Volume 5, Issue 2, Autumn 2005, Page 1-113

study of solution channels in unit 200 in the phosphate coplex in Qa'eem using Electrical resistivity method,weastern Iraq

Yuosif F.Eclimes

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2005, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 1-19
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2005.41140

Electrical resistivity survey has been carried out in (unit 200) in the phosphate complex in Qa'eem western Iraq .33 stations have been occupied, to determine location, depth and lateral extension of caves and solution channels in the unit.
The study revealed four geological zones, with varying resistivity and thickness, the relativity high resistivity at shallow depth in the vicinity near the main control room related to hard soil, while low resistivity values reflect of acid solution to subsurface material.
The apparent resistivity maps and psudosections, probably reflects the presence of longitudinal subsurface cave, located in the mid parallel to main channels. Joints and cracks on the ground surface and inside drainage channels, help it to form continuously.

Correlation Between Seismic Activity and Tentonic Elements in Nineveh Governorate

Hekmat s.Al-Daghstani and Maha t.Daood

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2005, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 1-8
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2005.41156

A computer file of earthquakes that have been recorded in mosul seismological observatory and other Iraqi observatories, were used to determine the seismic activity, location of epicenters and magnitude of earthquakes on the richter scale. This information is used in conjection with the analysis of geological and geomorphological features using landsat TM imagery. These data were utilized to draw a seismotectonic map for the Nineveh govermorate, showing the relationship between earthquake epicenters and geological features.
This map is used to provide location of earthquake risk throughout the study area the main area of activity comprises most of the boundaries of major geological folds, faults, and location of major linear geomorphic lineaments. Both in the north eastern and south western parts of mosul city have shown local moderately active zones, which is probably related to the major NE-SW geomorphic lineament. The regularity of the other lineament directions confirms the regional nature of the strike slip fault systems in the basement blocks of the studied region.

Some Sedimentary and Structural Evidences of Ppossible Graben in Mawat-Chuarta Area, NE -Iraq

Kamal H.kareem

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2005, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 9-18
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2005.41157

Mawat –chuarta area has a complex geological setting, which is manifested by highly deformed mixture of all type of rocks, sedimentary , metamorphic and igneous. Through the area these rocks have penetrated, as tongue, in to the autochthonous rocks. In the southeast and northwest of the area two large normal faults are identified which have more than 500m of throw. The area between these faults (chuarta-mawat area) has suiffered clear subsidence as compared to the neighboring areas. This subsidence is attributed to the normal faulting accompanying graben. Much structural and sedimentological evidence are given to prove the presence of a graben . the evidence is striation. Slickenside, triangular facet , bitumen seepage, nappe of sedimentary and ophiolite rocks and thick accumulation of conglomerates.

Evelutionary Aspects of Lepidocyclina (Nephrolepidina ) from Baba and Azkand Formations (Oligocene-Miocene) in Kirkuk Area,Iraq

Emad m.ghafor; qahtan a.mohammed

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2005, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 19-31
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2005.41239

Biometric invesgation of the megalospheric individuals of nephrolepidina assemblages from several sections in Kirkuk area, iraq led to recognize three morphometically defined species by the combination of two parameters. The degree of embracement of the protoconch by deuteroconch (factor A ) and number of accessory auxiliary chambers on the deuteroconch (factor C ) on the basis of generally accepted theory which is called embryonic and nepionic acceleration. The succession of these three species corresponds to the phylogenitic lineage in the European-medierranean area which started at some level in the middle part of the Oligocene and continued upward into the early Miocene. The slow numerical progress in this lineage and especially the double morphometric definition of the species limits have led to the recognition of a wide array of morphologically intermediate assemblages.

Assessment of Dewkhla kaoline,Um-Radhuma sand and domestic glass waste for the preparation of chemical porcelain

Firas f.Alhamdani; Sattar j.Alkhafaji; aAli m. Qaeed

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2005, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 20-35
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2005.41142

Thirteen mixtures from natural raw materials (Dwekhla kaoline, um-radhuma sand) and synthetic waste glass were prepared to evaluate their suitability for preparation of chemical porcelain.
The mixture were formed under 300 kg/cm2 using semi dry method, then the mixtures were fired at 1050, 1100,1150, 1200o C respectively.
The result of physical (porosity, water absorption, bulk density, and specific gravity) chemical and mechanical properties at prepared samples showed an agreement with the American and russian specifications for chemical porcelain, as well as the results showed that waste glass was suitable as a flux material in preparation of chemical porcelain instead of feldspar.

Fuzzy rule Base-Multispectral Images Classifications

Turkan A.khalil and Almas a.Khalil

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2005, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 32-40
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2005.41243

As it is the case in remote sensing images one the main problems in multi-spectral images is that land cover may be more frequent than sampling intervals between pixels in the image. Thus, the pixel representing mixture of land cover is called mixed pixels.
The classic algorithm of classification is based on two values right or wrong. When there is overlapping areas of the future space, there will be mistake in the top of classification . thus, in recent years, the application of the fuzzy logic in remote sensing images witnessed rapid developments. Fuzzy set theory provides useful concepts and methods to handle interlocked information, where fuzzy classification is used to put a distinction line between the types, and to take the information from mixed pixels fuzzy classification plays a major role in carrying out full classification.
What is done in this research is designing a complete program for supervised classification depending on fuzzy rule base and using trapezoidal membership function to represent prior knowledge.
Such a program was applied to remotely sensed data recorded by the TM-sensor (thematic mapper) of landsat-5 satalites . the results were good comparing with the result obtained using the traditional ways such as maximum likelihood (ML) . and neural network such as probabilistic neural network (PNN) the outcome accuracy of classification is shown to be better than those produced by either the ML or PNN. This technique is implemented by using visual C++ 6.0 programming language.

geological study for the southern plain of alan, north of iraq using geoelectrical sounding

Marwan Mteeb; Ali s.Almawali

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2005, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 36-50
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2005.41145

The present research involves geoelectrical study of the southern allan's plain, which lies between allan and atshan anticlines, in the north of Iraq. The field measurements were carried out in sixty three sounding stations, using collinear and symmetrical schlumberger array, distributed on four traverses (NE-SW direction) across the axes of anticlines surrounding the study area. The maximum interval spacing between both current and potential electrode has reached 843 and 90 meters consequently.
The final interpretation result were represented with four geoelectrical section. Continuous correlation with composite stratigraphic columns of surrounding anticlines was made and five electrical zones were distinguished reflecting the soil, quaternary deposits upper and lower members of Al-Fat'ha formation as well as Euphrates formation.
This study has specified two strike slip faults affected by the alpine orogeny. One transversal fault with NE-SW direction is located and clearly affects the true resistivity data and the anticlinal structure plunges in the east of the currently studying area. In addition a rotational strike slip fault has been specified, extending E-W parallel to the axes of the anticlines surrounding the area the second fault is considered as an important tectonic element in the regional geology of the north of Iraq, this element divides between the northern and the southern blocks of Mosul, which is characterized by the existence of Taurus and zagros trends consequently.

study of some features of the oolitic and pisolitic ironstones bin the hussainiyat formation ( middle jurasic), westren desert of iraq

Sahar A. Kasim

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2005, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 51-63
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2005.41146

Oolites and pisolites of the ironstones in the hussainiyat formation (middle Jurassic) are common deposits in the western desert of Iraq. They are composed of three main types; 1-hematitic oolites and pisolites with out defined concentric layers 2- goethitic oolites and pisoolites with well defined layer and 3 – oolites and pisolites partly hematitic and partly goethitic. Most of the oolites and pisolites have well spherical shapes, whereas, few of hematitic pisolites have an egg-shapes. They also have floating contacts, but others with concavo –convex, points and rather long contacts. The internal structure and mineral features indicate that most of these oolites and pisolite are of iron origin, and not to be altered from calcitic one. The hematitic position within the oolites and pisolites may indicate that these are older than the goethitic ones. The longitudinal, concavo-convex contact probably produced from the transportation rather than the compaction effect, where as, the sutured, convex and point contacts between quartz grains in the matrix are probably originated by the compaction effect.

comparison of digital classification products and its accuracy in land cover classifications of part of mosul city

Rayan G. Albana

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2005, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 64-77
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2005.41153

An efficient scheme of digital classification method was executed and implemented. The scheme can be applied to any area which contains multispectral images. The application of this scheme is depended on a colored aerial photograph of a part of mosul city, duo to the good spatial resolution of this type of data compared to the available satellite images. The result have proven the efficiency of hybrid classification compared to supervised classification. The study has also shown the importance of visual interpretation and the supervised classification in modifying the selected training areas.

the use of elecrical resistivity survey to detect subsurface channels at al-mishraq sulfar mine, north iraq

Nabeel h. Alsayegh

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2005, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 78-90
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2005.41149

Resistivity survey at al Mishraq sulfur mine north of Iraq was very successful in detecting and delineating sulfuric water leakage's channels. Depths of the channels were ranging fro 4m to more than 160m below the ground surface and channel's widith from 20m to about 40m.

Estimation of the Chemical Characteristics for Ground Water by Electrical Geophysical Survey

Muneef M. Al-Mahjoob; Ali H. Elewi; Mohammad F. Khattab

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2005, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 91-102
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2005.65795

The present study investigated the relationship between resistivity values that obtained from the electrical geophysical survey and characteristics of water quality at Sinu area-NW Iraq.
The pattern of the resistivity values for the main ground water aquifer at Seno area, which represented by Al- Fatha formation are coincided with some properties of water in this aquifer that are represented (pH, TDS, SO4-2, Ca+2, HCO3-1, Na+1, K+1, No3-1), so these properties are strongly show coincidence with resistivity values, (0.8 R -0.8).
Through this proposed method, mathematical equations found to estimate the characteristics of water quality depending on the resistivity values.

using GIS for studying morphometric and artificial re-charging properties of quwaisi valley basin, northwestren iraq

Bashar m.Alshekarchi

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2005, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 103-113
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2005.41154

A data base using (Arc view v.3.3) soft ware was prepared for the morphometric analysis, studying the properties of quwaisi valley which is located on the northern limb of Sinjar anticline, north west of iraq, feasibility of such properties in making the artificial re-charging of aquifers below this basin. Its evident from studying the possible relations of the basin morphometric properties represented by the spatial, shape, topographic, and the fluvial characteristics that this basin has typical properties for establishing artificial re-charging project below this basin by seasonal runoff waters, which lost in the form of evaporated or surface run off out side the Iraqi borders.