Volume 4, Issue 2, Autumn 2004, Page 1-98

Monitoring Changes in Land Use and Its Relation With Geomorphological Features of Dohuk City and Its Vicinity Using Remote Sensing Data

Hekmat S. AL-DaghastaniFarouk S. AL-Omari

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2004, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 1-19
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2004.37736

Time sequential remote sensing data were used to detect the changes in land use and its relation with geomorphological features in Dohuk City and its vicinity. Thematic maps were prepared which enabled the comparison of different land use, in addition to the role of land form nature to the future of urban planning of Dohuk City which is located between Bekhair Mountain in the north and Dohuk Mountain in the south.
Time sequential aerial photographs and Spot imagery revealed documental information about the nature of land use in Dohuk City during 1956 till 1998. The compiled multidate land use maps using U.S.Geological Survey (USGS) System show the whole of apparent activities concerning the existing land use pattern and its spatial distribution for the last (42) years . Such information is a prerequisite for any future urban development program of Dohuk City .

Hydrogeochemical Indices for the Prospecting of Hydrocarbon and Native Sulphur Deposits

Adil K. Jamil

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2004, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2004.37751

Two hydrogeochemical indices are presented namely: the balance of sulfate (B.S) and the index of aeration (I.A) and may be used as geochemical tools to give important information that indicate the presence of good prospects of oil and native sulphur deposits. The B.S and I.A are calculated from the hydrochemical data of natural waters (formation waters, oil field brines, sulphurous springs, …etc) that are associated with these deposits. For hydrocarbon deposits the B.S values were negative and ranged from few to several thousands, while I.A values were positive and ranged from zero to 10 for excellent prospects to 100 or to 1000 for less important prospects. For native sulphur deposits, both the B.S and I.A values were positive and ranged from few hundreds to thousands. Many examples of oil field waters and sulphurous springs from Iraq were examined and gave results of high positive significance.

An Assessment of Environmental Pollutiohe Nn by Some Trace Metals in torthern Part of Shatt Al-Arab Sediments, Southern Iraq

Faiq A. Al-Manssory; Mohammed A. Abdul Kareem Mohammed M. Yassen

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2004, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 11-22
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2004.37746

The concentration of five trace metals Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn wrer determined in the surface sediments of five stations along 17 km of northern part of Shatt Al-Arab River during 1997-1998.
The range of exchangeable trace metals concentrations (µgg-1 d.w.) were as following: Cd (4.98-32.80), Cu (19.38-39.22), Ni (79.46-326.38), Pb (59.00-114.19) and Zn (111.07-131.79). Accordingly, the study area environment is heavily polluted by Cd, Ni and Pb, and moderately by Cu and Zn. The northern part of the study area seems to be a source point for pollution by Cd indicating an industrial pullution at the area. While the pollution by Ni reflecting a clear image of hydrocarbon substance contamination, however, the pollution sources of Pb are Basrah port, Ashar channel and Al-Naser oil jetties in Abu Al-Khassib town because these stations have received a sewage effluent indicating anthropogenic pollution for the river ecosystem. The eastern part of Khorah station was found polluted by Cu whereas Dockyard and Ashar channels were polluted by Zn metal.
On the temporal basis, the study area reflects a climbing rate of pollution, especially after the aggression on Iraq.

Synthesis of Ceramic Milling Balls by Cold Forming

Khaldon S. Al-Bassam; Rihab S. Al-Duri; Salama Ch. Rashid

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2004, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 20-39
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2004.37738

This research work is concerned with testing several raw materials and solid industrial waste to produce ceramic milling balls by cold forming. The following materials have been tested as density promotors: Zirconia bricks (waste), phosphate concentrate, celestite concentrate and Pb-glass. Kaolin was used to provide the required plasticity for forming and feldspar as sintering agent.
The balls were formed by hand and in a few tests by hydraulic pressure for comparison. The samples were dried for 24-48 hrs (120˚C) and fired under various temperatures ranging between 1000˚C and 1300˚C. Several parameters were determined including volume shrinkage, weight loss, bulk density, specific gravity, water absorption and compressive strength.
The results showed that the best specifications were achieved in the balls made form 65% Zr-bricks (waste), 20% kaolin and 15% K-feldspar, fired at 1300˚C for 6 hrs soaking time. These balls had bulk density of 2.65-2.86 gm/cm3, porosity 0.14-0.54%, water absorption 0.05-0.21% and compressive strength 1350 MN/m2. Volume shrinkage after firing was 14-15% and weight loss 2.5-4.0%.
These specifications are better than those of the balls formed by cold process and imported to Iraq. Whereas the imported balls formed by melt-casting of alumina show higher density and higher compressive strength. The present results also showed that forming under hydraulic pressure does not improve the density of the balls after firing whereas longer soaking time had significant impact in increasing the bulk density and improving the compressive strength, both of which reflect better sintering

Lithostratigraphy and Microfacies Analysis of the Serikagni Formation Type Section, in Bara Village, Sinjar Area, NW Iraq

Nabil Y. Al-Banna

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2004, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 23-30
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2004.37756

The type section of Serikagni Formation is studied near Bara village, northwestern Iraq. Thin section study and field observations allow the recognition of four sedimentary facies and two sedimentary cycles. Their correlation with other geological sections in Sinjar basin permits the lower cycle to be affiliated to Ibrahim Formation and the upper cycle representing Serikagni Formation.

Geo-electrical Investigation in Harir Plain Northeast of Erbil City

Fadhil A. Ghaib

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2004, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 31-43
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2004.37747

A total of 32 sites were investigated along three long cross-Alpine trend traverses in part of the Harir plain north of Iraq. Electrical resistivity method was applied. The main task of this study was to investigate the shallow structural and hydrogeological conditions by analyzing in detail the geo-electric sections, along the taken traverses. A set of NW-SE faults was distinguished. Their effect on the groundwater is discussed. A structural map is drawn for the area of study based on electrical data. Also a geologic cross section along one of the traverses was constructed.

Hydrogeochemistry of Ground Water in Wadi NiniBasin – East Algeria

Aysar M. Al-Shamma; Fadhila Aliki

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2004, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 40-61
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2004.37749

Wadi Nini basin is located northeast of Algeria and it is part of Qasantina upper plateau basin. The main aquifers in this basin are in Tertiary-Quaternary and in the Upper Maestrichtian formations; the late is characterized by high fractures and karstified limestones. For the purpose of detecting the quality of groundwater, groundwater samples were collected from deep and hand dug wells during the September of 1998-1999. The hydro-geochemical analysis give the concentration of the total dissolved solid in the water of the basin ranging from 100-1600 ppm. Due to different classifications applied in this study, it shows different structures of water within different parts of the basin, for it is Calcic-Bicarbonate near the recharge area, change to Calcic-Sulphic in the direction of flow, then to Sodic-Chloride near the Sabkhas (discharge area). Generally, the groundwater of Wadi Nini basin is considered to be applicable for using both in domestic and agricultural activities according to the World Standardization, except in few places where the concentrations exceeds the permissible limits.

Stratigraphy of Sadi Formation ( Santonian) and its Relationship toKometan Formation from North and Mid Part of Iraq

Marwan A. Al-Eisa; Kahtan M. Al-Jubory

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2004, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 62-75
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2004.37743

The litho-facies of Sa'di Formation is characterized by chalky and marly limestone with thick-wall rotaliids and algal facies of shallow marine environments of Santonian age. These facies are distributed in the mid -secter of Iraq, which is parallel to the Tigris river. While in Late Santonian the upper facies of Sa'di Formation was replaced by extensive Globotruncanal facies of pelagic environment of Kometan Formation, due to sea level change, which is accordant with in changing of paleo-topography of basin configuration.
Two biozones are defined for the complete section of Sadi formation as:
1- Rotalia skourensis Zone (Late Santonian).
2- Dissocladella undulata Zone (Early Santonian).
The second one is changing laterally to the Dicarinella concavata Zone for the same formation. Overplayed by Dicarinella asymetrica Zone from Late Santonian of Kometan Formation. While the Sadi Formation was disappear in the eastern part of the Iraq and replaced by kometan formation.

Some Characteristics of Tigris River Pollution for Baghdad City

Qusai Y. Al-Kubaisi; Haifaa A. Ebrahim

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2004, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 76-83
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2004.37740

Six observation sites were chosen from Tigris River for Baghdad City to know the pollution with major, minor and trace elements (physical and chemical properties). The study depended on 24 variables in two periods, first in January and the second in April from water year 1999-2000 to show the characteristics of pollution and the effect of embargo on this water resource. The results reflect that higher concentration in some elements when we compare the results with previous study especially in SO4, Fe, Ni and Cd, so we must put suitable plans to stop this deterioration in the environment of Tigris River.

Mathematical Model of Ground Water Flow of Bashiqa Area,Northern Iraq

Taha H.Alsalim; Mahamad Faozy

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2004, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 84-98
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2004.37742

Models of ground water are one of most important techniques and powerful tools for solving problems or questions of ground water. Mathematical model was designed for the verification of ground water system in Bashiqa area northern Iraq which situated between latitude , and longitude , .
The total area involved in the mathematical model was 95km by using Finite Difference Method (FDM) for presenting the model. The results of model application was the determining ground water level in the study area and the direction of flow of ground water. The future behavior of ground water of the research area has been predicted, in the case of drilling new wells.