Assessment of Limestone of Ibrahim Formation in Zurbatiya Area, Eastern Iraq for Ordinary Portland Cement Industry
Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science,
2020, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 19-32
AbstractLimestone deposits of Ibrahim Formation in Zurbatiya area, eastern Iraq are assessed as raw materials for the industry of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). The deposits are widely exposed in the area close to Iraq-Iran borders. Six samples were collected from selected section of Ibrahim Formation, which consists of a succession of well-bedded white to gray limestone interbedded with gray marl and marly limestone. X-ray diffraction results show that calcite is the dominant mineral followed by quartz and traces of dolomite which appear in limited samples. X-ray fluorescence results revealed a noticeable increase of SiO2, which might be due to the effect of limestone by silicification process, so the rocks are considered to be a siliceous limestone. The other oxides (CaO, Al2O3, Fe2O3, MgO, Na2O, K2O, TiO2, SO3, and P2O5) are within the acceptable limits required for cement industry. Cement chemical parameters indicated that there is a decrease in the lime saturation factor (LSF) and an increase in silica ratio (SR) in comparison with the chemical parameters listed by standard specifications due to the increase of silica content. This increase can be adjusted by adding clays, or any other source of low silica content in addition to use iron and alumina as correcting additive materials for the cement mixture.
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