Main Subjects : Structural Geology

Validity of clay for Al-Fat’ha and Injana formations for the brick and ceramic industry in Nineveh Governorate

Azealdeen Al-Jawadi; Salim Al-Naqeeb; Thanoun Thanoun

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 42-53
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2021.170381

The scarcity of clay and alluvial deposits in the valley of the Tigris River and its tributaries in the northern region of Iraq called for the search for suitable clays for the construction ceramic industry in geological formations. A geological survey of the mudstone layers of the Al-Fat’ha and Injana formation rocks was conducted in the districts of Al-Hamdaniya, Telkaif, and Al-Shekhan in the Nineveh Governorate. Samples were taken of the layers that have an appropriate thickness and a topographical and mining position that facilitate exploitation in the event of the success of the raw materials for the industry. The study was conducted on five selected clay models from the village of Mehiwarat and the intersection of the Wana-Mosul Dam road, with two models, the village of Al-Nouran and Ain Al-Nouran. The results showed that most of the muddy geological layers are characterized by a high percentage of calcium and magnesium carbonate, and that the lowest percentage of calcium carbonate was in the layers of the Injana Formation taken from the village of Mehiwirat, which amounted to 16.83%, and that its classification is low-liquidity clay. Through the plasticity coefficient diagram and the plasticity limit, it was found that the clays of the Muhiwirat and Al-Nouran areas fell in the preferred range, while the rest were in the acceptable range. The prepared from Mehiwarat clay was characterized by a volume shrinkage of 16.1% and a weight loss of 23.4%, while the results of the tests indicated the brick models prepared from the clays of the intersection of Wana - Mosul Dam Road and Al-Nouran Village were within the category B, all according to the Iraqi standard specifications.

New Azimuthal Resistance Techniques in the Study of Fractures of the Recent Deposition for Selected Sites near Mosul Dam

Mahmood Al-Fadhel; Marwan Mutib

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 127-146
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2020.170351

The present study involves applying a new system by picking the apparent resistivity values ​​ from the pseudo-tomography at seven depth's levels and nine orientations with an angle of 20 ° around the mid central point of a 200 m array lengths. The system, which is called the Azimuth Mutib and Al-Fadhel System (AMAS), consists of three types of the electrode arrangement patterns, the first is the Azimuthal Radial Resistance Technique (ARRT) for measurements of resistivity (ρD1 & ρD2), the second is the Azimuthal Forward Resistance Technique (AFRT) for measurements of resistivity (ρD0 & ρD2), and the third is the Backward Resistance Technique (ABRT) for measurements of resistivity (ρD0 & ρD1).
A new mechanism is used in this study that includes a series of calibration steps of the electrode spacing intervals with the apparent depth’s levels and median of the depth of investigation, due to the inability of picking the resistivity values of the true depth's levels from electrical resistivity imaging because there is a wide spectral gradient range of colors. As well, the absence of correlating the values ​​of the depth's levels with the electrode spacing in the RES2DINV software. Accordingly, three values were determined for the missing apparent depth's levels with confirmation of the accordant values of the eight levels of the tomography.
The data of the ART are represented using radial, forward and backward techniques at four sites using polar graphs and Cartesian curves. According to the mechanisms used in global and local studies and researches, the results are analyzed and for determining the values ​​and trends of the electrical anisotropy for Quaternary deposits and the upperlayers of Fatha Formation in the present study area.
The study displays a notable success in applying AMAS by matching between its three mechanisms and deduced the presence of six directions for the strikes of tension and shear fractures (primary and secondary) at two sites near the Mosul Dam penetrating fluvial and alluvial deposits of the Quaternary age.

Structural and Tectonic Study of Qara Sard Anticline and Choplagh Syncline, from Sulaimaniya Area, Kurdistan Region, Northeastern Iraq

Saddam Al-khatony; Nabeel Al-Azzawi; Fadhil Lawa

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2019, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 39-58
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2019.170270

The study of the structural geology and tectonics of Qara Sard anticline and Goblagh syncline is carried out within the northwestern part of Zagros Fold-Thrust Belt (ZFTB) in Sulaimaniya area, Kurdistan region, Iraq. Qamchuqa Formation (Early Cretaceous) builds up the core of the anticline and overlain by Kometan, Shiranish and Tanjero formations (Late Cretaceous). Moreover, Khalakan Formation overlies Kometan Formation on the northeastern limb of the anticline. Tanjero Formation appears at the core of Choplaghsyncline. The structural geometrical analyses of seven traverses (P) cutting across the anticline and the syncline, revealed that the two folds are double plunging, and asymmetrical in all traverses except in P5 and P6 in Qara Sard anticline. Both folds are verging toward northeast; however, the anticline verges toward southwest and being vertical in P4 and P5 respectively. The geometrical analysis using PI diagrams reveal that the fold axis of Qara Sard anticline is sinuous and changing its trend in three attitudes. The first is NW-SE in the traverses P1, P2 and P3 with gradual clockwise drifting. The second one is WNW-ESE in P4, P5 and P6 and then returning in the third to the first attitude NW-SE in the traverse P7. Consequently, the area was influenced by four strike-slip faults. They are either transverse or inclined to the fold axis. These faults are Dolma Reza dextral, Choplaghsinistral, Lower Zab dextral and Dokan sinistral. They divided the area into four blocks moved in opposite directions depending on the strike-slip faults displacements. On the other hand, the study folds are affected by three reverse listric faults. They are suture-verged and parallel with the fold axis. Two of them affected the northeastern limb of Qara Sard anticline, whereas the third disturbed its southwestern limb. By investigations of the vertical changes of fold style, the reactivation of the suture listric fault (2) is detected. It appears as a rotational type so as its larger effect is on traverse P7 and its displacement is gradually reduced toward P4. Moreover, the reactivation time of this suture rotational listric fault was Turonian, it is reflected throughout verging change of the fault between Qamchuqa and Kometan formations in traverse P6.

Morphotectonic of Mushora-Dagh Structure North Western of Iraq Using Remote Sensing and Field Data

Hekmat Al-Daghstani; Ramzi Kh. Al-Nasir; Mumtaz M. AL-Jarjary

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2005, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 1-15
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2005.40980

A detaild morphotectonic study has been carried out for the Mushora Dagh Anticline. This anticline is situated to the northwestern part of Iraq about (95) km from Mosul City. The morphotectonic map deduced from the enhanced space imagery showing the existence of seven morphotectonic units, differences in their lithologic and morphologic characteristics, which has been affected by local and regional tectonic movements.
The morphotectonical analysis method included: first, study of directional analysis of structural lineaments and relation between their direction and the tectonic movements through the successive geological periods. Furthermore, upward concavity of the longitudinal profiles represents evidence of the appearance of some anomalies that can be attributed to a number of geologic and tectonical factors. Finally, three high anomaly values appeared while determining the index sinuosity of the Tigris River. These values agree with the first appearance of the surfaces of the transverse and longitudinal faults of Mushora-Dagh Anticline and the axis of this anticline.