply treatment plants (Al-Maa Al-Muwahad & Al-Danadan) (6) samples.
Analytical results showed the LAS concentration in nunicipal wastewater samples may vary between (0.67-2.5)mg/L and in Tigris river water (north, middle and south) was found (0.01, 0.35 & 0.9) mg/L respectively. The concentration of some heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Pb, Mn & Fe) was measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometer for the river raw water samples and water supply treatment plants samples. The removal affinity percentage of heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Pb, Mn & Fe) was calculated.
Study's results indicated decreasing in heavy metals removal efficiency with increasing in detergents (LAS) concentration in Tigris river water, this improved (LAS) acts as a dispersion factor for heavy metals in wastewater which prevents its sedimentation and removing.
In order to decrease the environmental and health dangers of detergents pollution, wastewater curing by using a special unit of treatment (suggested by the investigators) with four types of granular activated carbon (GAC) which prepared by investigators (research under edditing) as adsorbent for LAS molecules.
Study's results show the dependent method suitibility in reducing detergents pollution percentage by 84% as a maximum. The ability of LAS uptake from river wastewater by using sulfurized and phosphorized GAC obtained from Molasses was found to be (80.3-84.4%), by using sulfurized and phosphorized GAC obtained from asphalt was found to be (30-69%) at special laboratory condition (temperature 25oc and constant pH), that showed a high affinity of LAS molecules toward sulfurized GAC more than phosphorized GAC.