Volume 18, Issue 2, Autumn 2018, Page 1-121


Evaluation of Engineering Properties of Rocks and Soils of a Part of the Southwestern Area of Mosul City

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 1-14

The main task of this research is to study the distribution of the engineering properties of rocks and soils at the part of the area located in the south western Mosul City. The relationship of these aspects with the geology of the area and its importance of preliminary designs of structures has been studied as well. The data are collected from the reports on geological investigations and engineering laboratory testing of the proposed third canal of the South Jazirah Irrigation Project. Most of the land region is covered by the soil, that thickness ranges between 0 and nearly 20 meters and penetrated by boreholes reaching to the subsurface of evaporating, carbonate and clastic rocks of Fat’ha and Injana formations.
Data processing and evaluation of 66 boreholes are used to find the statistical relations among them. The studied area was divided into four secondary regions ( northern, southern, western and eastern). The studied engineering tests have been included the physical, mechanical and dynamic properties, which have generally low values in most areas. The distribution of the means of all properties that used in the assessment of the properties of soil and rock with the relation of the geological area has shown good properties when approaching to the anticlines of Allan, Hamam Al-Aleel, Nwaigeet, Kaliyan, Al- Shorah, Kassab and Addayah. The study shows that the relationship between the liquid limit and plasticity index is good for all data. The relationship between moisture content and dry density is also good however, the relationship between moisture content and the ratio of dry and saturated density is better, because of the higher relationship between porosity and moisture content. The relationship between bulk density and the velocity of longitudinal waves reveales a sharp reduction of the velocity values of longitudinal waves with reducing of the bulk density values. While, the relationship between bulk density and shear wave velocity is better due to the effect of shear waves withthe porosity more than that of longitudinal waves. In order to confirm that, it has been found that the relationship between the shear waves velocity and moisture content is the best in contrast with a velocity of longitudinal waves. Generally, the relation between dynamic properties with moisture content has a higher correlation coefficient with that of the density. The distribution of most of the engineering properties has shown low values in eastern and western region in contrast with the northern and southern ones.يتضمن البحث د ا رسة وتوزيع الصفات اليندسية لمتربة والصخور اليشة لجزء من المنطقة الجنوبية
الغربية لمدينة الموصل وعلاقتيا مع جيولوجية المنطقة، أوىميتيا في التصاميم الأولية لممنشآت. استخدمت
البيانات المحصمة من تقارير التحريات الجيولوجية الموقعية والفحوصات المختبرية اليندسية
لمقناة المقترحة الثالثة لمش روع ري الجزيرة الجنوبي. تغطي معظم أ ا رضي المنطقة تربة سطحية يصل
سمكيا إلى ما يقارب 02 مت ا ر، اخترقتيا الآبار الاستكشافية إلى الصخور التحتية المتمثمة بصخور المتبخ ا رت
والصخور الكاربوناتية والصخور الفتاتية العائدة لتكويني الفتحة وانجانة.
تمت معالجة البيانات وتقييميا من خلال استخدام 66 بئ ا ر استكشافي اً وايجاد العلاقات البيانية فيما بينيا.
تم تقسيم منطقة الد ا رسة الى أربع مناطق ثانوية: شمالية وشرقية وجنوبية وغربية. اشتممت الفحوصات
اليندسية المدروسة عمى الصفات الفيزيا وية والميكانيكية والديناميكية اولتي كانت متدنية عمى العموم في
معظم مناطق الد ا رسة. إن توزيع معدلات الصفات في تعيين خواص التربة والصخور لممنطقة وعلاقتيا مع
جيولوجية المنطقة وضحت تحسن ىذه الصفات كمما اقتربنا من الطيات المحدبة وىي طيات علان وحمام
العميل ونويكيط وقميان والشورة وقصب وعداية. بينت الد ا رسة أن العلاقة بين حد السيولة ومعامل المد ونة
كانت جيدة لكل البيانات. إن العلاقة بين محتوى الرطوبة والكثافة الجافة كانت جيدة أيضا إلا أن العلاقة بين
محتوى الرطوبة والنسبة بين الكثافة الجافة والمشبعة كانت أفضل، وذلك لمعلاقة الوثيقة بين المسامية
ومحتوى الرطوبة. بينت العلاقات بين الكثافة الإجمالية وسرعة الموجات الطولية انخفاضا حادا في قيم سرعة
الموجات الطولية بانخفاض قيم الكثافة الإجمالية، ولكن العلاقة بين الكثافة الإجمالية وسرعة الموجات
القصية كانت أفضل بسبب تأثر الموجات القصية بالمسامية أكثر من تأثر الموجات الطولية بيا. ولتأكيد ذلك
فقد تم استخ ا رج العلاقة بين سرعة الموجات القصية ومحتوى الرطوبة والتي كانت أفضل منيا مع سرعةالموجات الطولية. وعموما فان العلاقات بين المعاملات الديناميكية مع محتوى الرطوبة كانت بمعامل ت ا ربط
أعمى مما ىو عميو مع الكثافة. يبين توزيع معظم الصفات اليندسية تدني قيميا في المنطقتين الشرقية
والغربية نسبة إلى المنطقتين الآخرتين

Biostratigraphy of Upper Valanginian - Upper Aptian Balambo Formation Near Barsarin Village in Rawanduz Area, Northeastern Iraq

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 1-12

The biostratigraphy of Balambo Formation has been investigated within a well-exposed section at the northeastern limb of Zozik anticline, near Barsarin Village, northeastern Iraq. The studied section consists mainly of marl, marly limestone and limestone. These rocks yielded moderately diversified planktonic foraminiferal fauna and radiolarian skeletons, in addition to some benthonic foraminifera and bioclast. The study is focusing on planktonic foraminiferal taxa, which are classified to ten species belonging to three genera. the stratigraphic distribution of the recorded species permits the recognition of five well defined biozones. These are in descending order:
. Globigerinelloides algeriana Taxon range Zone. (part)
. Globigerinelloides ferreolensis Interval Zone.
. Globigerinelloides blowi Interval Zone.
. Hedbergella sigali Interval Zone.
. Globuligerina hoterivica Interval Zone.
The planktonic foraminiferal biozones are correlated with other zonal schemes. They are considered to be extending from Late Valanginian to Late Aptian age.تمت د ا رسة الطباقية الحياتية لتكوين بالامبو ضمن مكشف صخري يقع عمى الغاطس الشمالي الشرقي
لطية زوزك قرب قرية بيرسرين شمال شرقي الع ا رق. يتألف المقطع قيد الد ا رسة من صخور الحجر الجيري
والحجر الجيري المارلي والمارل، وقد امتازت العينات الصخرية التي جمعت من صخور التكوين بمحتواها
المتوسط التنوع من متحج ا رت الفو ا رمنفي ا ر الطافية وهياكل ال ا رديولاريا والقميل من متحج ا رت الفو ا رمنفي ا ر القاعية
وحطام الاصداف. ركزت الد ا رسة الحالية عمى حشود الفو ا رمنفي ا ر الطافية، اذ تم تصنيف عشرة انواع تعود الى
ثلاثة اجناس. اعتمادا عمى التوزيع الطباقي لهذه الانواع تم تمييز خمسة انطقة حياتية كما موضح ادناه،
النطاق الاقدم في الاسفل:
. Globigerinelloides algeriana Taxon range Zone. (part)
. Globigerinelloides ferreolensis Interval Zone.
. Globigerinelloides blowi Interval Zone.
. Hedbergella sigali Interval Zone.
. Globuligerina hoterivica Interval Zone.
تمت مضاهاة الانطقة الحياتية لمد ا رسة الحالية مع بعض الد ا رسات الاخرى، واستنتج بانها تمتد من
عمر الفالانجينيان المتأخر الابتيان المتأخر. -

Neotectonic Evidences in Guwair-Humaira Area SE Mosul-Iraq

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 13-34

Neotectonic evidences were detected along Kirkuk-Najd- fault system that passes towards N45W along Guwair anticline, Humaira, Hawi Aslan, Zanquba and Mosul city through the Tigris River belt passing towards Iraqi- Syrian-Turkish borders. Ninivite persists through these localities. Two sets of slickensides forming two shear movements, restricting two acute angles 60o and 32o respectively, have their clear imprints on the newly formed Ninivite.
Geochemical work concerning oxides distribution and element movements enrolled mainly by pH declinations through sample distribution assured the structural imprint of slickensides on a Ninivite rock on sample distribution covering unaltered and altered phases. Two main alteration events were picked up through samples 14 and 16 respectively. These events marked H2S and CH4 gas seepages produced as a result of any newly detected seismic activities. The analysis of stress refers to the N45W i.e. rejuvenation of Kirkuk-Najd fault system. During alteration, SiO2 enriched, while CaO, CO2, SO3, L.O.I, P2O5, were depleted and Al2O3 and Fe2O3 were migrated and eventually concentrated in the outer zones to form Alunite and Jarosite respectively.
The same behavior applied to the trace elements, many of them were redistributed and concentrated after alteration like; Ni, Co, Zn, Ce, Y, and Li. Other trace elements are depleted like; Cr, Ag, Pb, and Cu..

Determination of Homogeneity of Parent Material and the Development of Soils at Selected Areas in Northern Iraq Using Weathering Resistant Minerals

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 15-34

This study was carried out using mineral analysis data from XRD and the bromoform solution for separation of heavy metals, (15 samples of soil and five samples of rocks) were distributed in five sections: Al Qayara, Hammam Al-Aalil, Tel kaif, Duhok and Zakho. And by three depths and rock form for each section. The proportion of heavy metals resistant to weathering was calculated
(Zircon, Tourmaline, and Rutile ZTR) as a criterion in the determination of the original materials in the soil of the study soil as well as the calculation of the PI and the IRS to measure the degree of degradation and the viability of these soils as an indication of their degree of development and the ability to classify them based on their degree of resistance to weathering operation . The results of weathering in these areas showed a difference in "the degree and ability of these soils in their resistance to weathering operations according to the location and the nature of the original materials. The Zakho soil samples were highly superior to weathering, The remaining areas of the study were in the middle of the degree of weathering as these areas receive the amounts of rainfall up to 1000 mm / year as in the Zakho area, and 250 mm / year as in the Qayara area, as well as topography of these areas, are among the high as in the Zakho and low in the Qayara area..

Planktonic Foraminiferal Biostratigraphy of the Upper part of Balambo Formation (Lower-Upper Cretaceous) in Azmer Anticline, Northeastern Iraq

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 35-60

The present work is a part of detailed study of biostratigraphy of Balambo Formation (Lower - Upper Cretaceous) from Azmer anticline - northeastern Iraq. Lithologically, the upper part of the studied section (Balambo Formation) consists of dark gray, reddish brown shale and marl intercalation with amonitic and marly limestone. Based on planktonic foraminifera, the studied section is divided into five main biozones and two subzones. It is correlated with collection of global regional and local previous biozones. These biozones led to conclude that the age of the upper part of Balambo Formation extends over the Latest Aptian to Middle-Late Cenomanian. Moreover, the identified biozones are from older (at bottom) to younger (at top):
5- Rotalipora cushmani Taxon range Zone.
4- Thalmanninella globotruncanoides Interval Zone.
3- Biticinella breggiensis Interval Zon.
Ticinella praeticinensis Interval Subzone.
Pseudothalmanninella subticinensis Interval Subzone.
2- Ticinella primula Interval Zone.
1- Paraticinella eubejaouensis Taxon range Zone.يتضمن البحث الحالي د ا رسة طباقية حياتية لمفو ا رمنيف ا ر الطافية لتكوين بالامبو
)الكريتاسي الأسفل الأعمى( في طية أزمر شمال شرقي الع ا رق. يتألف ىذا الجزء من تتابعات لطبقات - -
الطفل الرصاصي الغامق المون والطفل البني المحمر وطبقات من المارل متداخمة مع طبقات الحجر الجيري
الامونايتي وطبقات الحجر الجيري المارلي. تم تقسيم ىذا المقطع الطباقي الى خمسة أنطقة حياتية رئيسة
واثنين من الأنطقة الحياتية الثانوية. وتمت مضاىاة ىذه الأنطقة مع مجموعة من الأنطقة الطباقية الحياتية
العالمية والإقميمية والمحمية، وبيذا إتضح أن عمر ىذا الجزء من التكوين يمتد من أواخر الأبتيان المتأخر
الى السينومينيان الأوسط المتأخر. وىذه الأنطقة من الأقدم )في الأسفل( الى الأحدث )في الأعمى(: -
5- Rotalipora cushmani Taxon range Zone.
4- Thalmanninella globotruncanoides Interval Zone.
3- Biticinella breggiensis Interval Zone.
. Ticinella praeticinensis Interval Subzone.
Pseudothalmanninella subticinensis Interval Subzone.
2- Ticinella primula Interval Zone.
1-Paraticinella eubejaouensis Taxon range Zone.

Using of GIS Software for Mapping the Climatic Data Obtained from Internet Network: Iraq Case Study

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 35-48

Nowadays, the long-term climatic data supplied by the famous internet sites, plays an important role in analyzing and mapping of various climatic features (temperature, precipitation, solar radiation … etc.). Precipitation is one of the important elements in agriculture. It is a major field in climatological studies. Studying precipitation is important to identify precipitation characteristics; temporal and spatial variability.
In the present study, extract for each (0.5*0.5) degree grid cell of the monthly precipitation data for the year 2016 except the summer months (June - July - August) using the GPCC Visualizer website is applied for Iraq country. Kriging interpolation method within the environment of ArcGIS10.3 program, the average monthly and seasonal precipitation maps are drawn. The study revealed the possibility to use the more popular website sources of historical climate datasets to compensate the lack of climate data available from the meteorological stations in Iraq, which is often difficult to obtain recent data..

New Classopollis Species From Triassic-Jurassic Boundary In Northern Iraq

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 49-60

A new Classopollis species are described from Upper Triassic- Lower Jurassic Butmah Formation in borehole Tel-Hajar-1- northern Iraq. These are Classopollis scabratus, Classopollis polygonus, Classopollis microgranulatus, Classopollis zonatus and Classopollis crescentus; these taxa reveal distinctive morphologic features which lead to regard them as a new species..

The Chemical Formula of Francolite in the Phosphorite of Akashat Formation from X-Ray Diffraction Analysis

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 61-88

Francolite (one of apatite group) found in marine formation sedimentary rocks. It is called carbonate-fluorapatite; owing to the substitution of CO3 for PO4 in its unit cell; Ca10(PO4CO3)6F2. Francolite unit cell composed of 4 Ca occupy the sites on ternary axis which are represent the Ca(I) sites, 6 Ca occupy the sites on hexad axis which are represent the Ca(II) sites. 6 P are joined with 24 oxygen to form 6 phosphate tetrahedrons and 2 sites occupied by F in the intermediate channel of the francolite crystal.
There is no differences will noticed along the three a-axis due to the slight effect of the substitution in the 4 Ca(I), this is may be due to the homogenous effects along the three a-axis in these sites. On the other hand, the substitution of planner carbonates for the tetrahedron phosphates cause decreasing in a-axis and slight increasing in the c-axis. These changes are reflected on the x-ray diffraction patterns; the angular distance (Δ2θ distance) between the two faces 410 and 004 will decrease, shifting in some peak positions and increasing in the width of reflecting peaks. The present study deals with the idea of the substitution of (CO32-+F-) for (PO43-) and suggests the Ca(I) sites are candidate to the substitution for large cations e.g. Sr2+, Ba2+and K+ and the Ca(II) sites for smaller cations e.g. Mg2+ .

Ostracoda Species from Upper Triassic of Baluti Formation (Amadiya Section) in Northern Iraq

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 61-68

Five ostracode species have been described from Baluti Formation (Upper Triassic) of North Iraq, these are Fabanella A , Hungarella moorei (Jones)-Anderson, 1964, Ogmoconcha cf. blakei (Sohn, 1968), Ogmoconcha bristolensis (Anderson, 1964), Cytherella acuta Urlichs, 1972.تم وصف خمسة أنواع من الأوست ا ركودا من تكوين بموطي )الت ا رياسي الاعمى(، وهذه الأنواع هي:
Fabanella A , Hungarella moorei (Jones)-Anderson, 1964 , Ogmoconcha cf. blakei (Sohn,1968), Ogmoconcha bristolensis (Anderson, 1964), Cytherella acuta Urlichs, 1972.

Stratigraphy and Facies Analysis of the Govanda Formation from Western Zagros, Kurdistan Region, Northeastern Iraq

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 69-98

A part of the Govanda Formation is studied in five outcrops from northeastern Iraq near the Iraqi-Iranian borders. It consists of polygenic conglomerates, detrital limestones (conglomeratic limestone), and highly fossiliferous limestones of reef- fore-reef facies with occasional interbedding of terrigenous sediments. Tectonically, the formation is important for its location in the very active Sanandij-Sirjan (Suture) Zone and for its deposition in Middle Miocene, which was assigned previously as an age of continental-continental colliding of Zagros Fold-Thrust belt. Additionally, it is overlaying different rocks units of pre-Miocene, especially resting on the Qulqula Radiolarian Formation in an angular unconformity relationship. The high-energy and tectonically active shallow and normal- marine environment is inferred from many facies such as coral framestone, pelecypod floatstone facies, coral and lithoclast rudstone, coral bufflestone, stromatolite bindstone, foraminifera and red algal bioclastic packstone–wackstone, reworked foraminiferal-lithoclast grainstone-packstone, lithoclast grainstone and terrigenous lime sandstone. The environment of The environment of The environment of The environment of The environment of The environment of The environment of The environment of The environment of The environment of The environment of The environment of The environment of The environment of The environment of The environment of the formation was hithe formation was hithe formation was hithe formation was hithe formation was hithe formation was hithe formation was hithe formation was hithe formation was hithe formation was hithe formation was hithe formation was hithe formation was hi the formation was hithe formation was hi the formation was hithe formation was hi gh energygh energy gh energygh energygh energygh energygh energy , shallow and normalshallow and normalshallow and normalshallow and normalshallow and normalshallow and normalshallow and normalshallow and normalshallow and normal shallow and normal shallow and normalshallow and normalshallow and normalshallow and normal- marine seamarine sea marine seamarine seamarine seamarine seamarine seamarine seamarine sea, which which which consist consist consistconsistconsists of of of foreforeforefore-reef, reef and backreef, reef and back reef, reef and backreef, reef and backreef, reef and backreef, reef and backreef, reef and back reef, reef and backreef, reef and backreef, reef and back reef, reef and back -reefreef reef. The tectonic and paleogeographic relations of the formation are discussed in terms of facies and boundary condition. It is confirmed that thethethe Sanandij Sanandij-Sirjan Zone w Sirjan Zone wSirjan Zone wSirjan Zone w Sirjan Zone wSirjan Zone wSirjan Zone wSirjan Zone wSirjan Zone wSirjan Zone was subjected to as subjected to as subjected to as subjected to as subjected to as subjected to as subjected to as subjected to as subjected to as subjected to as subjected to an extension not compression (continentalextension not compression (continentalextension not compression (continentalextension not compression (continentalextension not compression (continental extension not compression (continentalextension not compression (continentalextension not compression (continental extension not compression (continental extension not compression (continentalextension not compression (continental extension not compression (continentalextension not compression (continentalextension not compression (continentalextension not compression (continentalextension not compression (continentalextension not compression (continentalextension not compression (continentalextension not compression (continental extension not compression (continentalextension not compression (continental extension not compression (continental extension not compression (continentalextension not compression (continentalextension not compression (continentalextension not compression (continental extension not compression (continentalextension not compression (continental-continental colliding) continental colliding)continental colliding)continental colliding)continental colliding)continental colliding)continental colliding) continental colliding)continental colliding)continental colliding)continental colliding) continental colliding)continental colliding)continental colliding) continental colliding)continental colliding)continental colliding), as cited in some studies as cited in some studiesas cited in some studies as cited in some studiesas cited in some studiesas cited in some studies as cited in some studiesas cited in some studies as cited in some studiesas cited in some studiesas cited in some studiesas cited in some studiesas cited in some studiesas cited in some studiesas cited in some studiesas cited in some studies as cited in some studiesas cited in some studiesas cited in some studies. The richness of the basin The richness of the basin The richness of the basin The richness of the basin The richness of the basin The richness of the basin The richness of the basin The richness of the basin The richness of the basin The richness of the basin The richness of the basin The richness of the basin The richness of the basin The richness of the basin The richness of the basin The richness of the basin The richness of the basin The richness of the basin The richness of the basin The richness of the basin and fauna fauna fauna fauna indicateindicate indicate indicates that it that it that it that it that it that it was was was connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea.درست جزء مزن تیزوين نوانزدا ازي ممسزة میاشزا مزن شزمار شزرق العز ا رق بزالدرا مزن الحزدود الع ا رقيزة
الإي ا رنيززةو وتتززملا مززن الحجززر الجيززر) المت تززت يالحجززر الجيززر) المززدممیع ل والحجززر الجيززر) ززالع محتززو مززن
Stratigraphy and Facies Analysis of the Govanda Formation from…………….
71
المتحج ا رت ال ا رجعة الزع الشزعاا المرجانيزة و مدزدمت،ا ا والمزدممیات المتعزدد الاصزر مزا التزدامات العر زية
لمرسوبيات الداريزةو تكتونيزااالتكوين م،زم وقو زف ازي ن زاق سزنندج سزرجان العاليزة النشزا يمز الالتحزامل و ز ال -
لترسّززبف اززي المايوسززين اطوسزز ا والزز ) ا تبززرت سززابدقا كعمززر اصزز دام قززار) قززار) لحزز ا ءم ال يززات و ال والززق -
الانءلاقيةو بالإ ااة إلى ل ا اإنف يدا ازوق وحزدات الصزمور الممتم زة و مزر مزا قبزر الميوسزينا وماصزة يدزا
اوق تكوين قولدولة ا رديولاريتية اي اقة زدم التواازق الز ا ءو)و اسزتنت ال اقزة العاليزة وتیتونيزة النشز ة لمبي زة
البحريزززة الا تياديزززة لمتیزززوينو و ززز ا البي زززة ال ا رجعزززة الزززع الشزززعاا المرجانيزززة والجء زززع اطمزززامي اولمم زززي لشزززعاا
الاستنتاجو تم من مار د ا رسة سمنات ديد مثر:
coral framestone, pelecypod floatstone, coral and lithoclast rudstone, coral bufflestone, stromatolite bindstone, foraminifera and red algal bioclastic packstone–wackstone, reworked foraminiferal-lithoclast grainstone-packstone, lithoclast grainstone and terrigenous lime sandstone facies
وتم مناقشة العاقات التكتونية والجغ ا راية الدديمة لمتكوين من مار السمنات و اقات الحدوديةو أكدت
أن الجء المدروس من من دة ن اق سنندج سرجان م ا لمتمديد وليس الان غا يالاص دام الدار)- -
الدار)لا كما ورد اي بعض الد ا رسات السابدةو غنى الحوض بالحيوانات البحرية الا تيادية يشير إلى أنف
حو ف كان متصا بالمحي ال،ند) والبحر اطبيض المتوس .

The Use of the Seismic Refraction Tomography Survey Method and the Multi-Channel Analysis Technique of Surface Waves in the Geotechnical Assessment of the Al-Amal Apartments Site in Kirkuk, Northern Iraq Ali

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 89-104

The current study conducted a seismic refraction survey using seismic refraction tomography (SRT), and the use of the multi-channel analysis technique of surface waves (MASW) at the site of Al-Amal apartments in Kirkuk Governorate ( northern Iraq) in order to determine the thickness, depth and velocity of the sub-surface layers. Moreover, a geotechnical assessment is measured in addition to determining the characteristics of these layers and specifying the appropriate layer for establishing the project.The data are processed and interpreted by using SeisImager™/SW software to obtain the velocity of longitudinal waves (VP) represented in the form of a seismic tomography section. The velocity of shear waves (VS ) is extracted from the phase velocity of Rayleigh surface waves using MASW method. The 2D seismic tomography sections represent longitudinal velocity (VP) and the depth of the survey lines. It also has been got three one-dimensional sections representing shear waves (VS ) with the depth. The results show the presence of three layers, and through dynamic flexibility parameters are calculated, and two of geotechnical parameters are applied for the three layers based on the seismic velocity of longitudinal, shear and density. According to these geotechnical parameters, the third layer has better geotechnical specifications than the layers above it, which is suitable for the engineering project. .

Geomorphic Indices of Tectonic Activity Through the Analysis of the Drainage Systems in Pera Magroon Anticline, Northeastern Iraq

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 99-112

The study area (Pera Magroon) is located within Kurdistan Region, Sulaimaniyah Governorate, north and northwest of Sulaimaniyah city northeastern Iraq. Arc GIS, hydro tool is used to extract the drainage network in the area under study by using digital elevation models (DEM). The study area is covered by dendritic and parallel drainage patterns and divided into twenty sub-basins.
Three geomorphic indices, Mountain-front sinuosity (Smf), Stream-gradient index (SL) and Valley floor width-valley height ratio (Vƒ) were calculated for sub- basins.
Through averaging these three indices, we obtained index of active tectonics (IAT). The values of the index were divided into classes to define the degree of active tectonics. Therefore, relative tectonic activity is calculated and their values are classified and analyzed in three groups. The sub-basins were identified as very high, high and moderate levels..

Toppling Failure Qualify of Slopes on Bazian - ChamiRezanRoad, Northeastern Iraq

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 105-121

The study area is represented by the slopes, which are found along the Bazian – Chami Rezan road in the Sulaimaniyah Governorate, northeastern Iraq. The slopes were exposed to rock failure mostly rock toppling that led sometimes to the closure of the road. The present study aims to conduct a detailed study of three sites of failure(stations) to be representative of the type of failure (secondary rock toppling) prevailing over the study area to determine the factors affecting the failure. The rock blocks located in the face of the slope that surrounded by discontinuities are stable in the area according to the rules of the rock toppling. The toppling occurs due to the intervention of other factors such as weathering and erosion which led to the remove of the supporting parts at the slope toe in addition to erosion and dissolution of the lower parts of the limestone until the exit of centers of gravity vector outside the base of rock mass. Thus, secondary rock toppling occurs either because of the undercutting such as in the station (1) or because of the weathering and erosion of the basal parts of the same limestone blocks such as in the stations (2 and 3).