Volume 4, Issue 1, Spring 2004, Page 1-110

The Use of Chemostratigraphy in Determining The Boundary Between Al-Fat`ha Fn. (Middle Miocene) and Injana Fn.

Hazim J. Al-Nuaimi; Abdul-Hadi Y. Al-Sayegh

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2004, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 1-14
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2004.37772

Chemostratigraphy is used to determine the boundary between the sandstones of Al Fat`ha Formation (Middle Miocene) and Injana Formation (Upper Miocene) at Ba`cheqah Mountain, the north east of Mosul. Samples were taken vertically along strike line.
After performing chemical analysis, it has been shown that there is a difference in the concentrations of some chemical elements, especially traces ones, in the rocks mentioned above. The statistical results using T-test showed that there is variations in the concentrations of chemical elements with high degree of significance which made it possible to determine the contact between the two formations in the studied area.

Landslides Along Makhul Range (Msa`hak Dome)

Varoujian K. Sissakian Safa Al-Deen Fouad Hala A. Salih

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2004, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2004.37770

Three large landslides have developed along the northern limb of Sa`hak dome, within Mkhool Range, which extends parallel to the Tigris River. The slided masses belong to the uppermost part of the Ft`ha Formation, which consists of cyclic deposits of marl, limestone and gypsum. Three stages of sliding occurred, they are few hudred years old, associated with few recent movements. Large block movements could be expected within the main moved masses and/or in the adjacent areas.

Microfacies Analysis of Oligocene Formations in Butmah and Rafan Areas Northwest Iraq.

Nabil Y. Al-Banna

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2004, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 8-21
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2004.37780

Oligocene deposits in Butmah and Rafan areas northwestern Iraq were penetrated by three core holes (BW-CH1, BE-CH1 and RF-CH1). The depositional basin evolved through two stages, generating two sedimentary cycles, which were separated by exposure surface as represented by conglomerate beds in core holes BW-CH1 and RF-CH1.
Six microfacies were recognized in the Oligocene formations (Shurau Fn., Sheikh Alas Fn. and Bajwan Fn.), comprising three microfacies association allocated to: reef (Sa1) and back reef (Sh1, Sh2) in the first cycle (Early Oligocene), and back reef (B1, B2, B3) in the second cycle (Late Oligocene).
Oligocene rocks have been affected by many diagenetic processes of cementation, dissolution, dolomitization (by mixing process) and dedolomitization.
The paleogeographic distribution of the microfacies in conjunction to the previous work elucidates that the studied area is representing the eastern margin of the Sinjar Oligocene basin.

Hydrologic System Observation and Rainwater Harvesting in SinjarRemote Sensing DataAlluvial Fans in the North of Jabel Using Remote

Taha H. AL-Salim Bashar M. AL-Shakergee; Hekmat S. AL-Daghastani

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2004, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 15-28
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2004.37767

The study area is located in the northwestern of republic of Iraq within the municipal boundaries of Nineveh Governorate within Sinjar Qadha. The landforms were analysed and classified using the remote sensing techniques and data base to obtain the details about rain water harvesting, depending on previous geological studies about the area.
The characteristics of the hydrological systems were analyzed and studied to chose the typical and appropriate basins in order to apply the concept of rain water harvesting. The emphasis was on the alluvial fans within the Glacis unit. One of techniques of rainwater harvesting which was appropriate for application in active alluvial fan of Dahuna (within the study area), in which the best locations to construct barriers and stony ditches to recharge the aquifers beneath this alluvial fan, was chosen.
A geomorphological map was propertied by using aerial photographs showing the characteristics of alluvial fan of Dahuna and used to make an engineering irrigation map which shows the best location to construct the barriers and stony ditches on the main flow of Dahuna valley. In addition, methods of rain water harvesting according to landforms which are suitable for application to the study area were proposed to improve landuse and vegetation cover in the area of study as a whole, which suffers from deficiency in this concern.

Determination of Fold Profiles and Fold Functions,

Nabeel K. Al -Azzawi

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2004, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 22-35
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2004.37782

Two mathematical approaches dealing with fold profiles and their clips of computer programs are adopted in this paper. The first is a mathematical method proposed for determining fold profiles instead of the graphical Busk method. The second approach is the presentation of fold profiles by mathematical functions. These functions can be represented by quarter wavelengths of the fold waves. It can be used to interpolate or extrapolate points within or outside the given fold profile. A known example from Shaikhan Anticline was tested. The result of this test shows accurate and perfect coincidence with the graphical construction.

Facies Analysis of The Ghar Formation at Selected Wells of South and Southeast Iraq

Ali Al-Jubory - Mohammad AL-Rubaii; Jamal S. Al-Ghrear

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2004, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 29-46
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2004.37766

Facies analysis of the Ghar Formation at selected wells of south and southeastern Iraq, promote the subdivision of the formation into two main facies. Sandy gravel and carbonates facies that represents terrestrial clastics of arid alluvial fans environment which can also be subdivided into two subfacies; sandy gravel with dolocrete that was deposited in ephemeral braided streams and sand with gravel that represents sheet flood deposits. Other facies is carbonate rich sandstones that represents a transitional environment between fluvial and tidal marine and can be subdivided into several subfacies; fluvial quartzarenite and subarkose, swamp quartzwacke and arkose wacke, tidal carbonate rich sandstones and supratidal carbonate subfacies.

Mineralogical Maturity, Weathering Index, Climate and Tectonic Setting of Injana Formation Based on Petrographic Constituents of Sandstones in Komal Syncline–North Iraq

Thamer A. Aghwan

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2004, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 47-57
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2004.37763

Petrographical study of Injana Formation showed that the sandstones are composed of quartz, feldspars, high proportion of rock fragments, other components and carbonate cement. The sandstones are textuarlly, mineralogically immature as lithic arenite.
Petrographic criteria point out that a semiarid–semihumid climate had prevalied during deposition. The affinity to source area validate a back–arc tectonic environment for the source rocks, which was a sequal of the regional continental collision between the Arabian plate (Iraq) and Turkish, Iranian plate; with concomitant uplift and consequent increase in the erosional and depositional rates.

Geomorphology of Kand Structure North of Iraq Using Remote Sensing Data

Rayan G. Al-Banaa; Hekmat S. Al-Daghastani; Amer D. Nader

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2004, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 58-73
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2004.37764

Remotly sensed data were used in the study of the morphotectonic of the Kand Structure in north of Iraq .The present study showed that the landforms can be interpreted and analyzed depending on the aerial photographs (scale 1/38,000). The landforms were analyzed and classified in the study area according to their gensis through the interpretation of the aerial photographs. Ten geomorphological units were recognized which were represented on a map prepared for this purpose. This map is regarded as a database in the improvement of the modern structural concepts for Kand Fold through its enhancement of the presence of four domes and the conformation of a fifth dome present in the far east part of the structure which are not dealt with in previous studies, so this study proposed a name for this dome (Badrian) relative to the Badrian village adjacent to it.
Results of morphotectonic analysis concluded that the geomorphological modifications of the surface valley system crossing Kand Fold at many sites have developed in conjugation with the effective growth of this structure, where the clear proofs which are due to the tectonic effects in these valleys represented by the longitudinal sections and the abnormal senuousity. In addition to the morphology of the valleys and the river terraces affected by the directions and sites of tectonic uplifting along the valleys crossing Kand structure all of which proved that these valleys are matching the hypothesis of Antecedent valleys and that Kand Structure is still continuing in the phase of growth.

Distribution and Evolutionary Trends of The Upper Tertiary OstracodeArabian Gulf.Cretaceous- Lower From Iraq and Arabian Gulf.

Nisreen M. Aziz

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2004, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 74-85
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2004.37796

The Ostracode biostratigraphic evidence and the evolutionary trend of Upper Cretaccous-Lower Tertiary Ostracodes are determinated by using the vertical and lateral distribution and the morphological change of the selective genera and species.
Anommatocythere; Brachycythere; Buntonia; Kaesleria; Mehsella; Nucleolina and Protobuntonia.
The evidence determinated by the study of the above taxa of this time showes closely resemblance in their morphalogical features and suddenly disappears during the Upper Cretaceous of the genera:
Brachycythere; Kaesleria; Mehsella; Protobuntonia and other species continue in the Lower Tertiary, Buntonia; Mehsella and Nucleolina. Otherwise species of Anommatocythere show first appear during the Lower Tertiary .

Biostratigraphy of Planktonic Foraminifera in Aaliji and Jaddala Formations From East Baghdad Well No.2 , Middle Iraq

Abdullah S. Al-Hadidi; Farouk S.Al-Omari

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2004, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 86-97
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2004.37777

Planktonic foraminifera are studied from Aaliji and Jaddala Formations in East Baghdad Well No.2 between the depth interval 1770-1900 m. Four biostratigraphic zones are recognized in these formations:
Globorotalia (A.) bullbrooki Zone (P.10).
Globorotalia (Morozovella) subbotinae subbotinae Zone (P.7).
Globorotalia (Morozovella) velascoensis Zone (P.5and6).
Globorotalia(Globorotalia)pseudomenardii Zone (P.4).
The results of this study are compared with the work of others inside and outside Iraq. The age of Aaliji in the said well is Late Paleocene - Early Eocene and that of Jaddala is Early – Middle Eocene.

Factor Analysis of Water Quality in Hit–Cubaisa Area, West of Iraq

Mohammed Faozy Omer Khattab

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2004, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 98-110
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2004.62055

This study involves the use of factor analysis technique to evaluate the chemical analysis results of (58) water samples taken from Hit-Cubaisa in the western part of Iraq.
The samples were taken for two periods. An analyzing scheme, which includes correlation and factor analysis, is adopted. Fourteen variables representing measurements and chemical analysis of water sample, were considered for each period .The scheme is applied first to the samples of each period separately and then to the samples of both periods together.
When the scheme is applied separately to each period, correlation analysis has shown the effect of (pH) and (T) on the concentration of same element for both period samples. Besides, the analysis has shown that the amount of (TDS) is related to concentration of element (Ca, Mg, Na and Cl) for the first periods samples and it is related to concentration of elements (Ca,Mg,Na,Cl, K,and H2S) .
The results of factor analysis have shown the domination of two factors have different ratio depend on season of measurements. The first is the rock nature and the second is the environmental condition of the samples.
When the scheme is applied to the samples of both periods, the results of correlation analysis were similar to those of the first period sample. Factor analysis in this case has shown the domination of the same factor. This result indicates to the stability of the environmental condition effect factor and limited effect of rainfall on the water quality through short period of time after rainfall.