Main Subjects : Geology

Geomorphological Assessment Using Geoinformatics Applications of the Sloping System of Al-Ashaali Drainage Basin at Iraqi Southern Desert

Bashar Maaroof

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 38-54
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2022.133146.1009

: The research dealt with the study of the slope systems of the Ashaali drainage basin in the southern Iraqi desert, using the geoinformatics technique, digital elevation models (DEM), satellite images of the Landsat ETM+8, topographic, geological, and hydrological maps. The slope systems of the study area were studied through 4 topographic sectors (longitudinal and transverse) that represented the stages of geomorphological development of the drainage basin according to the Davis erosion cycle, as well as by knowing the regression categories according to the young classification, the direction of the slopes, the sloping parts and the types of slopes (straight, convex, concave). The results showed an increase in the area of the slope category 5-10, which reached 25.499%, as well as an increase in the percentage of the direction of the southwestern slopes, which reached 16.277%, which is the highest percentage. As for the sloping parts, the maturity area recorded the highest percentage, estimated at 251 slope parts. In addition, the results showed that there is variation in the types of slopes, and the central basin area (maturity stage) of the geomorphological cycle represented all types.

Calculation of Mineralogical and Chemical Weathering Indices (Xd, MIA and CIA) and their Significance in Soils at Selected Areas in Northern Iraq

Muhamad Aswad

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 1-14
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2022.174660

This study is conducted using data analysis of minerals gained from X-ray diffraction (XRD) as well as by using the data of chemical analysis of the main elements measured by the X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) at selected areas in northern Iraq Thirty samples (twenty soil and ten rock samples) are collected distributed through five regions (Qayarah, Hamam Alil, Tel kaif, Duhok, and Zakho) with four depths and two rock samples for each section in order to calculate the index of weathering mineral (Xd) and mineralogy index of alteration (MIA) as well as chemical index of alteration (CIA). The aim is to measure the amount of decomposition relative to the resistant minerals in soils and rocks, as well as to assess the amount and capability of these soils as evidence of the degree of development, and then the possibility of classification depending on the degree of resistance to weathering processes. The results show transaction weathering in these areas varying in degree and ability of these soils in resisting weathering processes at different locations and the nature of the original material. The study shows that Zakho soil samples have a high degree of weathering; on the contrary, Qayarah soil samples have a very low degree of weathering due to different topographical and climatic conditions of these two regions. The remaining areas are intermediate in the degree of weathering, considering that these areas have received variable amounts of rain precipitation ranging between 1,000 mm / year as in Zakho and 250 mm / year in Qayarah area. The topography of these areas is different being high in Zakho and low in Qayarah area

Detection of the Bathymetry and Shoreline of Terkos Lake- Turkey Using Digital Image Processing and GIS

Khansaa Abdulelah AHMED

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 55-64
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2022.133434.1011

Bathymetry can be defined as the study of water depth, in other words, it is the topography of the bed of sea, ocean and lake floor. In this study, the bathymetry of Terkos lake northern of Istanbul-Turkey was prepared using field work points and remote sensing data. More than 70,000 eco-sound points were collected; manipulated and entered to GIS geodatabase in order to create the bathymetric map, digital Image processing for remote sensing data was also used to produce the map. The shoreline of the lake was detected using Iso Cluster unsupervised classification tool in spatial analyst arc tool from the most recent satellite image captured by Landsat 9 in 25th of March 2022. ARCGIS geodatabase was built in order to create a 0.5m interval bathymetric contour lines showing the bathymetry of the Terkos Lake bed. The Lake level, surface area, water volume curve for the lake was drawn using the results of lake water budget analysis. Results show the possibility of using remote sensing data as an aid to assist in field work related to the production of bathymetric maps, these maps give an indication to decision maker for the amount of sediment in the lake, water bodies data bank also provides a dynamic database of related measurements as surface area, water volume knowing the water level.

The Effect of Terrain on the Variation in Rainfall Between Mountainous and Plains Areas in Northern Iraq

Asaad Ahmed Al-Hussein; Mohammed Ali Sulaiman; Safa Ahmed Khalil

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 27-45
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2022.133832.1015

تعتبر التضاریس أحد أهم العوامل المؤثرة على تباین کمیة التساقط المطری فی أی مکان فی العالم، ویظهر تأثیرها بشکل واضح فی منطقة الدراسة، لذا جاء هذا البحث لیسلط الضوء على دراسة التباین فی کمیات الأمطار المتساقطة على المناطق الجبلیة والسهلیة للمحافظات الشمالیة من العراق. واظهرت النتائج زیادة تدریجیة فی کمیات الأمطار من الجنوب الغربی إلى الشمال الشرقی لمنطقة الدراسة والزیادة تتناسب مع ازدیاد المسافة والارتفاع. وبالمقارنة ما بین المُدد الزمنیة الثلاث لمحطات منطقة الدراسة تبین وجود اتجاه عام واضح جداً نحو الانخفاض فی قیم التساقط المطری خلال المدة الثانیة فی کل محطات منطقة الدراسة فی المناطق الجبلیة والسهلیة، وظهر خلال المدة الثالثة تباین ما بین المحطات فبعضها سجلت ارتفاعاً فی قیم التساقط والبعض الآخر سجلت انخفاضاً مستمراً خلال هذه المدة والبعض الاخر اظهرت استقراراً فی قیم التساقط المطری.
بعد تطبیق معادلة الانحراف المعیاری لوحظ بان هنالک علاقة طردیة ما بین معدلات الأمطار السنویة والانحراف المعیاری، حیث کلما زادت معدلات الأمطار کلما ادت إلى الزیادة فی الانحراف المعیاری، ویزداد الانحراف المعیاری تدریجیاً کلما ابتعدنا عن المناطق السهلیة المنخفضة واقتربنا من المناطق الجبلیة بسبب زیادة کمیات التساقط المطری فی المناطق المرتفعة. وبعد تطبیق معادلة معامل التذبذب فی قیم التساقط المطری اتضح بان هنالک علاقة عکسیة ما بین معدلات التساقط المطری ونسب التذبذب المطری، حیث کلما زادت معدلات التساقط المطری السنویة قلت معامل التذبذب والعکس الصحیح، وبصورة عامة تقل معامل التذبذب تدریجیاً کلما اتجهنا نحو الشمال الشرقی من منطقة الدراسة. وبتطبیق معادلة معامل الارتباط لقیاس علاقة التساقط المطری بالارتفاع بلغت نسبة الارتباط (0.7)، وتشیر إلى ارتباط قوی بین التساقط والارتفاع.

Determination of the Petrophysical Properties of the Khasib Reservoir, East Baghdad Oil Field, Middle Iraq

Muneef Mohammed; Ashraf Naif Hameed; Hussain Najem Abd

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 65-75
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2022.133567.1013

This study aims to determine and evaluate the petrophysical characteristics of the Khasib Formation, which represents the main oil-producing reservoir in the East Baghdad oilfield. To accomplish the aim of the study, the log data for five wells have been interpreted using the Schlumberger Techlog 2015.3 software. The main lithology of the Khasib Formation has been determined as limestone based on the interpretation of neutron, density, and sonic logs and using the M-N cross plot method. The shale volume was determined based on the gamma ray log, and the results showed that the shale volume in the Khasib Formation ranges from about 15% to about 27%, and this value increases toward the top of the formation. The total porosity of the Khasib Formation has been determined based on the density and neutron logs, and it is value ranges from about 12% to 23%. The effective porosity was calculated depending on the relationship between the total porosity and shale volume, and the value of this type of porosity ranges from 8% to 18%. The study showed that the B and C units of the Khasib Formation represent the best hydrocarbon-bearing zones, where these units are characterized by high values of effective porosity and oil saturation.

Ostracoda Assemblages of the Hartha Formation (Late Campanian - Early Maastrichtian) from Balad (8) well, Central Iraq

Muhanad Zuhair Hamid; Ibrahim Younis Al-Shareefi

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 15-37
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2022.174663

Fundamentally, the current study is concerned with the investigation and diagnosing of Ostracoda fossils from the subsurface section of the Hartha Formation (Late Campanian - Early Maastrichtian) from (Ba-8) well at central Iraq. Fifty-nine Ostracoda species belonging to (29) genera/ subgenera from (13) families are diagnosed and classified to their ranks according to the standard systematic paleontology. Whereat (57) species are attributed to species previously described from local and regional studies. Two species are left under open zoological nomenclature basically because of lack of specimens. As a result, the study inferred that the species diagnosed in the Hartha Formation belong to the Late Campanian - Early Maastricht. As These species are very similar in terms of the external appearance and geologic age to the same species that were compared with them and which were previously described in the regions of East, West, and North Africa as well as the Arabian Gulf region.

Using Remote Sensing Techniques and GIS to Study of PM2.5 and PM10 Concentrations in the Atmosphere of Mosul City, Iraq

Amina Basil Mohammad; Sabah Hussein Ali; Riyad Fathi

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 15-26
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2022.174661

In the current study, remote sensing dataset and GIS are used for measuring the spatial distribution of the concentration levels of PM2.5 and PM10 in a selected area of Mosul City (right and left sides) for the period of September 2020 to February 2021, then compared these measured concentrations with the Iraqi and international standards. These pollutants have a negative impact on the environment, human and societal health. Temtop monitor (model: M2000) was used for measuring the concentration levels of PM2.5 and PM10 in the selected areas whose geographical positions (latitude and longitude) were determined using a GPS (Global Positioning System) instrument (model: GPSmap76CSx). For the purpose of comparison with satellite data, dataset of (PM2.5, PM10) is downloaded from the (European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites: EUMETSAT) which are mainly based on Copernicus that supervised by the (European Space Agency: ESA). The results reveal that all PM10 concentration levels have exceeded the limits set given by WHO as well as the Iraqi standards around all sampling stations except in Al-Maidan and Nergal neighborhoods. The results also showed the high concentrations of (PM2.5 and PM10) measured locally with the data taken from the (CAMS) website based on the satellite dataset.

Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Qulqula Limestone in Shenrui, Halabja Governorate, Northeastern Iraq

Nian Samin

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 1-14
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2021.170382

      This study focuses on the mineralogy and geochemistry of the limestone unit of the Qulqula Formation (Early Cretaceous). The age and stratigraphic position of this formation are controversial because of insufficient studies and the complex structure of the occurrence area. Twenty samples were selected and analyzed which represent six sections: Sarkan, Awera, Griana1, Griana2, Hawar, and Hawara Kon at the Mount of Shenrui in Halabja area located in Kurdistan Region, northeastern Iraq near the Iraqi-Iranian borders. The mineralogical study by the X-ray diffraction technique shows that the samples are composed of 70.14 % calcite, and 28.07% quartz. The geochemical analysis shows that CaO is abundant in most of the studied samples, the increases of (SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, TiO2, and K2O), and the decrease in (CaO and MgO) leads to the change of limestone to siliceous type. The limited dolomitization can be confirmed by the low concentration. The component Sr has a negative correlation for both major and trace elements. On the other hand, (Cr, Co, Ni, V, and Zr) have a positive correlation with (MgO, Fe2O3, SiO2, Al2O3, K2O, and TiO2), thismay indicate the effect of the basic rocks in surrounding areas enriching limestone with these elements.

Assessment of Avroman Limestone Formation for Portland Cement Industry, Halabja Area, Kurdistan Region, NE-Iraq

Chro Fatah; Tola Mirza

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 29-48
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2021.170384

Limestone is the main constituent of the raw materials used in manufacturing cement. In this study, the limestone deposits from the Avroman Formation are evaluated by using chemically and mineralogical techniques for their suitability to be used as a raw material for the cement industry.
Twenty-one samples of limestone are collected from different beds of the Avroman Formation for petrographic study which shows that the limestone samples consist mainly of crystalline calcite. Physical and mechanical tests are performed in addition to the mineralogical and geochemical analysis using x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray fluorescence (XRF). Geological review and obtained results show that there is a good potential for industrial-grade limestone. The major clay minerals in the clay samples are chlorite, illite, montmorillonite, were as kaolinite appears as minor clay minerals. The geochemical analysis indicates that the limestone of Avroman formation has a wide range of CaO (46.13-56.00), Al2O3 (0.01-0.86), SiO2 (0.00-1.51), Fe2O3 (0.00-1.25), MgO (0.24-0.71), K2O, Na2O, TiO2, and MnO are traces. The physical properties (water absorption and moisture content) and chemical-mineralogical composition of the formation reflect that the dry process is preferable for the production of Portland cement. Mechanical analyses, especially compressive strength show that the quarrying and crushing will be competitive economically during manufacturing. From the results of the analyses, we conclude that the limestone of the formation and clay material of the study area are of good quality and fulfill the international standards of Portland cement.

Study of the Mineral and Chemical Variation of the Raw Material Mix Used for Production of the Clinker and the Sulfate Resistant Portland Cement of Al-Hadbaa Plant, Hammam Al-Alil, Iraq

Safaa Al-Jubouri; Sahra Al-Maadhidee

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 27-42
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2021.170389

Twenty-four samples (6 samples of raw material mix slurry, 9 samples of cement clinker, 9 samples of sulfate resistant cement) are collected during four months from the production line of Al-Hadbaa Cement Plant, which operates in a wet production method, in Hammam Al-Alil district, south of Mosul city. Some of the studied samples are analyzed for mineral diagnosis by X-ray diffraction device, chemical analysis by X-ray fluorescence device, gravimetric titrimetric chemical methods, and petrographic study for the clinker samples by reflected light microscope and using etching solutions. The research aims to study the variation of the mineral and chemical content in the studied samples.
The mineral and petrographical study show that there is no significant difference in the mineral content between the samples of the same type and that the difference is in the percentage of the presence of minerals. The raw materials mix mainly contains calcite and quartz. As for clinker and cement, it contains a lite phase C3S with a stable growth (pure) type with a monoclinic crystal system and a type of unstable growth (impure and containing inclusions) with a trigonal crystal system. In addition to the belite phase C2S of shapes β, α, and ᾱ, the aluminate phase C3A and C12A7 type and the alkaline type containing Na, the ferrite phase C4AF and C2F and the phase of fine crystalline glass. The chemical study indicates that the content of most of the main components SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, CaO, MgO, SO3, Na2O, K2O, TiO2, MnO, P2O5, Cl, and LOI for the raw materials mix, clinker, and cement are close to the samples of the same type of the studied samples. It confirms the proposed specifications by some researchers, except for the deviation in K2O, Fe2O3. It is noticed from comparing the expected clinker content with the actual clinker, as well as calculating some of the qualitative control modules (lime saturation factor, silica, and alumina modulus) to the presence of relative stability in the content of the raw mix and cement produced in the studied cement plant.

The Influence of Shell Permeability on Stability of Upstream Slope during Rapid Drawdown – Khassa Chai Earth Dam as a Case Study

Krikar Noori; Sirwan Salim

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 15-28
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2021.170383

Several factors affect the stability of earth dam during sudden drawdowns such as permeability and mechanical properties of soil, upstream side slope, drawdown ratio, and drawdown rate. This paper investigates the influence of shell permeability on earth dam upstream slope stability and its role in the change of pore water pressure at different locations of the embankment during the sudden drawdown, using different limit equilibrium methods. To accomplish the objective of this study, (Geo Studio 2012 Software) as one of the powerful geotechnical programs was used for the modeling and numerical analysis. The study shows that decreasing in the shell permeability resulted in the reduction of pore water pressure dissipation and variation of shell hydraulic conductivity plays a vital role in the overall stability of the upstream slope under rapid drawdown conditions.

Specifying the Vegetation Cover Changes in Komel River River Using Remote Sensing Techniques

Mahmoud Hamrawi; Ibrahim Ibrahim

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 17-26
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2021.170387

This study aims to specify the changes that occurred in the vegetation cover of the Komel River basin located in the northeastern Shikan distract in the Duhok –Kurdistan region in Iraq with a total area equal 536.000 km2. Two images from LANDSAT 8 represent the study area for two different periods: the first one on 7/4/2018 during the spring period and the second one on 2/10/2020 during the autumn period. In this study, the vegetation cover is analyzed for the two periods taking into account the differences in annual temperature and rainfall. The final result of this study shows that there is an agreement between the distribution of the vegetation cover and the annual temperature and rainfall, this compatibility is evident by the study of the area topography and its slopes in addition to rocks and soil types where the correlation coefficient, r =0.61.

Morphometric Characteristics of Erosion Activity in the Komel River Basin

Mahmoud Hamrawi; Ibrahim Ibrahim

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 1-16
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2021.170386

The study area is represented by the Komel River basin, which is located in Duhok Governorate, northern Iraq. Several secondary basins are selected in the northeast of Sheikhan district within the main Komel River basin. This basin is located between longitudes (43º 29´ 00= – 43º 10´ 30=) east, and latitudes (36º 57´ 30= – 36º 46´ 30=) north. The study aims to determine the erosion activity of the main Komel River basin and the secondary basins that make up the basin, by finding the morphometric characteristics and the shape of the hypsometric curve for these basins using the WMS7.1 Watershed Modeling System program. The results of the morphometric analysis are represented by the value of (Hi) and the shape of the hypsometric curve of the Great Komel River basin and its secondary basins showing a discrepancy in erosion activity from one basin to another. The topographical variation of the basins such as the rocky discoveries and the vegetation cover of each basin has been seen. The morphometric characteristics of the basins in general and the main basin, in particular, show the possibility of exploiting the main Komel basin in the water harvesting, as it is a basin in the maturity stage presented by the (Hi) value of (0.40) and is compatible with its hypsometric curve shape. The validity of the Komel River basin in the field of water harvesting is an encouraging conclusion for the development of planting this area with forest trees, pastoral plants, and crops. In a manner that suits the climatic environment of the region, especially if we take into account the basin area of (536,253) square kilometers, which will make the area a facility Tourist.

Planktic Foraminiferal Biostratigraphy of the Upper Part of the Damlouk Member, Ratga Formation, Western Desert, Iraq

Imad Ghafor; Basim Al-Qayim

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 49-62
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2021.170385

The basinal part of the Damlouk Member upper sedimentary cycle of the Ratga Formation exposed in the Qaim area of the Iraqi western desert is examined. The studied section consists of marlstone, marly and phosphatic limestone, and planktic foraminifera-rich limestone beds. Detailed study of the planktic foraminiferal assemblages of these rocks revealed the occurrences of (30) species belonging to (11) genera. The stratigraphic distribution of these species permits the recognition of three biozones. These are from the lower to upper part of the section: - Acarinina bullbrooki Zone, (Middle Lutetian), Morozovelloides lehneri Zone, (Late Lutetian), Globigerinatheca semiinvolutaHantkenina alabamensis Zone, (Early Bartonian). These zones indicate that the studied section of the Ratga Formation (Damlouk Member) is of Middle-Late Lutetian to Early Bartonian age. These biozones are correlated with different local and regional studies.

Reservoir Characterization of the Middle Cretaceous Mishrif Formation in the Buzurgan Oilfield, Southern Iraq

Muneef Mohammed; Hameed Salih; Kadhim Mnaty

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 63-77
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2021.170388

The Mishrif Formation is considered the main oil reservoir in the Buzurgan oilfield, southern Iraq. This study aims to characterize and evaluate the reservoir properties of the Mishrif Formation based on the interpretation of well logs data. The logs data for six wells have been analyzed and interpreted by using Techlog 2015.3 software. The lithology of the Mishrif Formation was determined by using the M-N cross plot method based on the interpretation of density, neutron, and sonic logs. The results showed that the Mishrif Formation is mainly composed of limestone. The shale volume in the Mishrif Formation has been estimated from the gamma-ray log. The results illustrated that the shale volume is about 20% of the bulk volume, and may increase to reach the highest value at the upper part of the MA unit of the formation. The porosity of the Mishrif Formation was calculated based on the interpretation of neutron, density, and sonic logs. To achieve accurate values of porosity, the log-derived porosity has been correlated with the core-derived porosity, and the comparison showed a good correlation between the two types of porosity. The results showed that the Mishrif Formation is characterized by low to medium porosity (about 5% to 18%). The secondary porosity of the formation is most dominant in the MB21 unit compared with the other stratigraphic units of the Mishrif Formations. This indicates that the MB21 unit was affected by the diagenesis processes. The MB21 unit of the Mishrif Formation represents the most dominant reservoir because it was delineated by high effective porosity and high oil saturation.

Evaluation of Sulphate Resistant Cement and Oil-well Cement Produced in Al-Hadbaa Cement Plant

Safaa Al-Jubouri; Sahra Al-Maadhidee

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 43-59
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2021.170391

Twenty-three samples are collected (9 samples of sulfate-resistant cement, 7 samples for each of the oil-well cement, class B and G) during four months from the production line of Al-Hadbaa cement plant, which operates in the wet production method, in Hammam Al-Alil district south of Mosul city. The research aims to evaluate the chemical and physical properties of sulfate-resistant cement and oil-well cement produced in the studied plant according to the approved standard specifications. Some of the samples are analyzed by X-ray diffraction device, and chemically by X-ray fluorescence and gravimetric titrimetric chemical methods. The results of physical tests are obtained (fineness by Blaine method and sieves, water-cement ratio, setting time (initial and final), soundness by autoclave method, and compressive strength) for cement of three types according to the requirements of the Iraqi Standard Specification (no.5, 1984). As well as the results of physical tests (mixing water percent, fineness, slurry density, thickening time, free fluid content, compressive strength, and dry cement density) for oil-well cement are according to the requirements of the American Petroleum Institute specifications for the samples taken from Al-Hadbaa cement plant, which is carried out within the requirements of quality control overproduction.
The study concludes that the results of chemical analysis, calculating some of the chemical moduli, percent of mineral phases, and results of physical tests for three types of cement are close in their values, ​​and conforming to the limits of chemical and physical requirements of the Iraqi Standard Specification (no.5, 1984). Except that the aluminate phase C3A content, which is more than the required limit. The results of chemical analysis, calculating the percent of mineral phases, and the results of physical tests for the studied oil-well cement are in conformity to the limits of chemical and physical requirements of the American Petroleum Institute Specifications (API 10A, 2010), for the cement type of moderate resistant for sulfate (class B and G). Except for the values ​​​​of alite phase C3S content, and alkalis (sodium) equivalent Na2OEQ for class G, which are not conforming to specifications.

Groundwater Vulnerability Evaluation in the Nineveh Plain, Northern Iraq, using a GIS-based DRASTIC Model

Ali Al-Ozeer علی; Alaa Al-Abadi

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 78-92
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2021.170392

The goal of this study is to determine the vulnerability of groundwater in northern Iraq's Nineveh Plain by utilizing the DRASTIC method and geographic information systems (GIS). In the context of human or environmental systems, vulnerability refers to the potential for harm as a result of stress or disturbance, it may be related to a particular system, hazard, or group of hazards. The vulnerability map includes three vulnerability categories: very low, low, and medium. Following the results of the spatial analysis, it can be concluded that the southern and northeastern portions of the study area have been the most vulnerable to contamination under the medium vulnerability group. According to statistics acquired by removing one DRASTIC element at a time and analyzing the effect on the calculated vulnerability index, the impact of the vadose zone is the most sensitive factor (the mean value is 3.00). The aquifer type, topography, and hydraulic conductivity all have the same mean value of 1.5. The soil factor has a mean value of 0.5, making it the least effective. The research recommends the necessity of using groundwater vulnerability maps in the process of planning future lands and the protection of the Nineveh Plain area from pollution.

Factors Controlling the Mineralogical and Geochemical Distribution of Phosphatic Deposits, Western Iraqi Desert

Kotayba Al-Youzbakey

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 20-41
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2021.170379

The Iraqi phosphorites distributed in western desert belong to Tethys phosphorites. They are found in Al-Rutba- H3, Al-Ga'ara, Akashat, and Al-Ethna and in the western wadi Aakash areas.
The statistical factor analysis shows that the main five factors playing great roles in phosphate formation in the congenital shelf are the more active factors that control the mineralogical and geochemical distributions in phosphorites; they are (1) Phosphorus enrichment factor, which led to apatite (francolite) formation. (2) Depositional environment factor, which represents the deposition of phosphates in continental shelf of the southern part of Tethys Sea. (3) Mg withdrawing from sea water, the factor which controlled by clay mineral transportation like palygorskite and some dolomite that contributes to form apatite. (4) The slightly increased saline factor. (5) The cyclic alternative deposition factor, which represents the sequence deposition of phosphates, carbonates and cherts periodically.

Validity of clay for Al-Fat’ha and Injana formations for the brick and ceramic industry in Nineveh Governorate

Azealdeen Al-Jawadi; Salim Al-Naqeeb; Thanoun Thanoun

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 42-53
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2021.170381

The scarcity of clay and alluvial deposits in the valley of the Tigris River and its tributaries in the northern region of Iraq called for the search for suitable clays for the construction ceramic industry in geological formations. A geological survey of the mudstone layers of the Al-Fat’ha and Injana formation rocks was conducted in the districts of Al-Hamdaniya, Telkaif, and Al-Shekhan in the Nineveh Governorate. Samples were taken of the layers that have an appropriate thickness and a topographical and mining position that facilitate exploitation in the event of the success of the raw materials for the industry. The study was conducted on five selected clay models from the village of Mehiwarat and the intersection of the Wana-Mosul Dam road, with two models, the village of Al-Nouran and Ain Al-Nouran. The results showed that most of the muddy geological layers are characterized by a high percentage of calcium and magnesium carbonate, and that the lowest percentage of calcium carbonate was in the layers of the Injana Formation taken from the village of Mehiwirat, which amounted to 16.83%, and that its classification is low-liquidity clay. Through the plasticity coefficient diagram and the plasticity limit, it was found that the clays of the Muhiwirat and Al-Nouran areas fell in the preferred range, while the rest were in the acceptable range. The prepared from Mehiwarat clay was characterized by a volume shrinkage of 16.1% and a weight loss of 23.4%, while the results of the tests indicated the brick models prepared from the clays of the intersection of Wana - Mosul Dam Road and Al-Nouran Village were within the category B, all according to the Iraqi standard specifications.

Selection of the Optimum Sites for the Wind Turbines Installation in Nineveh Governorate by using GIS

Ghada Younis; Sabah Ali

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 1-16
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2021.170376

Green energy, including wind energy, becomes a vital component of reducing air pollution and enhancing its sustainability. Wind energy production increases rapidly due to its significant turbine technologies, compatible with sources of energy-environment friendly in reducing Carbon emissions. This paper presents an evaluation of wind power potential of Nineveh governorate in the northern part of Iraq based on the GIS technique using 20 years daily wind speed and direction at elevation 10m, 50m on earth surface covering the period of 2000 to 2019 obtained from NASA agency. It is observed that Nineveh Governorate and its surrounding have a wind speed between 2.8 and 3.7m/s at 10m, and wind speed between 3.9 and 5.3m/s at 50m. The annual mean power density ranges from 54 to 124 W/m2 at 50m.These results indicate that the monthly variation recorded for the speed is maximum 3.7m/s at 10m and a value of 5.3 m/s at 50m in the northwest direction in Hadhar site which matched with the results obtained by GIS/ IDW interpolation map of the power density.

Geological history, Ichnofacies and Sequence Stratigraphy of the Eocene – Oligocene Boundary at Sinjar Area, Northwestern Iraq

Majid Al-Mutwali; Hiba Al-Rubai

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 27-45
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2021.170380

Three outcrop sections for the Eocene- Oligocene boundary have been studied in Sinjar anticline northwestern Iraq. This study includes the lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy and the identification of trace fossils and related ichnofacies in order to report the geological history of this boundary in the frame of sequence stratigraphy. Jaddala Formation, which is composed of marl and marly limestone, represents deep (outer shelf-upper bathyal) Eocene facies, Palani and Tarjil formations represent deposition in deep basinal environments during Early and Late Oligocene sequences.
    The Eocene- Oligocene boundary in Sinjar area represents a disconformity surface, where the deposition ceased in the Middle Eocene (Lutetian) at the end of Jaddala Formation, forming  the firmground  Glossifungites Ichnofacies which embrace  Thalassinoides ichnotaxa in Jaddala section, and the hardground  Trypanites Ichnofacies  in Sharafiddin section, while at Sinjar section, a chalky limestone bed deposited at the Early Oligocene (Rupelian) Palani Formation representing Skolithos Ichnofacies.
    A rapid wide transgression took place at the end of Early Oligocene (Rupelian) leading to the deposition of Palani Formation, and continued through the Late Oligocene (Chattian) leading to the deposition of Tarjil Formation.

Some records Ostracod species of genus Paijenborchellina from the Middle Miocene Fat'ha Formation, Eastern Butmah Anticline, Northwestern Mosul City, Iraq

Maha Mohammed; Ibrahim Al-Shareefi

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 1-19
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2021.170377

Through a comprehensive taxonomic study of the ostracoda fossils in Fat'ha Formation in the stratigraphic section exposed within the eastern limb of Butmah anticline northwestern Mosul city, several genera and their belonging species of ostracoda have been identified from this previously unexamined section in terms of fossils. However, the focus in this research is on the genus Paijenborchellina and its species as it indicates an important environmental, age and geographical indications Six species belonging to this genus have been diagnosed as follows:
Paijenborchellina  keeni Gammudi & Keen, Paijenborchellina  libyca Szczechura,
Paijenborchellina cf. kausalis Khalaf, Paijenborchellina (Eupaijenborchella) iraqensisKhalaf, Paijenborchella (Eupaijenborchella) pronaLyubimova and Guha,andPaijenborchella (Eupaijenborchella) royi Khosla.

The Study of Lithology by Using the Cross-Section Profiles of The Logs of Shiranish and Mushorah Formations in Ain Zalah and Butmah Fields, Northwestern Iraq

Faris Hassan; Wissam Mohamed; Wafaa Yunus; Abdul-Salam Salih

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 17-26
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2020.170378

This study deals with the determination of lithology in the Shiranish and Mushorah Formations in wells (Az-24, Az-29, and But-15). The graphical representation of the neutron porosity log (NØ) and the bulk density ρ)b(, shows that the Shiranish (Late Campanian – Early Maastrichtian) and Mushorah (Early Campanian) Formations consist of limestone and dolomite, as well as shale. The proportion of dolomite and chert increases at the expense ofcalcite in the Mushorah Formation. Also, the graphical representation results of the M-N profile for each well indicate that the limestone of the Mushorah Formation were affected by the dolomitization with the development of secondary porosity. Moreover, the limestones were suffered silicification in the form of chert nodules. The MID profile, used in this study to determine the mineralogy gives better and more precise results than that of the M-N profile. The results showed that the dominant minerals are calcite in the Shiranish Formation while dolomite and quartz in the Mushorah Formation, regardless of the gas effects within the studied wells.

Sedimentological and Biological indicators of oceanic anoxic events (1d) inside upper Balambo Formation, L. Albian, northeastern Iraq

Falah Al-Miamary; Ali Al-Jubory; Safwan Al-Lhaebi

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 86-104
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2020.170372

The studydeals with succession from the upper part of the Late Albian Balambo Formation which are composed of fine-grained dark gray to black calcareous shale, limestone and marly limestone rich in sedimentary structures such as lamination, fissility and platy structures. Microfacies analysis revealed that mudstone, wackstone and few of packstone are the main facies in the studied succession. The studied rocks generally are rich in organic matter and pyrite in addition to dominance of radiolaria, sponge spicules and foraminifera with elongated champers maybe “Schackoina” genus. All these characters indicate deposition in marine conditions with reduced or absent-oxygen condition that relate to oceanic anoxic event (1d).

Biostratigraphy and Sequence Stratigraphy and Depositional Environment of Kolosh Formation in Dohuk Area, Northern Iraq

Saif Al-Khalaif; Majid Al- Mutwali

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 18-42
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2020.170362

The present study deals with biostratigraphy, depositional environment and sequence stratigraphy of Kolosh Formation in two sections of Bekher anticline, northeastern Iraq by using the planktonic and benthonic foraminifera. Therefore, (48) species of planktonic foraminifera belonging to (14) genera and (34) species of benthonic foraminifera belonging to (19) genera have been recognized. The detailed planktonic foraminiferal investigation permits the recognition of seven well defined biozones and three subzones; they indicate that Kolosh Formation extends from the Early Paleocene (Danian) to Late Paleocene (Thanetian) age. The depositional environment of the formation was studied throughout relying on the variation in the diversity of planktonic forminifera, as well as throughout the ratio of the planktonic foraminifera to the whole mass of foraminifera, and the ratio of planktonic forminifera to the benthonic formiminifera. The lower part of the formation represents the upper bathyal environment, while the middle part deposited within the outer shelf environment, then deposition basin became within the middle shelf area in the upper parts of the formation.
Sequence stratigraphic analysis for the studied sections of Kolosh Formation  delineated three sequences which is interpreted as 3rd order sequences, and it is found that the deposition of Kolosh Formation in the Badi section had been occurred in shallower level for most sedimentation intervals compared to the Linwa section which represents a somewhat deeper marine environment.

Paleoenvironmental Study of Khurmala Formation by Ostracoda in Shaqlawa and Dohuk area, Northern Iraq

Mahfoudh Al-Hadeedy; Saleh Khalaf

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 148-164
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2020.170375

   A detail paleoenvironmental study of ostracods fauna to investigated the paleoenvironment of Khurmala Formation for two section Northern Iraq; the first (Hjran section) lies near Shaqlawa city, and the second (Dohuk section) lies near Dohuk city. Based on ostracods study conclude that Khurmala Formation were deposited in shelf environment, about (30 – 200) meter in depth.

Biostratigraphy and Systematic Palaeontology of Late Cretaceous Heterohelicidae Foraminifera from Kurdistan Region North-eastern Iraq

Rawand Jaff; Fadhil Lawa

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 33-63
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2020.170360

The biostratigraphical importance and systematic palaeontology of Early Turonian to Early Maastrichtian Heterohelicidae Planktic foraminifera from Kurdistan region, NE Iraq are described. Some 24 species from 11 genera are recorded. Species abundance and diversity increase from the Early Turonian to Early Maastrichtian, perhaps signifying cooler sea temperatures in the Arabian sector of the Tethys Ocean during the Early Maastrichtian. Despite the long biostratigraphical ranges of some species, the importance of the biserial and multiserial Planktic foraminifers in Late Cretaceous biostratigraphy is emphasized. From a biostratigraphic perspective, heterohelicids are important for the definition of the Campanian-Maastrichtian boundary in Kurdistan region, with Planoglobulina species being especially important in this respect, as they are in Iran, Turkey and North Africa.

Analyzing sensitivity and resolution of some electrical resistivity configurations for detecting subsurface cavities using inverted synthetic models by 2D electrical resistivity tomography technique

Zainab Shanshal; Ahmed Al-Heety

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 64-85
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2020.170370

It is important to determine the location, depth and shape (dimensions) of cavities under subsurface in site investigation phase before construction. This study aims to make a study for properties, analysis and comparison of the results of different electrodes configurations that used in 2-D electrical resistivity Tomography surveys to detection subsurface cavities to determining the appropriate and suitable configurations type that must be conduct in the field to obtain best and accurate results. Two-dimensional synthetic models were created for Geoelectrical resistivity of five different geological features, which reflects the common cases of cavities in nature. These models are (narrow, broad, shallow and deep) cavities adding to one model for multiple cavities.  RES2DMOD program was used to create these models, while RES2DINV program used in Inversion method to obtain the true 2-D inverted resistivity sections for six configuration types of electrode array for 2D electrical resistivity technique, after adding a Gaussian noise ratio of (5%). Generally, we are noticed the possibilities of most tested configuration types for determine electrical anomalies, because the high contrast between the cavities and the surrounding rocks resistivities values. In addition, RMS ratio overall does not exceed 5%, hence, this ratio is an acceptable and indicates to the quality of the inverse process. The Wenner array have high sensitivity to vertical resistivity variations, and Dipole-dipole array have high sensitivity to lateral resistivity variations. While the Schlumberger-wenner have high sensitivity in both lateral and vertical resistivity variations Also, it was noted that the efficiency of all types decreasing with increasing depth of cavities detecting, due to the low percentage of contrast between the cavities and the surrounding rocks. The Wenner beta (WB) configuration is the best choice in terms of inversing true resistivity values, Secondly the Pole-Dipole (PD). While in term of determining the location and shape (approximately dimensions) of cavities, Dipole-Dipole (DD), Wenner-Schlumberger (WS), Wenner Alpha (WA), Dipole-Pole (DP) respectively. However, in case of noisy areas, Wenner Alpha (WA) configuration gives the best result.

Study of the Quaternary Deposits at the East and West Shoulders of Mosul Dam Using Azimuthal 2D Resistivity Imaging

Mahmood Al-Fadhel; Marwan Mutib

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 1-17
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2020.170353

The field survey included three geoelectric traverses on the eastern side of the Tigris River parallel and perpendicular on the axis of the Tairah anticline consisting of seven sites of ( Azimuthal Resistivity Tomography; ART) located above the Quaternary depositions in the southern flank. Two traverses  were also conducted in the western side of the river parallel and perpendicular on the east Butmah anticline consisting of four sites located above the recent sediments in the southern flank of it. The sites are chosen taking into account the consideration of the geological, tectonic and topographic data of previous studies and current field reconnaissance trips.
A sympathetic analysis of the resistivity tomography is performed in nine azimuths of the above mentioned locations using fifteen repetitive processing attempts and the mean root squares ranged between 5.8% -11.7%. The eastern side of the study area with different directions indicates electrical horizons, the first reflects a variable resistivity which represents accumulations of top soil, the second band of high resistivity which reflects the river terraces constitutes, while the third horizon represents the clear extension of the mud and limestone deposits of Fatha Formation with a vertical conductive zones in the rock layers at some traverses. As well as the ART on the western side of the study region identified three electric horizons: the first with high resistivity reflecting the surface soil layer, and the second domain of low resistivity representing the sediments of the valley slopes and concentrating on the southern limb of Butmah anticline. The third of heterogeneous resistivity values reflects  Fatha Formation deposits covering its exposures at the core of the two anticlines and locating beneath the research traverses.
Using the technology of 2D resistivity imaging reveals that the nine orientations around a central point in eleven locations above recent sediments are represented by river terraces and alluvial deposits on the shoulders of the Mosul Dam. The current study concludes the ability to capture fractures, which is of great importance due to their effect on the displacements of the dam's body and Fatha sediments surrounding it.

Assessment of Limestone of Ibrahim Formation in Zurbatiya Area, Eastern Iraq for Ordinary Portland Cement Industry

Narjis Al-Ali; Sattar Al-Khafaji

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 19-32
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2020.170358

Limestone deposits of Ibrahim Formation in Zurbatiya area, eastern Iraq are assessed as raw materials for the industry of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). The deposits are widely exposed in the area close to Iraq-Iran borders. Six samples were collected from selected section of Ibrahim Formation, which consists of a succession of well-bedded white to gray limestone interbedded with gray marl and marly limestone. X-ray diffraction results show that calcite is the dominant mineral followed by quartz and traces of dolomite which appear in limited samples. X-ray fluorescence results revealed a noticeable increase of SiO2, which might be due to the effect of limestone by silicification process, so the rocks are considered to be a siliceous limestone. The other oxides (CaO, Al2O3, Fe2O3, MgO, Na2O, K2O, TiO2, SO3, and P2O5) are within the acceptable limits required for cement industry. Cement chemical parameters indicated that there is a decrease in the lime saturation factor (LSF) and an increase in silica ratio (SR) in comparison with the chemical parameters listed by standard specifications due to the increase of silica content. This increase can be adjusted by adding clays, or any other source of low silica content in addition to use iron and alumina as correcting additive materials for the cement mixture.

Planktonic Foraminifera Biostratigraphy of Shiranish Formation in Piramagroon Anticline, NE Iraq

Ahmed Al-mutiwty; Abdullah Shihab

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 43-63
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2020.170369

67 planktonic foraminiferal species were identified from the Shiranish Formation. On the basis of the stratigraphic distribution of the planktonic foraminiferal assemblages recognited of six biozones within the Shiranish Formation representing an age ranging from Middle Campanian – Early Maastrichtian, these zones are from older at base:
6 -Planoglobulina acervulinoides Interval Zone.
5 - Contusotruncana contusa Total Range Zone.
4 -Gansserina gansseri Interval Zone.
3 - Globotruncana aegyptiaca Interval Biozone.
2 -Globotruncanella havanensis Interval Biozone.
1 -Globotruncana ventricosa Interval Biozone

Geochemistry and Petrogenesis of Dioritic-Gabbroic Pegmatites in the Bulfat Complex, Qala Diza, Northeastern Iraq

Shareef Al-Hamed; Khalid Aswad; Nabaz Aziz

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 64-90
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2020.170371

The pegmatite dikes and associated plutonic rocks stand as a part of the igneous complexes associated with the Bulfat complex, located in the Zagros Suture Zone (ZSZ), NE Iraq. The Bulfat complex is a part of the ophiolite-bearing terranes that are allochthonous sheets. The complex represents the upper allochthon of the Albian-Cenomenian. The study area is located within Bulfat complex of ZSZ, specifically in the northwestern part of this zone and within the second unit of the Penjween-Walash Subzone. The rock samples were collected from pegmatite dike which is located to the northeast of the Darishmana village, the thickness of dike is about 5 m.
Electron microprobe analyses (EMPA) of plagioclase in 8 spots of dioritic pegmatites ranges between oligoclase (An18.00-An28.23) and andesine (An32.53-An33.62). Bulk whole-rock chemical analysis of fourteen samples using ICP-MS analysis reveals alkalinity Index (AI) of pegmatites to be metaluminous (A/NK > 2). Generally, the silica content in these pegmatites is from 46.70 wt. % to 52.67 wt. %.
The relatively flat pattern of REEs is characterized by the slight enrichment of LREEs compared to HREEs indicating the common ancestry of the studied pegmatites. Also, the enrichment of these pegmatites in LILEs (Sr, Pb, Rb) and depletion in HFSEs especially (Nb, Ta, Y) indicate the environment of the island arcs. Moreover, the low ratios of (Rb/Sr)N and (Ba/Sr)N refer to that these pegmatites are derived from a basic origin.
Tectonic discriminate diagrams show that the tectonic environment of studied pegmatites is I-type, which is the oceanic island arcs environment of sub alkaline rocks. The pegmatites of the present study have a genesis relationship with intrusions close to them in the study area; these intrusions are gabbros of Wadi Rashid that represent the environment of E-MORB. Moreover, the gabbros of Wadi Rashid and studied pegmatites are part of ophiolite-bearing terranes, they are found within upper allochthon thrust sheet. The current study of pegmatites reflects the oceanic island arcs environment, this indicates the existence of double island arcs, the first adjacent to the Arabian shelf, and the second close to the middle of paleo-ridge.
Numerous evidences support that the gabbros of Wadi Rashid being as the likely parent to the studied pegmatites such as geochemistry, tectonogenesis, and the close spatial distribution of the pegmatites to the gabbros of Wadi Rashid. Moreover, the studied pegmatites appear to entail further dissection mainly due to the fact that the occurrence of dioritic- and gabbroic-pegmatites with a small-scale in the single intrusion might have its explanation in the liquid associated immiscibility.

Sedimentological, Paleontological and Mineralogical Evidences for Oceanic Anoxic Event-2 (OAE-2) in the Gulneri Formation (Early Turonian), Northeastern Iraq

Safwan Al-Lhaebi; Ali Al-Jubory; Falah Al-Miamary

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 105-125
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2020.170373

In the current work, the Gulneri Formation (Early Turonian) is studied in three surface sections (Degala, Dokan and Azmir) from northeastern Iraq. The formation is characterized by grey to black color limestone and marly limestone in the Degala and Dokan sections, whereas in Azmir section, fissile marl and marly limestone with pale to reddish color are dominated in addition to few beds, which occasionally contain fish remains, with distinct gray color reflecting the very few amount of total organic carbon in these beds. Microfacies analysis revealed that the formation consists of three microfacies: mudstone, wackestone and packstone. The predominance of dwarfish planktonic foraminifera (Heterohilex) and thin shell filaments particularly in packstone microfacies represent Heterohelix shift event and filament event respectively. In addition to these events, fish remains, radiolarian pyritization, planktonic foraminiferal chambers elongation and glauconite are all refer to anoxic environmental conditions that may have been coincided with the Global Cenomanian-Turonian Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE-2).

Sedimentary Environment of Naokelekan Formation (Late Oxfordian – Early Kimmeridgian) of Selected Surface Sections from Northern-East of Iraq

Zainab Al-Malaa; Rafi’ Al-Hmeedi

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 31-55
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2019.170330

The Naokelekan Formation (Late Oxfordian - Early Kimmeridgian) was studied at three surface sections (Rowanduz, Ranya and Sargelu), in northeastern Iraq. The Formation is composed mainly of alternating sequence of thin- bedded limestone, dolomitic limestone and bituminous black shales. Streaks of calcite veins, chert nodules and bituminous stylolite are present. Traces of Ammonite molds, flat, wavy to domal stromatolites are also present.
The Petrographic study showed that the formation contains various petrographic components represented by Ammonites, pelecypods, gastropods, calcispheres, planktonic and benthonic foraminifera, ostracods, stromatolite, radiolaria and bryozoans, pellets and intraclasts, in addition to the groundmass of micrite and microspars. The rock successions were extensively affected by many diagenetic processes and their effect is most pronounced pronounced on textural properties of these rocks. The dolomitization seems to be one of the most important diagenetic processes recognized. The other processes are; compaction, micritization, bioturbation, authigenic minerals, cementation, neomorphism, dissolution, fractures and veins, silicifaction, replacement and dedolomitization.
The detailed facies analysis reveals that the rock succession consists mainly of three microfacies and two lithofacies type. The main microfacies include lime mudstone,wackestone and packstone.  Where the lithofacies comprise limestones and shales which are represented by four sub lithofacies. The overall characters of these facies indicate that the formation was deposited in two different environments; (1) shallow marine sub tidal environment at the lower part and upper part respectively. (2) Outer shelf in a euxinic environment at its middle part.

Ground Water Quality of Selected Areas in the Northeastern Mosul City and their Assessments for Domestic and Agricultural Usage

Kotayba . Al-Youzbakey; Ali Sulaiman

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 107-126
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2020.170350

The present study focuses on the assessment of groundwater for domestic and agricultural usages in two areas northeastern Mosul city: the first is located between Mosul city and Bashiqa Mountain, and the second is located between the road of Mosul-Alqosh and Shikhan – Dahqan – Alqosh Mountains which represents the Alqosh plain. These two locations were classified as agricultural areas. And their villagers use the groundwater for domestic and irrigation. The present study evaluates the groundwater for drinking using the water quality index (WQI). The assessment is achieved by calculating the (WQI) index from the physical and chemical parameters (pH, E.C., T.D.S., T.H., Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO3-, SO42-, Cl- and NO3- ). The results confirm that the groundwater of the first area is classified as a poor class (WQI=56-73) for drinking due to its reservoir present within the sandstone layers of Injana Formation, which is affected by the infiltration of surface water through soil zone that contains the weathering fragments of carbonates and gypsum. The other wells of this area located along the road between Mosul city and Bashiqa Mountain are classified as very poor to unsuitable class for drinking (WQI=76-135) due to the presence of these wells within Fat'ha Formation rocks, except the Al-benit farm and Al-Fadelya1 groundwater that is classified as a good class for drinking (WQI<50). The Alqosh plain groundwater is classified as excellent to good class for drinking (WQI=15-36) because of their reservoir is present within sandstone layers of Injana Formation, except the wells of Kir-Ishaq, Batnaya, and Alqosh, and Alzayton village which is classified as poor (WQI=61) and unsuitable class (WQI=111-115) for drinking respectively because of their reservoirs are present within gypsum layers of Fat'ha Formation.

Petrology and Genesis Development of the Hardground at the Uppermost Part of Bekhme Formation, Dohuk Area, Northern Iraq

Nidhal Yahya; Salim Hussain

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 1-19
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2020.170287

Hard ground at the uppermost part of Bekhme Formation is studied at three outcrop sections located in the Dohuk area, northern Iraq, and it is found that it consists of two distinct facies associations. The first includes limestone beds that comprise the hard ground and its omission surfaces. The second consists of limestone, marly limestone, and marl, which is interbedded with successive hard ground. The overall characters of these two facies associations indicate that deposition took place in a carbonate ramp setting. Vertical variations of sedimentary components suggest that the hard ground was developed by three successive stages. These are the end of shallow carbonate sedimentation and the drowning of the platform, the formation and modification of hard grounds, and finally the deposition of pelagic carbonate sediments of the Shiranish Formation.
The second stage is characterized by intercalations of continuous depositional and biological processes. These include bioturbation, bioencrustation, and secondary mineralization in addition to other early and late diagenetic processes. The depositional area had been affected by tectonic drowning of carbonate ramp with a wide gradual marine transgression associated with a period of local marine regression that is, in turn, responsible for deposition, transportation, redeposition, submarine erosion and formation of hard grounds. Thus, the hard ground zone represents drowning unconformity surfaces between Bekhme and Shiranish formations through the Campanian- Maastrichtian boundary.

Morphotectonic Evidences for Strike-Slip Component of the Reverse Fault at the Southeastern Plunge of Bashiqa Anticline

Alaa Hamdon

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 15-23
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2020.170315

Sedimentary rock beds and drainage pattern offset took place predominantly at the southeastern plunge of Bashiqa anticline which indicates shear zone in this area represented by apparent left-lateral fault separation of reverse fault dipping to the southeast. This study will discuss and update the geological information of the impressions of the fault on the surface topography based on the morphotectonic evidences including visual interpretation of the satellite image for the landforms and regional stress analysis of the study area. The variations of landform features are regarded as an efficient geological indicator for tectonic activity in the area.

Hydromorphological Study of Regulating Lake of Mosul DamNorth Mosul City, Iraq

Asaad Al-Hussein; Adil Al-Hamadani

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 20-30
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2020.170316

The work deals with the study of hydromorphology of the regulating lake which located at (50Km) north of Mosul city. The survey started in November, 2012 using the EchoSounder, and carried out by dividing the lake into (30) sections starting from the lower surface of the main dam and ending at the regulating dam. Data are recorded and represented using GIS technology (Arc GIs v10.4) and Microsoft program (Excel).
The survey shows that the shallowest depth in the lake is found at left bank of section (5) which reached (7.65 m) and the deepest point is Found in the left bank of the section (9) which reached (18.22m) directly on the Thalwage line. The hydraulic gradient of the lake is (1m/Km ), and the overall shape of the sections is (U) shape.
The variation in depth in each section is mostly due to difference in the sedimentation and erosion. There was deposition on the convex sides and  erosion in the concave sides of the banks, the erosion and sedimentation processes vary with the variation of water velocity, slope and rock components of the river along the regulating lake.

Determination of Geotechnical Properties of Local Claystones in Northeast Koya City, Iraqi Kurdistan Region

Nawzat Ismail; Hemn Omar

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 1-14
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2020.170286

The aim of the current study is to determine the geotechnical properties of the investigated claystones /clayey soils in Koya area, Iraqi Kurdistan Region. This paper deals with the evaluating of the physical, mechanical and index properties of claystones. The study based on the field reconnaissance for twenty-five claystones samples were collected from five outcrops location within Fat'ha Formation. The results obtained from the laboratory tests revealed that the averages of specific gravity, porosity, void ratio, water absorption, natural water content and uniaxial compressive strength values of claystones are (1.5, 4.45%,4.5, 0.3, 3%, 65 MPa) respectively. Whereas the results of the index geotechnical characterization of clayey soils revealed that the averages values of liquid limit, plastic limit, plastic index, flow index, toughness index, liquidity index, consistency index, swelling potential, activity index, and expansive potential are (25.2, 15.0, 10.2, 0.2, 0.5, -1.2, 2.2, 0.62, 0.31, low or non-expansive) respectively. Among the index properties, the clayey soils are suitable for foundation and building materials industry. Furthermore, the regression coefficients of their correlation (R²) obtained from the analysis show that there are strong relationships between the physical and mechanical properties of claystones. Concluding remark is that geotechnical properties of examined natural claystones satisfy the relevant regulation to be used for construction purposes.

New Azimuthal Resistance Techniques in the Study of Fractures of the Recent Deposition for Selected Sites near Mosul Dam

Mahmood Al-Fadhel; Marwan Mutib

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 127-146
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2020.170351

The present study involves applying a new system by picking the apparent resistivity values ​​ from the pseudo-tomography at seven depth's levels and nine orientations with an angle of 20 ° around the mid central point of a 200 m array lengths. The system, which is called the Azimuth Mutib and Al-Fadhel System (AMAS), consists of three types of the electrode arrangement patterns, the first is the Azimuthal Radial Resistance Technique (ARRT) for measurements of resistivity (ρD1 & ρD2), the second is the Azimuthal Forward Resistance Technique (AFRT) for measurements of resistivity (ρD0 & ρD2), and the third is the Backward Resistance Technique (ABRT) for measurements of resistivity (ρD0 & ρD1).
A new mechanism is used in this study that includes a series of calibration steps of the electrode spacing intervals with the apparent depth’s levels and median of the depth of investigation, due to the inability of picking the resistivity values of the true depth's levels from electrical resistivity imaging because there is a wide spectral gradient range of colors. As well, the absence of correlating the values ​​of the depth's levels with the electrode spacing in the RES2DINV software. Accordingly, three values were determined for the missing apparent depth's levels with confirmation of the accordant values of the eight levels of the tomography.
The data of the ART are represented using radial, forward and backward techniques at four sites using polar graphs and Cartesian curves. According to the mechanisms used in global and local studies and researches, the results are analyzed and for determining the values ​​and trends of the electrical anisotropy for Quaternary deposits and the upperlayers of Fatha Formation in the present study area.
The study displays a notable success in applying AMAS by matching between its three mechanisms and deduced the presence of six directions for the strikes of tension and shear fractures (primary and secondary) at two sites near the Mosul Dam penetrating fluvial and alluvial deposits of the Quaternary age.

The effects of weathering on limestone used for building the cemetery wall in Tel Kaif-North Iraq

Azealdeen Al-Jawadi; Thanoon . Al-Dabbagh

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 65-74
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2020.170331

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of weathering on rocks used in construction during a defined period of these rocks. The field study involves weathering and rock strength measurements using a geological hammer. Laboratory testing for both wall limestone and fresh quarry limestone was performed to determine the bulk density, the porosity and absorption of water, and the durability test was performed for fresh quarry limestone. A polarized microscope and scan electron microscope, petrographic analysis has been conducted for various weathering rates.
Field notes explain the moderate and high degree of weathering and low strength in the bottom of the wall, whilst the top is slightly weathered and high strength. Laboratory notes through stone crushing show a change from white to beige for slightly weathered samples to moderately and highly weathered samples in powder color. Increasing weathering reduces bulk density and insoluble residues, from 13% in non-weathered rocks to 25% in high-weathered rocks the level of insoluble residue increases. Water absorption in non-weathered rocks and high weathering rocks rises from 6% to 14% and porosity from 14% to 27% respectively. Durability tests show that calcarenite exceeds very high durability, high durability calcirudite and calcilutite, and moderately durable calcisiltite. Four types of porosity, intergranular, intragranular, mold and microfracture appear in the petrographic study using a polarized microscope. Clay minerals and iron oxides surrounding the pores appear in weathered specimens, not in fresh, calcite crystal oxidation and secondary calcite growth on the inner surface of voids have also been shown in the scanning of electron microscopes. 

Detecting the Tigris River Flood and its Impact on Residential and Touristic Areas in Mosul City Using Sentinel-2 Satellite Images

Abdalrahman Qubaa; Ayman Alsayiegh

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 92-106
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2020.170348

Iraq is one of the countries with water abundance because it contains water sources distributed between permanent and seasonal flow. The Tigris River is considered as one of these the most important sources, which requires the necessity to monitor the changes that had been taken place in the course of this river and to study the environmental, climatic and erosional changes that were responsible to change the morphodynamic properties of this resource, especially in the rainy years that cause floods and human disasters, such as what happened in the accident of the sinking of the ferry in the city of Mosul. Consequently, the main objective of the current study is based on observing a selected section of the Tigris River basin at the beginning of its entry into Mosul city and studying the effects of changing the water level during different seasons on the banks of the river and its effects on random housing construction near the river. A new European satellite (Sentinel) is used which has high spatial resolution of up to 10 m per pixel, which was the last launch of its series in April 2018. The new QGIS program is also used to process the satellite data, using digital processing methods for interpretation, and to monitor changes in the studied section of the river. Two satellite images are adopted for two consecutive periods (2018 and 2019), corrected and geographically referenced.
The conclusion is that there is an increase of 1.105 km2 in the area of the studied river section between the rainy year and the less rainy year, i.e. an approximate increase in excess of 50%. Therefore, the researchers recommend preventing the construction of any residential or touristic projects on the both Tigris River banks within at city of Mosul, and add to the forbidden areas a distance of not less than 50% of the surface area of  at any section of the river inside the city.

Spectral analysis of soil samples in environmental pollution sites in Nineveh province, using remote sensing techniques

Hekmat AL-Daghastani; Faaza Jasim

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 75-91
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2020.170347

The results of the analysis and interpretation of multi-date satelliteimages for the period between (1987-2007) in the Nineveh’s province to the presence of local spectral anomalies in some areas, reflect a clear change in the pattern of spectral using reflectivity. Analyses of spectral reflectivity using Analytical Spectral Devise (ASD) field Spectro Radiometer for selected samples of soils that have been taken by field work from some sites in the province. They gave spectral anomaly in their profile patterns, compared with other unaffected sites, which have been useful in determining and locating the pollution sites and its classification.
Classification of the above pollution sites has been accomplished depending on the comparison of spectral signature of these samples with the field informations. These classes are shown on Geoenvironmental thematic map prepared at scale of 1:50000. This map includes areas of radioactive contamination and environmental, indusial and other of military activity.

New Petrophysical Equations for Hartha-Tannuma Interval in the East Baghdad Oil Field

Maan Al-majid

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2019, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 136-152
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2019.170285

This study deals with empirical equations linking density and porosity with depth. The density and porosity information were taken from five well logs distributed in the East Baghdad oil field. New empirical equations (porosity - depth, density - depth) for two geological formations (Harta and Sa'di) within Hartha- Tannuma period were produced. The correlation coefficient (R) of these equations ranged from -0.37 to 0.68, which was attributed to variability in lithology and compaction. The depth data of (133) points suited at seismic lines grid scattered in the field were used for applying the new equations. After the new empirical equations that are applied on the whole field, porosity and density contour maps for the period (Hartha- Tannuma) and the two formations (Hartha and Sa'di) were plotted. The high porosity zones were identified, are related to the compaction and petroleum distribution in the field.

Biostratigraphy Study of Planktonic Foraminifera in Shiranish Formation and its Contact with Aaliji Formation in Pulkana Well No. 7 North Iraq

Abdullah Al-Hadidi; Mohamed Ahmed

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2019, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 41-59
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2019.170276

Planktonic Foraminifera is studied from Shiranish &Aaliji formations in PulkanaWell No. 7 North Iraq between the depth intervals (1948-2240) m, six biostratigraphy zones are recognized in the formation as arranged from bottom to top:
1. Globotruncanita stuarti–stuartiformis Partial Range Zone.
2. Globotruncana aegyptiaca Interval Zone.
3. Gansserina gansseri Total Rang Zone.
4. Morozovella angulata  Partial Range Zone.
5. Globanomalina  pseudomenardii  Total Rang Zone .
6. Morozovella velascoensis Partial Range Zone.
The result of this study is compared with the work of others inside and outside Iraq, The age of the Shiranish Formation is Early Late Campanian to Earliest Maastrichtian whereas Aaliji Formation is Late Paleocene.

Using Surveying and Computer Techniques to Calculate (R.A) & (RMSE) for Digital map of Technical Institute/Mosul

Mohammed Al–Taee

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2019, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 1-14
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2019.170273

The aim of the present research is to calculate the Relative Accuracy (R.A) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) for the location of Technical Institute, Mosul in Nineveh Governorate, Iraq.  at the northern part of Mosul city by using surveying Instruments (GPS 1230 , Total Station 06 & Level NAK2), to calculate the coordinates and elevations of (16) Ground Control Points which covered the study area.
The field data, remote sensing techniques and GIS software (Arc Map GIS10.3) are used to check the digital map of study area that helped the administrator to take the correct decision, determining positions of the future expansionist for buildings, roads, measuring lengths, areas and there coordinates, directions as well as the total costs estimation needed for any development from the final map.
The gradient percentage between the highest and lowest points is calculated to be (9.954%). Relative accuracy for the based measured points (R.A) = 1:60000), and Root Mean Square error in Easting coordinates (RMSE) = ± 0.102m, in Northing coordinates (RMSN) = ± 0.096m, the Root Mean Square for the resultant (RMSR) = ± 0.099m, and Root Mean Square for Elevations ( RMSRL)= ± 0.005m.
We Matched and correlated (10) measured points from study area with their graphic data positions on the aerial photo, determining the offsets for position and elevations as follows: (RMSE = ± 0.076m), (RMSN = ± 0.125m), (RMSR = ± 0.088m), and (Root Mean Square for Elevations = RMSRL= ± 0.045m).
This research enable us after checking the results to produce new maps from Aerial photograph or Digital Image to use it for land uses and future extensions in whole study area.

Morphometric Characteristics of Wadi Koysenjaq Basin In Erbil Using GIS

Asaad Al-Hussein; Abdulrahman Yahyaa

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2019, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 15-40
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2019.170275

This study aims for building a database of the morphometric characteristics of the valley of Koysenjaq basin throughout the analysis of the digital elevation model (DEM), using a range of geographic information systems, such as (Arc GIS v. 10.3), (Global Mapper v.18), as a means of measuring raster, linear and areal elements. They integrate together to produce a large number of variables and morphometric measurements. The study has adopted digital elevation model data accuracy of distinctive accuracy (14) meters in addition to a range of maps and satellite images.
The basin is located in the southeast southeast of Erbil Governorate and has a small area of about (549.56) km2, with a length of (34.26) km and long Perimeter compared with its large area (133.92) km. The basin has characteristics of different morphometric features as a result of the different climate change, geological nature, morphology, and characteristics of the soil, which indicates that the basin is at the beginning of its geomorphological cycle. The quantitative analysis shows that the value of the elongation is (0.68), circulation is (0.38) and the form factor is (0.46). This means that it is rectangular, and irregular in shape, and it obvious from the study of the characteristics of terrain that the value of basin relief is high (28.27) m/km, and passes in the early stage of maturity according to hypsometric integration value. The study shows the characteristics of the drainage network in the basin consists of (433) tributary distributed (6) arranged according to Strahler classification with low-density drainage (1.13) km/km2 and stream frequency for basin (0.78) stream/km2. This indicates that the number of tributaries of water is few compared with the area of the basin, so that the basin was not exposed to floods. 
The study recommends the use of more geographic information systems in determining the extent of seasonal drainage of the basin valleys in order to control the future flood risk, and good planning of the investment of these valleys in different fields through the construction of dam at the end of the basin for the purpose of harvesting water, and conducting morphometric studies compared to other river basins in Erbil Governorate to understand in detail its morphometric properties. 

Geochemistry of Phosphorite and Associated Rocks of Akashat Formation (Middle Paleocene) in Akashat Mine, Iraqi Western Desert. Part II: Trace Elements

Kotayba Al-Youzbakey; Salim Al-Dabbagh

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2019, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 100-118
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2019.170282

Akashat Formation is an important formation due to its content of the Hirri member, which includes phosphorites and phosphatic limestones, that are rich in P2O5. These rocks are mainly composed of apatite and calcite. In addition to other minor and trace minerals like palygorskite, quartz, dolomite and secondary gypsum. All these minerals are hosted the most trace elements in the Akashat rocks. U, Sr, Y and Zr are related to apatite more than other minerals. While Ga, Rb and Ti are almost correlated with the clay minerals. The rest trace elements are distributed among other minerals and organic matter. The hosting of trace elements by a mineral takes place in many cases as substituted in Ca(I), Ca(II) and phosphate tetrahedron in Francolite, Ca site in calcite, in clay mineral phases, or adsorbed on clay mineral faces, organic matters and in the crystal channel of francolite.

Environmental Criteria of Stromatolitic Limestones in The Barsrain Formation from Surface Sections, Northeastren Iraq

Mauj Al-Badrani; Rafee Al-Humaidi

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2019, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 80-99
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2019.170279

The rock successions of Barsarin Formation Late Kimmeridgian was studied at three surface sections the type section "17m", Sarglu "19m" and Rania "10m"; northeastern Iraq. The detailed sedimentological study reveals that the formation consists mainly of dolomite and dolomitic limestones. A wide spectrum of diagenetic – processes are recognized in the rock successions; these are dolomitization, compaction, cementation, micritization, dissolution, replacement, neomorphism and silisification. By the far, dolomitization and compaction are the most common and widespread processes. Stromatolites are the dominant primary sedimentary structures in this Formation. Based on field observation and textural characteristics four stromatolite types are distinguished: planar, wavy, domal, and bedded. They are normally formed by carbonates (lime muds) and extensively suffered early dolomitization

Paleoecology and Statistical Study of Ostracoda, Fat'ha Formation (Middle Miocene) from Bazian Anticline, Al- Sulaymaniyah Area, Kurdistan Region, Iraq

Zahida Al-Hadithi; Nisreen Aziz

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2019, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 119-135
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2019.170284

Ostracoda assemblages have been studied from Fat'ha Formation (Middle Miocene) at SW limb of Bazian anticline, Sulaymaniyah,Kurdistan region, Iraq.  The Paleoecology of ostracoda assemblages points to shallow marine water that changes to barrier lagoon water setting due to tectonic activity event. The application of statistical analysis (Simpson index) leads to the subdivisions of Fat'ha Formation into five ecozones in the studied area.

Calcareous Nannofossils Biostratigraphy of Shiranish Formation (K-306) well, Northern Iraq

Maryam Al-Maamari; Omar Al-Badrani

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2019, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2019.170278

Twenty Samples of Shiranish Formation from the well (K-306), Kirkuk area, northern Iraq, are collected and studied on the basis of stratigraphic ranges of the recorded calcareous nannofossils. Eighty-nine species in the studied section reveals five biozones arranged from oldest to youngest as follows:
1.Quadrum trifidum Interval Biozone (CC22) Part
2.Tranolithus phacelosus Interval Biozone (CC23)
3.Rienhardtites lives Interval Biozone (CC24)
4. Arkhangelskilla cymbiformis Interval Biozone (CC25)
5. Nephrolithus frequens Rang Biozone (CC26) Part
These Biozones are correlated with other calcareous nannofossils biozones, from both local and regional sections, leading to conclude the age of Campanian- Maastrichtian.

Evaluation and Modeling of Ground Water for Aqra Aquifer

Nour Al-Islam Ahmed; Kamel Almohseen

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2019, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 60-79
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2019.170277

From the hydrogeologist point of view, Aqra area in northern Iraq is considered as a significant area, where rainfall average in Aqra station was 654.6mm for period 2000-2016, while rainfall was 597.7mm has calculated for six stations for period 2012-2014 by Isohytal via ArcGIS in the area. The area is surrounded by the Upper Zab river from the east, and the Khazer river from the west, while Zanta river runs from its east.
Due to previous and wide use of groundwater in study area, the knowledge of the response of the aquifer to different stresses is important to predict its uses in the future to optimal utilization of this aquifer. Consequently, in this study MODFLOW model under GMS platform has been used to evaluate the groundwater availability and examine response of the aquifer to stress conditions. The model has been calibrated in steady state using trial and error procedure, and verified in two states steady and unsteady, and then used for predicting purpose under two scenarios:  
Scenario–I running the model by pumping with recharge over 5 years the average of heads has been downed 4 meters but over 10 years has been downed 5 meters. Phase-II running the model by pumping without recharge over 5 years the average of heads has been downed 7 meters and over 10 years has been downed 8 meters. The heads have downed a little due to thickness and extend of aquifer.

Calcareous Nannofossils Biostratigraphy of the Lower Part of Balambo Formation (Lower Cretaceous) in Azmir Anticline - Northeastern Iraq

Enass Al-Khafaf; Majid Al-Mutwali

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2019, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 19-38
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2019.170269

The present research includes a biostratigraphic study of calcareous nannofossils of the lower part of Balambo Formation (Lower Cretaceous) in Azmir anticline - northeastern Iraq. Lithologically, the lower part of the studied section (Balambo Formation) consists of limestone containing nodules of chert, marly limestone, with intercalations of green and gray-blue shale. In this work, it has been relied on calcareous nannofossils assamblages in biostratigaphy and age determination of this part because it does not contain planktonic foraminifera. First occurrences (FOs) and last occurrences (LOs) of marker species were used to identify biozones. The section was divided into four main biozones and two subzones and its correlation with collection from global, regional, and local biozones. Thus, the age of this part of the formation extends from the Late Early Hauterivian - Late Aptian. These are from older to younger:
1- Speetonia  colligata  Interval  Zone (part)
2- Lithraphidites  bollii  Interval  Zone
3- Micrantholithus  hoschulzii  Partial range  Zone
4- Chiastozygus  litterarius Interval  Zone
     Hayesites  irregularis  Interval  Subzone 
    Eprolithus  floralis Interval  Subzone (part)

Resistivity Isotropicity and Homogeneity for Sub-base Layer of Selected Roads in Ninevah Governorate, Northern Iraq

Ali Almwaly; Marwan Mutib; Mohammed Taha

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2019, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 59-79
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2019.170271

Field surveys of electrical resistance are achieved in order to study the sub-base layer of the under constructive roads where the present study is conducted in six locations (Bardarash, Rovya, Mahalabyia 1 and 2, Al-Gwair and Bashiqa) based on the existence of projects for roads under construction by the Directorate of Roads and Bridges. Furthermore, Azimuthal resistivity survey is applied using Parker-Watson array with an electrode spacing and azimuth depending on road directions. Also a reverse surveys are performed on the same points of sounding.
The resistance ratios (Rd1, Rd2) are then calculated and represented as polar diagrams and cartesian curves. Moreover, analysis relationships are done between the phases, amplitudes, frequencies and their reflections. It is observed from the polar diagrams of the mean resistance values, there is a resistivity variation with the depths and directions of the spread. It is also noticed that there are changes of the Anisotropy Coefficient (AC) values reflecting the effect of the lithofacies contrasts of the sub-base layer belonging to the paving and compacting mechanism underneath the central point of the azimuthal survey. A comparison between AC and Homogeneity Indices (HI) are determined, and the latest values are detected using the standard deviation approach which is thought to reflect the dispersion of measured resistances due to the heterogeneity constitutes.

The Geochemistry of Phosphorite and Associated Rocks of Akashat Formation (Middle Paleocene) in Akashat Mine, Iraqi Western Desert. Part I: Major Oxides

Kotayba Al-Youzbakey; Salim Al-Dabbagh

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2019, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 80-97
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2019.170272

The phosphatic compounds in the phosphorites of Akashat Formation (Middle Paleocene) are mainly composed of francolite. The associated rocks (phosphatic limestone) consist of calcite and francolite. As well as, there are little amounts of dolomite, palygorskite, quartz and iron oxides. Francolite is composed of Ca, P, F and O, the tetrahedron SO4 and planar CO3 as CO3+F substitute PO4. Some of Na and Mg are substituted in both sites Ca(I) and Ca(II). F occupied its sites in the channel. Some F subsititute O in CO3 to form the pseudo-tetrahedron of CO3+F. The elements Si, Al, Mg, Fe and K represent the clay minerals; montmorillonite, palygorskite and sepiolite, as well as, quartz and iron oxides.
The geochemistry of phosphorite reflects the primary neoformation conditions of marine apatite (francolite) from calcium, phosphate and fluorine, in addition to the substitution of positive mono- and di- valance cations for calcium in Ca(I) in submarine mud of the oceanic floor. The phosphate deposits were exposed to winnowing and transporting by upwelling currents to the continental shelf area. This led the phosphatic deposits to be affected by early and late chemical and biochemical diagenetic processes, causing activities in substitution of cations for calcium in Ca(II) and carbonate, also, additional fluorine and sulfates for phosphate. The flow of continental water to near-shore area, whose content is magnesium leading to remineralization of clay minerals, (e.g. palygorskite and sepiolite from montmorillonite) by depleting magnesium from sea water, as well as the activity of microorganism, all that is provided by suitable growth conditions for phosphatic compounds in continental shelf area.

Planktonic Foraminiferal Biostratigraphy of Tanjero Formation (Late Maastrichtian) in Bekhme Area, Northeastern Iraq

Majid Al-Mutwali; Muthana Ibrahim

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2019, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 1-21
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2019.170035

The biostratigraphy of Tanjero Formation has been investigated within a well-
exposed section at the northern limb of Perat anticline, Bekhme area, Northeastern Iraq.
The studied section consists mainly of marl, marly limestone, and sandstone. The
formation conformably overlies Shiranish Formation (Late Campanian-Maastrichtian)
and it is overlain unconformably by the Kolosh Formation (Paleocene). The samples of
the section under investigation yielded rich and well diversified planktonic foraminiferal
taxa, where 69 planktonic species belonging to 21 genera have been recognized. The
detailed foraminiferal investigation permits the recognition of four well defined zones.
These are from older at the base:
4. Plummerita hantkeninoides Total Range Zone.
3. Pseudoguembelina palpebra Partial Range Zone.
2. Pseudoguembelina hariaensis Interval Zone.
1. Racemiguembelina fructicosa Interval Zone.
The Planktonic zones were correlated with other zonal schemes in- and outside
Iraq. They are considered to be of Late Maastrichtian age.

The Use of Factor Analysis in Defining Factors Responsible for the Variation of the Concentrations of Dissolved Major Ions in Tigris River Water from Fishkabur to Baghdad

Hisham Yahya Dhannoun; Hazim Mahmood

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2019, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 1-18
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2019.170268

The current study is based on the use of statistical techniques to study and identify factors controlling the concentrations of dissolved major elements in Tigris River water within a wide range of the river course, starting from Fishkabur region in the north to Baghdad city in the south.
The Results show that the rock compositions of the river basin mainly control the concentrations of the dissolved major ions in the river water with limited effect of anthropogenic factor, represented by human activities, that controls the nitrate ion concentration. The results also indicate the presence of spatial and temporal variations in the dissolved major ions concentrations, along the study area.  

Structural and Tectonic Study of Qara Sard Anticline and Choplagh Syncline, from Sulaimaniya Area, Kurdistan Region, Northeastern Iraq

Saddam Al-khatony; Nabeel Al-Azzawi; Fadhil Lawa

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2019, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 39-58
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2019.170270

The study of the structural geology and tectonics of Qara Sard anticline and Goblagh syncline is carried out within the northwestern part of Zagros Fold-Thrust Belt (ZFTB) in Sulaimaniya area, Kurdistan region, Iraq. Qamchuqa Formation (Early Cretaceous) builds up the core of the anticline and overlain by Kometan, Shiranish and Tanjero formations (Late Cretaceous). Moreover, Khalakan Formation overlies Kometan Formation on the northeastern limb of the anticline. Tanjero Formation appears at the core of Choplaghsyncline. The structural geometrical analyses of seven traverses (P) cutting across the anticline and the syncline, revealed that the two folds are double plunging, and asymmetrical in all traverses except in P5 and P6 in Qara Sard anticline. Both folds are verging toward northeast; however, the anticline verges toward southwest and being vertical in P4 and P5 respectively. The geometrical analysis using PI diagrams reveal that the fold axis of Qara Sard anticline is sinuous and changing its trend in three attitudes. The first is NW-SE in the traverses P1, P2 and P3 with gradual clockwise drifting. The second one is WNW-ESE in P4, P5 and P6 and then returning in the third to the first attitude NW-SE in the traverse P7. Consequently, the area was influenced by four strike-slip faults. They are either transverse or inclined to the fold axis. These faults are Dolma Reza dextral, Choplaghsinistral, Lower Zab dextral and Dokan sinistral. They divided the area into four blocks moved in opposite directions depending on the strike-slip faults displacements. On the other hand, the study folds are affected by three reverse listric faults. They are suture-verged and parallel with the fold axis. Two of them affected the northeastern limb of Qara Sard anticline, whereas the third disturbed its southwestern limb. By investigations of the vertical changes of fold style, the reactivation of the suture listric fault (2) is detected. It appears as a rotational type so as its larger effect is on traverse P7 and its displacement is gradually reduced toward P4. Moreover, the reactivation time of this suture rotational listric fault was Turonian, it is reflected throughout verging change of the fault between Qamchuqa and Kometan formations in traverse P6.

The Impact of Tectonic Setting on Distribution of Kolosh Formation during Paleocene –Lower Eocene in Northern Iraq

Rabeea Znad; Ibrahim S. Ibrahim Aljumaily

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2019, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 22-34
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2019.170264

This study covered most of Kolosh Formation exposure areas in northern Iraq. Description of the lithology and measuring the actual thickness of the Formation from exposures and well logs were performed. The isopach map of the Formation was constructed. The sedimentation of the Formation was affected by the tectonic activity of the northeastern edge of the Arabian plate during the closure of the Neo-Tethys Ocean. The tectonic setting outlined the depozone of foreland basin system and controlled the variation of the deposits of the Kolosh Formation along the orogenic front (It revealed that there are more than one basin of deposition). The deviations of the depocenters of the Kolosh deposit basins from the current folds are depicted. The counterclockwise rotation of Arabian plate and its oblique collision with   Iranian plate as well as the rejuvenation of the basement faults during the peak of the orogeny might cause such deviation.

The provenance of Eocene sandstones (Gercus Formation), Northern Iraq

Zaid A. Malak; Nabil Al-Banna; Majid Al-Mutwali

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2019, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 57-68
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2019.170267

      Gercus Formation is exposed in northern Iraq. When the passive Arabian continental margin collided with the active continental margin of the Turkish and Iranian plates, a part of the source rocks of Gercus red beds were carried out from Iran and Turkey territories and deposited in the molasses trough, parallel to the suture zone of the collision, and the others were driving from the longitudinal paleo-high lying parallel to the trough basin of Gercus Formation.
     The present study is based on three surface sections, Bekhme, Sarsank and Amadiya areas in Northern Iraq. Generally, the Gercus Formation consists of reddish brown to light grey, well bedded sandstones and mudstones in addition to thin beds of conglomerates. The most of sandstone particles are composed of polycrystalline and monocrystalline quartz (of metamorphic and plutonic origin), K and Na – feldspar (derived from igneous and metamorphic source rocks), and chert grains of sedimentary source. Carbonate and other rock fragments with low ratio of mica group and heavy minerals (magnetite and rutile) are present too.
       The sandstones of Gercus Formation, generally contain low-moderate quantities of clay as matrix in all sections, therefore, they are texturally immature. On the other hand, the low ratio of quatrz and chert to feldspar and other components indicates to mineralogically immature sandstones. According to McBride classification, it is sublith arenite - Lithic arenite sandstone. Petrographic analysis of sandstones in Bekhme section revealed that it consist of variable amount of detritus, represented by the abundance of quartz and chert rock fragments with low content of feldspar, and at Sarsank and Amadiya sections, the Gercus sandstones are characterized by the abundant chert rock fragments with high percentage of metamorphic rock fragments. So they lay in the recycled provenance source of collision orogen.

Calcareous Nannofossils Biostratigraphy of Aaliji Formation in Well (K- 116), Northern Iraq

Raghda Saad Al-Hyaly; Omar Ahmed Al-Badrani

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2019, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 35-45
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2019.170265

Thirteen samples of Aaliji Formation from the well (K-116), Kirkuk area, Northern Iraq, are studied on the basis of the stratigraphic ranges of the recorded calcareous nannofossils for sixty species, the studied section reveals five biozones arranged from oldest to youngest as follows:

Fasciculithus tympaniformis Interval Biozone (CP4)
Heliolithus kleinpellii Interval Biozone (CP5)
Discoaster mohleri Interval Biozone (CP6)
Discoaster nobilis Interval Biozone (CP7)

5. Discoaster multiraditus Interval Biozone (CP8)
These biozones are correlated with other calcareous nannofossils biozones from both local and regional sections leading to conclude the age of Middle Paleocene to Early Eocene.

The Use of the Seismic Refraction Tomography Survey Method and the Multi-Channel Analysis Technique of Surface Waves in the Geotechnical Assessment of the Al-Amal Apartments Site in Kirkuk, Northern Iraq Ali

Ali Al-Nuaiemy; Bashar Al-Juraisy; Mahmood Al-Mafraji

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2018, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 89-104
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2018.159260

The current study conducted a seismic refraction survey using seismic refraction tomography (SRT), and the use of the multi-channel analysis technique of surface waves (MASW) at the site of Al-Amal apartments in Kirkuk Governorate ( northern Iraq) in order to determine the thickness, depth and velocity of the sub-surface layers. Moreover, a geotechnical assessment is measured in addition to determining the characteristics of these layers and specifying the appropriate layer for establishing the project.The data are processed and interpreted by using SeisImager™/SW software to obtain the velocity of longitudinal waves (VP) represented in the form of a seismic tomography section. The velocity of shear waves (VS ) is extracted from the phase velocity of Rayleigh surface waves using MASW method. The 2D seismic tomography sections represent longitudinal velocity (VP) and the depth of the survey lines. It also has been got three one-dimensional sections representing shear waves (VS ) with the depth. The results show the presence of three layers, and through dynamic flexibility parameters are calculated, and two of geotechnical parameters are applied for the three layers based on the seismic velocity of longitudinal, shear and density. According to these geotechnical parameters, the third layer has better geotechnical specifications than the layers above it, which is suitable for the engineering project. .

Rock Magnetic Properties during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM): Records from P/E boundary Sections (Sinjar, Shaqlawa) in Iraq

Ahmed Al-Fattah; Ali Al-Juboury; Imad Ghafor

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2018, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 55-74
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2021.170031

Rock magnetic properties have been investigated across the Paleocene/Eocene
boundary in two distally separate sections of Paleogene marine sedimentary rocks
from Iraq, namely the Sinjar and the Shaqlawa sections. The sediments at the
studied sections belong to the Aaliji and the Kolosh formations respectively, which
were previously examined for their biostratigraphy by the authors using planktonic
and benthonic foraminifera to delineate the Paleocene/Eocene (P/E) transition.
Measured magnetic properties include; bulk magnetic susceptibility, hysteresis
cycles, isothermal remnant magnetization (IRM) acquisition, and thermomagnetic
curves analysis. Rock-magnetic results (i.e. low magnetic coercivity component)
indicate greigite as the main magnetic phase at Aaliji rocks, while a mixture of
magnetite and greigite with high magnetic coercivity has been observed at Kolosh
clastics. Magnetic susceptibility is induced by related to both biogenic minerals
(mainly at Aaliji Formation) and transported terrigenous material sources. Multi
varied magnitude phases of high bulk rock magnetic susceptibility observed in
both formations along PETM lithosomes are attributed to two sources: greigite or
biogenic iron oxides source and increase in terrigenous discharge source as
inferred by anoxic to suboxic iron - sulfate-reducing conditions and lithological
change respectively. Both sources referred to some of environmental conditions
associated with Paleocene - Eocene thermal maximum events such as methane
dissociation, water stratification, enhanced hydrological and weathering cycles.

Planktonic Foraminiferal Biostratigrapy of Shiranish Formation in Makhmur Well No. (1), Makhmur Area, Northern Iraq

Abdullah Al-Hahidi

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2010, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 19-28
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2010.5516

Planktonic foraminifera is studied from Shiranish Formation in Makhmur
well No. (1), North Iraq between the depth interval (657-620) m. Three
biostratigraphy Zones are recognized in these formation:
1. Globotruncanita elevata–Rosita fornicata Zone.
2. Globotruncana aegyptiaca Zone.
3. Gansserina gansseri Zone.
20 عبد الله سلطان شهاب الحدیدی
The results of this study are compared with the work of others inside and
outside Iraq. The age of the Shiranish Formation in the said well is Late
Companian to Early Maastrichtian.

Tectonostratigraphy of Lower Cretaceous in Southern Iraq

Wathiq GH. AL-mutury; Rafed A. AL-Muhammad; Kaise Al-Bayatee

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2010, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 29-44
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2010.5517

Stratigraphic units during Lower Cretaceous in southern of Iraq
were affected largely by tectonic agent. Neo-Tethys ocean
occupied the distance between passive margins of Arabian and
Iranian plates. South of Iraq represented the continental shelf of
passive margin of Arabian plate. This tectonic situation made the
sediments in eastern parts of passive margin in south of Iraq
effected by marine agents, and the sediments in western parts was
effected by continental agents, whereas the middle parts was
effected by both agents. As result of that, three sediment regions
were formed in south of Iraq. First, marine sediment region that
occupy the eastern part of south of Iraq near the Iraq-Iran borders.
Second, mixed sediment region that occupy Basra area and extend
toward north. Third, continental sediment region that occupy
western part of Basra near the western desert. Half graben basins
that formed by listric faults in the passive margin caused the local
changes in distribution of sediments in south of Basra. These three
sediment regions formed all during Lower Cretaceous and maybe
extend toward the middle of Iraq and north of Baghdad

Some Recent Gastropoda From Khor Al-Zubair, Northwestof Arabian Gulf

Ramzi Al-Naser; Mohammed W. Al-Abbasi; Ali H. Elewi

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2010, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 19-30
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2010.5565

ABSTRACT Khor Al-Zubair channel is a shallow arm of the Arabian gulf, it is located between shatt Al-Basrah from the north west and the Arabian gulf at the south east. Six species belonging to six genera and four families were identified in this study. These are; Euchelus (Euchelus) asper, Clypeomorus clypeomorus, Hexaplex (Muricanthus) kusterianus, Murex (Murex) tribulus, Nassarius (Nassarius) arcularius and Thais sp. The presences of there in a sandy and muddy sediments is more likely indicate that their distribution occur between the Sub to the Middle littoral environment of Khor Al-Zubair channel with depth ranging between (1-15m).

Facies Analysis and Depositional Environment of Khurmala Formation in Bekhair Anticline –Dohuk Area, North Iraq

Nabil Al-Banna; Majid M. Al-Mutwali; Jamal S. Al-Ghrear

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2006, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 13-22
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2006.36375

The studied surface section of Khurmala Formation which lies in the northeast of Dohuk city north Iraq consists of mixed carbonate and clastic sediments, package about 60 meter thick of Early Eocene age. The carbonate sediment is comprising four microfacies association allocated to shoal bank (Kh2), lagoon (Kh1), intertidal (Kh1, Kh3), and supratidal (Kh4), while the clastic sediment included two lithofacies affiliated to estuaries depositional environment. A depositional model of the Khurmala Formation was proposed.
Diagenetic processes of dissolution and dolomitization are recognized in microfacies (Kh3).

Geothermal Investigation in the plain Between Sheikh Ibrahim and Atshan anticline southeast of Talafar Northweast of Iraq

Ahmed Saeed; Marwan Mutib

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2006, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 17-32
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2006.41315

Geoelectrical investigations were carried out in the area that located between atshan and sheikh Ibrahim anticline and south west respectively the vertical electric sounding was applied by using the collinear and symmetrical schlumberger array with maximum spacing interval for the current and potential electrodes (840 and 90m. respectively ) the sounding station were located in 64 sites through four traverses trending NE-SW. the field curve were interpreted by the partial matching method and the initial models were adjusted by using KMM program with digital partial matching technique. For electric zones were distinguished, the first one represent the surface soil while the second zone reflect of two lithofacies which belong to the upper member of al fat'ha formation while the fourth zone represent a lateral resistivity contrast which reflect lower member of al fat'ha formation and the unit D of the upper member.
Those lateral variations were explained by the geoelectrical traverses which indicate longitudinal fault. More ever geoelectrical section delinated type of this normal fault with about 90m through and 25 degree dipping

Morphotectonic of Mushora-Dagh Structure North Western of Iraq Using Remote Sensing and Field Data

Hekmat Al-Daghstani; Ramzi Kh. Al-Nasir; Mumtaz M. AL-Jarjary

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2005, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 1-15
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2005.40980

A detaild morphotectonic study has been carried out for the Mushora Dagh Anticline. This anticline is situated to the northwestern part of Iraq about (95) km from Mosul City. The morphotectonic map deduced from the enhanced space imagery showing the existence of seven morphotectonic units, differences in their lithologic and morphologic characteristics, which has been affected by local and regional tectonic movements.
The morphotectonical analysis method included: first, study of directional analysis of structural lineaments and relation between their direction and the tectonic movements through the successive geological periods. Furthermore, upward concavity of the longitudinal profiles represents evidence of the appearance of some anomalies that can be attributed to a number of geologic and tectonical factors. Finally, three high anomaly values appeared while determining the index sinuosity of the Tigris River. These values agree with the first appearance of the surfaces of the transverse and longitudinal faults of Mushora-Dagh Anticline and the axis of this anticline.