Keywords : Iraq

Hydrogeochemistry of Selected Wells on Both Banks of the Tigris River in Mosul Area/ Northern Iraq

Oday M. S. O. Al-Bachachi

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2014, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 1-18
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2014.87483

The present study included the evaluation of ground water at two areas; Gobba on the left and Hawi Al-Kaneesa on the right bank of the Tigris River at city of Mosul. Water evaluation was carried out through the comparison of the analytical dataofwater samples collected from wells at the two areas and the determination of their suitability for irrigation, as the two areas are within the utilized agricultural areas in Mosul governorate.
Chemical analysis for the major cations (Ca+2, Mg+2,Na+1, K+1) and the anions (HCO3-1, Cl-1,SO4-2) were carried out. Also, some physical and chemical properties related to water specification, like hydrogen ion Concentration (pH), electrical conductivity (EC), total hardness (TH) and total dissolved salts (TDS) were determined.
For the purpose of evaluation of water quality for irrigation, some water classifications were carried out. Results have shown that most of Hawi AL- Kaneesa well water were relatively rich in the determined cations and anions. This is attributed to the relatively high solubility of Fatha formation evaporates. These well- waters are considered to be a mixture of recent deposits and Fatha formation ground waters. Also, rain waters rinse and dissolved the outcrops of this formation in this area. There is also the effect of the sulphur springs present at or near the study area like Ain–Kibrit (sulphur spring) and other springs along the fault of Hawi AL-Kaneesa that result in increasing (SO4-2) as significantly observed.

Palynostratigraphy, Age determination and Paleoecology of Butmah Formation in borehole Kand-1 Northern Iraq

Yasser H. Kddo; Amer D. Nader

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2014, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 33-48
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2014.87486

Eight samples (K1-K8) from borehole Kand-1 covering (190) meters thick stratigraphic section were palynologically studied. They yield (36) species of sporomorphs belonging to (24) genera, three species were expected to be new. The miospore species recoved in this study indicate late Triassic age (Norian) and characterized by the dominance of many species of bisaccate non-striate pollen such as:
Alisporites australis, A. dunrobinensis,
warepanus, Falcisporites tecovasensis, Pityosporites scaurus, Protodiploxypinus acutus, P. americus, Samaropollenites speciosus.
In addition to monosaccate (Vesicate sporomorphs) represented by:
Patinasporites densus, Vallasporites ignacii, Enzonalasporites vigens.
The dominance of monosaccate pollen grains and the presence of the acritarchs, foraminiferal lining (acid-resistant inner coat) and fresh water algae in the lower part of stratigaphic section (K1-K3) indicate deposition in lagoonal environment with relatively high salinity and little supplies of fresh water. The increase of bisaccate pollen grains in the upper part of the sections (K4-K8) indicate deposition in relatively deeper environments (Inner shelf environment).

Biostratigraphy of Planktonic Foraminifera of Jaddala Formation (Eocene), Bara area, Northwestern Iraq

Majid M. Al-Mutwali; Inas S. Al-Sharbaty

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2013, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 67-84
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2013.79662

A surface section of Jaddala Formation was studied near Bara Village in the western plunge area of Sinjar anticline northwestern Iraq . The sequences under study consist of marl, marly limestone and limestone beds. Detailed study of planktonic foraminifera revealed (38) species belonging to (14) genera, the stratigraphic distribution of these species permits the regognition of five zones, these are: Morozovella aragonensis Zone, Acarinina pentacamerata Zone, Acarinina bullbrooki Zone, Globigerinatheka subconglobata Zone and Acarinina collactea Zone. These zones indicate that Jaddala Formation is of Early - Middle Eocene age.

Environmental Significance of Major and Trace Elements in the Soils of Selected Areas in Erbil City, Kurdistan Region, Northern Iraq

Farhad A. Mohammed; Sirwa Q. Smail; Yawooz A. Kettanah

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2013, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 15-32
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2013.79658

Thirty five elements were analyzed in twenty seven soil samples from six different sites in Erbil city to investigate the possible pollution by heavy metals in these areas. These sites are North Industrial, South Industrial, Erbil Citadel and three sites outside the city as background. Fe, K, Al, Na, P, Li, Be, B, Sc, V, Cr, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Mo, Sn, Cd, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Th, and U have higher concentrations than those of the local background but still have not reached
the pollutant levels when compared with the international standards.The concentrations of Ni, Cu, and Zn have exceeded pollutant levels but still cannot be considered toxic or hazardous because of their immobile nature under the current oxidizing environmental conditions. Meanwhile, Co, Mn and Pb have reached critical levels in the industrial areas; while Ni, Cu, Co, and Mn have critical values in the Citadel soils. The concentration of Ca in all studied areas is higher than those of international soil standards, while Mg is lower. There are high concentrations of P in the Erbil Citadel soil samples which are considered pollutant.

Biostratigraphy by Calcareous Nannofossils and Paleoecology by Ostracoda of Tanuma Formation, Central Iraq

Omar A. Al-Badrani; Sanad A. Al-Khashab

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2013, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 33-46
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2013.79659

Forty three samples of limestone and shales from Tanuma Formation obtained from East Baghdad well (No. 11) at depths (2067 - 2177 m.) about 110 m. in thickness. Details investigated carried out identify twenty species of calcareous nannofossils, sixteen described from other region and four left open name because of rare and not clear samples. Furthermore, twenty four species of ostracodes belonging to fourteen genera were recorded, these are: Bairdia, Brachycythere, Curfsina, Cythereis, Cytherella, Cytherelloidea, Dolocytheridea, Ovocytheridea, Paracypris, Protocythere, Pterygocythere, Schuleridea, Spinoleberis, Veenia.
The recorded calcareous nannofossils assemblages permits to recognized two biozones these are:

2- Micula cf. decussata Interval Biozone (CC14).

1- Marthasterites furcatus Interval Biozone (CC13).
On the basis of biocorrelation with previous works Coniacian age confirmed for the Tanuma Formation at the studied section. The analysis of the ostracode fauna led to conclude that the palaeoecology of the Tanuma Formation in this section is shallow marine environment at depth about 200m in the neritic zone with warm water, under normal marine water salinity.

Paleocene -Eocene Ostracoda From Selected Wells in West, North and Central Iraq

Nisren M. Aziz

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2013, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 47-66
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2013.79661

Twenty two ostracoda species belonging to eight genera were described
from Avanah ,Sinjar, Khurmala, Aaliji, Akashat and Jaddala Formations, (Paleocene-Eocene) of North, West and Central Iraq of which four species are new, Abyssocypris zumarensis, sp.inov., Argilloecia heijranensis sp. nov., Argilloecia baajensis sp. nov., Schizocylhere anbarensis sp. nov. The identified species
shows strong affinities to those in India, North Africa and the Middle East (Southern New Tethys).

SHRIMP U-Pb Dating of Zircon Inheritance in Walash ArcVolcanic Rocks (Paleogene Age), Zagros Suture Zone, NE Iraq: New Insights into Crustal Contributions to Trachytic Andesite Generation

Khalid J. Aswad; Sarmad A. Ali

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2013, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 45-58

SHRIMP U-Pb ages were determined on single zircon grains separated from combined samples (i.e. GA8-GA9) belonging to a trachytic andesite, Galalah area,Walash arc volcanic rocks, Northwestern Zagros Suture Zone, NE Iraq. The rock suite in the studied area ranges from calc-alkaline to alkaline (i.e., Ga8-Ga9). The New reconnaissance SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages of GA8 - GA9 reveal two episodes of Palaeoproterozoic inherited zircon growth:

1- 1953±39 Ma cores.
2- ca. 1777±28 Ma rims. This provides evidence for the ancestry of terrane
(i.e. crystalline basement).

which had been pervasively overprinted by Mesoproterozoic thermal events that facilitate the growth of zircon rims.The cathodoluminescence (CL) images show no evidence of the zircon growth during Tertiary magmatism. The rims are wide and darker in CL compared to the cores. The oscillatory zoned cores probably grew from magma of probably dioritic to gabbroic in composition, due to the high zircon Th/U ratio of ~1. The lower Th/U and high-U zircon rims could have grown in a superimposed migmatitic event with the growth of new zircon in localised melting. The core-rim pair of analyses is interpreted as indicating that the zircons are inherited / recycled Paleogene magma due to crustal contamination. The Palaeoproterozoic U-Pb zircon age may be correlated with the Khida terrane (1800-1650 Ma), in the north-westernmost portion of the ‘‘Arabian Craton’’ in Saudi Arabia. Here, a thinned Palaeoproterozoic continental basement fragment in Neo-Tethys might have contaminated the upwelling calc-alkaline magma before erupting.

Study of Trace and some Rare Earth Elements of Hussainiyat Karst Bauxite, Iraq: Leaching Efficiency

Hiyam A. Mohammad

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2013, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 13-34

Karst-filling bauxite deposits of early Cretaceous age are widespread in Hussainiyat area to the northeast of Al- Rutba city within the Iraqi Western Desert. Karstified carbonate host rocks represented by the dolostone of the Ubaid Formation (Early Jurassic) contain bauxite lenses preserved inside the karst together with kaolinitic bauxite, kaolinitic clays and sands belonging to the lower clastic unit of the overlying Hussainiyat Formation (Lower-Middle Jurassic). Normative mineralogy reveals that boehmite (up to 47%) and to a lesser extent gibbsite (up to 19%) are the main bauxitic minerals with kaolinite (28%), hematite (2.8%), anatase (up to 4.1%) and calcite (0.4%) as the main accessory minerals. Plots of chemical data against increasing grade of bauxitization show that Al, Ti, Zr, Nb, V, Hf, Th, U, Ga, Cr, Co, Cu, As and W were immobile and highly enriched, whereas SiO2, Fe2O3, CaO, K2O, Na2O, MgO, MnO, Ni, Mo and Gd were mobilized and depleted. Variation diagrams of certain immobile elements indicate that bauxite precursor might be shale derived from acidic granodiorite or its metamorphosed equivalent.

Pre-collisional Intrusive Magmatism in the Bulfat Complex, Wadi Rashid, Qala Deza, NE Iraq: Geochemical and Mineralogical Constraints and Implications for Tectonic Evolution of Granitoid-gabbro Suites

Ruaa M. Al.Sheraefy Sarmad A. Ali; Khalid J. Aswad

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2013, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 103-137

Pre-collisional plutonic rocks of Bulfat Complex, Qala Deza, NE Iraq were emplaced into the ophiolite-bearing terraine (Albian-Cenomenian) shortly after the 45Ma. At Wadi Rashid, the plutonic rocks consist of contemporaneous leucocratic 'granitoid' and melanocratic 'gabbro' rock types, with a “Daly gap” (compositional bimodality) that spans ~50–60 wt% SiO2. The relationship between the granitoid and gabbro magmas at Wadi Rashid in particular is ambiguous. This is attributed to rock types having their own geochemical characteristics. Reconnaissance data suggest that Wadi Rashid granitoid is illustrated by characteristics akin to a volcanic-arc granitoid setting. Their enrichment in the LREE relative to HREE is relatively modest (La/Yb ratios are 4.46-8.61× chondrite), with Eu anomalies that are typically positive. The low HREE in Wadi Rashid granitoid rocks seems to be due to partial melting of metamorphosed oceanic crust leaving REE rich accessory minerals (i.e. garnet) as residual phases in the source. In contrast, the gabbros are all moderately light REE-enriched (La/Yb = ratios range from 1.77 to 3.43× chondrite), and flat heavy REE profiles (chondrite normalized Tb/Yb = ratios range from 1.09–1.28× chondrite) and small negative Eu anomalies
(Eu/Eu*= 0.79-0.91). In primitive mantle-normalized multi-element diagrams, Wadi Rashid gabbroic samples show depletion in Pb and Sr relative to adjacent REE elements, Nb and Ta negative anomalies and flat Zr to Sm profiles similar to those of Enriched MORB. The Hf-Th-Ta, Nb-Zr-Y, Ti-Zr-Y and Ti-Zr-Sr diagrams of Wadi Rashid gabbros support an E-type MORB affinity. The geochemical data indicate that the gabbroic and granitoid rocks at Wadi Rashid are not cogenetically related. The dearth of intermediate magmatic compositions are interpreted as the result of low to medium pressure breakup of pre-existing semi-consolidated and buoyant granitoid material due to density instabilities in the underlying crystal mush of the intruded gabbroic magma.
A puzzling aspect of Wadi Rashid granitoid- gabbroic suite is the variability of magmatic conditions (i.e. temperature, oxygen fugacity (fO2) and water fugacity (fH2O). Based on the empirical thermo-barometric results for kaersutite; The primary liquidus phases (i.e. augite, kaersutite and ilmenite) equilibrated at a nearly constant pressure of about 269-277 MPa and at temperatures of crystallization of about 933–935°C. logfO2 during equilibration of kaersutite in the hosting melanosome is in the range of -12.2 to -12.4 (Δlog fO2 (FMQ) ~ 0.6). The petrography and mineral chemistry of leucocratic rocks indicate that there are two contrasting alkali metaluminous facies: (i) Fe-biotite granitoid and (ii) kaersutite-aenigmatite granitoid. These rocks occasionally encompass primary phases of mafic origin as resorbed xenocrysts (i.e. augite, An-rich plagioclase and ilmenite). Under such contrasting magmatic condition, primary ilmenite was transformed either into agpaitic (kaersutite-aenigmatite) or alkali metametaluminous (Ti-rich Fe-biotite) bearing mineral assemblages. These minerals are frequently observed in late-magmatic phase where the temperature of transformation of ilmenite (Δlog fO2 (FMQ) ~ -4 ) into aenigmatite was about 753°C under H2Omelt poor near-peralkaline conditions where as Ti-rich Fe-biotite equilibrated at about 647°C under H2Omelt rich reducing conditions.
Wadi Rashid composite intrusion (Paleogene age) of arc affinity is unequivocally separated from the Walash-Naopurdan arc-backarc complex (Eocene– Oligocene); found in the same general area but in a structurally lower thrust slice. The Walash-Naopurdan volcanic activity and the intrusion of the multiphase Bulfat Complex indicate the presence of a dual subduction-zone system in Iraqi Zagros Zone.

Fault-slip Analysis and Paleostress Reconstruction at Sara Anticline-Dokan Dam Site Northeastern Iraq

Ibrahim S. Al-jumaily; Saddam I. Al-khatoni

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2013, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 75-102

Stress inversion of fault-slip data has been worked by application of improved Right- Dihedral technique, succeeded by rotational optimization (Win-Tensor Software of Delvaux, 2010, version 2.2.3). Attitudes of fault planes, striations and their movement sense, were gathered from quarries and road cut exposures of carbonate rocks at Sara anticline situated in the high fold belt of northeastern Iraq. The obtained paleostress tensors of the current fault-slip analysis are (according to the general trends of δ1 (δHmax.) for strike slip and compressive tensors and δ3 (δHmin.) for extensional tensors): NNE-SSW, NE-SW primary strike slip and compressive tensors; WNW-ESE, NW-SE, NNW-SSE strike slip and compressive subordinate (relaxed) tensors; NW-SE extensional tensor byproduct from the primary tensor sets; and NNE-SSW, NE-SW extensional tensors associated with releasing phase accompanying the final uplift of the main fold. The multitrends of the computed paleostress tensors might be attributed to the oblique convergence and collision of Arabian and Iranian plates along their zigzaged margins.

Biostratigraphy of Bluish Marl Succession (Maastrichtian) in Sulaimanyia, Area, Kurdistan Region NE- Iraq

Polla A. Khanaqa; Kamal H. Karim; Khalid M. Ismael

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2011, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 81-99
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2011.5552

Recently a new lithology is found at the middle part of Tanjero Formation (Maastrichtian) and consists of a bluish marl succession about 100m thick in Sulaimayia area. This succession is lithologically similar to Shiranish Formation and has nearly same color and stacking pattern which didn’t described in the original description in the type section of Tanjero Formation. Geographically
it can be seen in Piramagroon and Sharazoor plains, Chaqchaq valley
(to the northwest of Sulaimani City) and Dokan area. The biostratigraphy of this succession indicates Early Maastrichtian to Early Late Maastrichtian which includes four interval zones of:
Racemiguembelina fructicosa Interval Zone (CF4) (Early late Maastrichtian), Pseudotextularia intermedia Interval Zone (CF5) (Early Maastrichtian)
Contusotruncana contusa Interval Zone (CF6) (Early Maastrichtian)
Gansserina gansseri Interval Zone (CF7) (Early Maastrichtian)
As concerned to the affinity of this succession two possibilities can be assigned:
1-Middle part of Tanjero Formation.
2-lentils of Shiranish Formation inside Tanjero Formation.
This study prefers the first assignation as the foraminiferal assemblages show that the marly succession is not belonging to Shiranish which has, in the studied area, the age of Campanian. Another reason for this assignation is that the environment and sequence stratigraphy, tectonics of Tanjero Formation is more understandable than the first assignation (If it is included in the Shiranish Formation). The record of this new lithology and submergence of the type section of the formation under the water of Darbandikhan (dam) impose selection of a new type section or a supplementary type section for the formation either in Dokan or Chwarta areas where there are representatives of the new lithology inside the Tanjero Formation and the sections are well exposed.

Strontium Isotope Ratios as a Tool for the Origin of Barite Mineralization of Marsis and Lefan Deposits/Northeast Zakho / Iraq

Faraj H. Tobia

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2011, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2011.5553

Veins, vienlets, pockets and cavity- filling deposits of barite are found to be associated with Upper Jurassic Formations (Marsis deposit) and Upper Cretaceous Bekhme Formation (Lefan deposit). The strontium isotope ratios of barite are presented here and the data have been used to understand the source and origin of barite. The relation of barite mineralization with carbonate host rocks reveals a stratabound epigenetic origin for barite. The obtained 87Sr/86Sr ratios range from 0.708226 to 0.708452; these values reveal the possibility of involvement of crustal Sr in the deposition of Marsis and Lefan barite. Isotopic data reveal that strontium in barite is derived from coeval seawater of Late Cretaceous and other processes like mixing of low temperature hydrothermal solution derived from the crust that is rich in radiogenic 87Sr.

Mesofracture Analysis of Azmur AnticlineNorth Eastern Iraq

Hadeer Gh. M. Adeeb; Ibrahim S. I. Al-Jumaily

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2010, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 1-24
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2010.5522

Analysis of brittle failure structures carried out throughout a traverse across Azmur Anticline, NE Iraq. This includes widespread joints, mesofaults, planar and enechelon vein arrays and pressure solution surfaces ( stylolite seams ). The aim of this work is for unraveling the tectonic history and detecting tectonic episodes responded for the initiation and modification of such brittle failure structures.Field observations and analysis revealed two subsequent compressive phases. The oldest trending ENE-WSW is normal to the Azmur fold axis, while the second is parallel to it. These directions ascertained by paleostress tensors deduced from slip analysis of striated mesofaults. Reorientation of stress regime from first compressive phase to the second has been attributed to the progressive oblique collision of Arabian and Eurasian plates. Furthermore, a final stretching phase in NE-SW direction had been deduced. This extensional phase which ought to the uplifting stage of fold structure is responsible for bedding parallel stylolite seams with vertical peaks, and normal slip faulting in the studied area.

New Species of Ostracoda Genus Cytherella Jones, 1849 from the Upper Cretaceous of Hamrin Area North Eastern Iraq

Saleh K. Khalaf; Waleed Y. AL - Ubide

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2010, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 25-34
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2010.5518

ABSTRACT Four new ostracod species belonging to the genus Cytherella Jones, 1849 described from the Upper Cretaceous succession of Hamrin area NE Iraq namely: Cytherella shiranishensis sp. nov; ; C. iraqiensis sp. nov.: C. mushoriensis sp. nov.; and C. kirkukiensis sp. nov. Keywords: Ostracoda; Cytherella; Cretaceous; Iraq.

Planktonic Forminiferal Biostratigraphy of Kolosh Formation (Paleocene) in Dohuk Area North Iraq

Majid M. Al-Mutuuali; Alaa M. Al-Wazan

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2010, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 1-22
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2010.5561

الملخص A surface section of Kolosh Formation was studied near Dohuk city, North Iraq. Detailed study of the planktonic foraminifera revealed (47) species. The stratigraphic distribution of the planktonic foraminifera recorded in the section permits the recognition of five zones and two subzones these are from base to top.

5- Morozovella aeque / Acarinina esnaensis Zone (P5).
4- Globanomalina pseudomenardii Zone (P4) Late Paleocene
3- Morozovella angulata Zone (p3) (Thanetian)

2- Praemurica uncinata Zone (P2). Early Paleocene
b.Globanomalina compressa Subzone (P1c). (Danian)
a.Subbotina triloculinoides Subzone (P1b).
1- Parasubbotina pseudobulloides Zone (P1).

These zones were correlated with other studies inside and outside Iraq. the present work indicate that Kolosh Formation is of Early Paleocene (Danian)- Late Paleocene ( Thanetian) age.

Types And Origin of Travertine Deposits In Wadi Garmawa -Dohuk area / Northern Iraq

Omar K. M. Sajed

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2010, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 47-64
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2010.5557

Travertine deposits occur in Wadi Garmawa about (3) km northeast Dohuk city in adistinct cave and adjacent areas above exposed carbonate rocks of Shiranish Formation (Late Campanian - Maastrichtain).
These deposits are divided according to their field location into hypogean and epigean travertine . Hypogean travertine occurs inside the cave as a variety of carbonate cave deposits (Speleothems) associated with distinct karstic features including high porous tufa , massive or thin laminated travertine and moonmilk deposits occurring at different sites; and were formed by seepage of surface water, bacterial activity, seasonal alteration and chemical weathering alternatively. While the epigean travertine is found along the outcoming water stream either laminated or massive travertine pools and dams alternatively and repeatedly.
Both laminated and massive epigean travertine are produced from coating the algae with calcium carbonate at the water stream due to the process of photosynthesis by algae. Most of travertine deposits in the study area are associated with the released sulphur which is thought to be formed predominantly by the oxidization of H2S in the presence of oxygen and/or bacterial activity in the presence of light.

The Structural Analyses and Tectonic Interpretations of Shaikhan Anticline- Northern Iraq

Saddam E. M. Al-Khatony; Nabeel K. Al-Azzawi

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2010, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 31-52
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2010.5558

Structural analyses including fold geometry, Harmonic (Fourier) analysis, vertical investigation of fold style, thickness change test and joints analysis were carried on Shaikhan Anticline which is one of the Foreland Folds of Iraq. Geometrical analysis of five traverses revealed its asymmetry except the area of the second traverse which shows symmetrical form. It is verging towards the north except the area of the first one. The anticline axis changes its direction along the anticline. It trends east-southeast in the eastern part, swings towards the east-northeast and returns to the first direction in the west. These swings were caused by two sinistral strike-slip faults displacing oblige to the fold axis.Fourier analysis revealed that the fold has low developed shape at the plunges. It is of chevronic-sinusoidal shape. While it has high developed shape (Parabolic-semi Elliptical) at the central part, along the third traverse which influenced by the transpression of the strike-slip fault.The vertical investigation of fold style showed that the fold axis direction was constantly anticlockwise changing from the Late Eocene to Middle Miocene and rotated clockwise from the Middle to Late Miocene. This axis also has a specific direction difference, in the folded strata between the Gercus And the Pila Spi formations. This was considered as an indicator for the listric fault reactivation. The suture listric fault was forced the anticline to the northward vergence. Formation thickness changes confirm the presence of this fault revealing that the formations younger than the Gercus are thicker in the southern limb. This indicates that the suture listric fault is of normal type.

Study of Raw Water Pollution and its Impact on Water Supply Quality of Al Qasr Water Treatment Plant / Northern Iraq

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2010, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 23-32
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2010.5560

The present work included the study of Tigris River raw water, supplying Al-Qasr water treatment plant, 15km south of Mosul city, Sulfate water spring near the station were also studied. Field observation together with chemical analysis suggested that the area of study is affected by the water of sulfate springs, resulting in high concentration of major cations and anions of the water of the station. Trace elements, like (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) also showed relatively high concentrations
The treated water of the plant is out of the recommended of the international standards of drinking water, to evaluate its water quality for human consumption. They are polluted with the heavy metals mainly (Cd, Ni and Pb).

Biostratigraphy of the Aquitanian - Lower Early Langhian Successions in Kor Mor Well No.3 at Kirkuk Area, NE Iraq

Thamer A. Agawan Nadia A. Abdu Rahman

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2009, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 1-14
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2009.40566

The present study deals with the biostratigraphy of the Aquitanian -Lower Early Langhian successions age in Kor Mor well No.3 at Kirkuk area.
The studied section includes six formations with a total thickness of about (430) meters.These are: Ibrahim, Azkand, Anah, Euphrates, Dhiban and Jeribe formations.
Eighteen species and subspecies of planktonic foraminifera and twenty one species and subspecies of benthonic foraminifera are recognized.
Also some forams of benthonic foraminifera to the genus level are identified.
Fragments of mullosca shell, echinoderm, green and red algae were recognized from the studied succession.They permit an identification of five biostratigraphic zones and are from younger to older:
Borelis melo curdica Total Taxon - Range Zone.
Miogypsina globulina Total Taxon - Range Zone.
Miogypsinoides complanatus Total Taxon - Range Zone.
Catapsydrax dissimilis Partial - Range Zone (N.5).
Globigerinoides primordius Partial - Range Zone (N.4).
The first two zones are withen Ibrahim Formation, of Early Miocene (Early Aquitanian) age.Whereas, the third zone affilated to Azkand and Anah formations of Early Miocene (Late Aquitanian) age,The fourth zone is related to Euphrates and Dhiban formations of Early Miocene (Late Burdigalian) age. The last zone represent Jeribe Formation of Middle Miocene (Lower Early Langhian).

Gypcrete in the Upper Part of Fat`ha Formation at Mahalabia Area / NW Iraq

Salim H. Hussein; Omar K.M. Sajid; Thamer A. Aghwan

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2008, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 50-63
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2008.5482

Gypcrete with a thickness between (4 - 8) meters occur at the upper part of Fat`ha Formation at Mahalabia area, northwest of Iraq. The gypcrete consists of several zones which are lacking stratification. It has been divided on the basis of textures and characteristic structures into three types. These are from bottom to top: subsurface crust, followed by friable gypcrete and the hard surface gypcrete. This last crust is exposed at the surface and consists of gypsum polygons of different shapes and sizes and are characteristic of this zone. The three zones were formed by different diagenetic processes caused by groundwaters and the alternation of dry and wet periods. Calcrete as well as gypcrete also formed due to these processes. The calcrete exhibits alpha fabrics which often reveal the influence of physico-chemical processes and calcite pseudomorph after gypsum. All these features indicate that the calcrete is associated with gypsum crust, probably during the early stages of diagenesis through pedogenesis. The source of gypsum and carbonates of these crusts were most likely the bed rocks of Fat`ha Formation. The majority of gypsum crystals were formed insitu, mainly from groundwaters by displasive growth within the host sediment.

Local Shortening of Folds and Detachment Surface Depth withExamples from the Foreland Belt of Iraq

Nabeel K. Al-Azzawi

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2008, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 34-43
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2008.39222

The percentage of local shortening of the Foreland Folds is quantified on the basis of simple geological trend and calculations of appropriate mathematical approaches.
The quantification method includes the measurements of the amount of the tectonic uplift of a measurement datum as well as, the amount of the entire uplifted mass represented in cross section by the area of the structural relief.
The application of the present method at two separate areas of the Foreland Belt of Iraq was lead to encouraging results and confidence in uses for tectonic analysis. The obtained results comply with the tectonic concepts of the area, and in the mean time it is compatible with other relevant studies.

The Effect of a Hypothetical Artificial Recharge Program on Water Table Altitudes of Shallow Dibdibba Sandy Aquifer in Safwan-Zubair Area, South of Iraq

Alaa M. Atiaa; Monera N. Sadoon

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2007, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 53-72
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2007.39266

A two-dimensional numerical based model is constructed to simulate the flow system of Dibdibba Sandy aquifer in Safwan-Zubair area, south of Iraq. A trial and error method is used to calibrate the model in two sequential stages: steady and transient states. Sensitivity analysis showed that the model is sensitive and less sensitive to change hydraulic conductivity and specific yield, respectively. The calibrated model is utilized to predict behavior of the aquifer over a planning horizon of 10 years (2001-2010) under two management alternatives. Based on the management alternative I which is depending on the fact that the operating wells is growing with a rate of 200 wells per year, a continuous decline of groundwater levels will occur if the model is run without recharging the aquifer. Average decline of head is of about (2 m). In the application of artificial recharge, the case is reversed. In most of the observation wells, the values of simulated head are rise and then decline gradually to a level that observed in the beginning of simulation period. The average rise in water table altitudes is (0.56 m). The results of the alternative II, which is depending on increase of discharge of each operating wells within the area of concern from 5 ℓ/s to 7 ℓ/s, are similar the first alternative where the averages decline and rise of water table altitudes are (0.85 and 0.88 m) respectively.

Relationship Between Qulqula Conglomerate Formation and Red Bed Series, at Qulqula Area, NE-Iraq

Kamal H. Karim; Mushir M. Baziany

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2007, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 55-68
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2007.39410

Previous studies considered Qulqula Conglomerate Formation and Qulqula Radiolarian Formation as two units that comprise Qulqula Group. They mentioned that the former formation overlies the later gradationally. The type sections of both formations occur at Kulkula Gorge, about 25 km to the northeast of Ranyia Town. These studies indicated the age Qulqula Conglomerate Formation as Albian-Cenomanian and referred to deposition in deep basin of high tectonic activity. This tectonic is punctuated by deposition of the wildflysch which is represented by 1200 m of conglomerate, sandstone and shale.
However, during restudy of the lithology, stratigraphy and facies of Qulqula Conglomerate Formation at type section, any of the above characteristics are not observed. Conversely, many new data are recorded for the first time that revised lithology; stratigraphic position and age of the formation as concerned to previous ones. As it is shown the lithology of the formation is similar to the lithology of unit three of the Red Bed Series. This is proved by the following lines of evidence: Lateral tracing of the formation to the type locality of the Red Bed Series (Suwais village), indicating of their mergence with each other in a depositional condition near the village. Several species of Alveolina and Nummulite large forams are found in the gravels and boulders of the formation at the type locality. The age of these forams are Eocene; therefore the age of Qulqula Conglomerate Formation is changed to yonger than Eocene. The wildflysch facies as cited before is nothing except the molasse of Red Bed Series as it contains same alternation of lensoidal conglomerate and sandstone with some shale and claystone. This study suggests modification stratigraphical position of the formation in the type area so that it must be included in the Red Bed Series and Qulqulq Conglomerate Formation must be abandoned.

Stratigraphy and Lithology of the Avroman Formation (Triassic), North East Iraq

Kamal H. Karim

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2007, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1-12
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2007.5533

Stratigraphy and lithology of the Avroman Formation (Triassic) were studied in Iraq and Iran. The study introduced new documentations about stratigraphy, lithology, fossil content and environment of deposition. Stratigraphically, it is very difficult to study the formation due to intense deformation, imbrication and even thrusting. However, it overlain by Qulqula Radiolarite Formation and Merga Red Beds in Iraq and Iran respectively while the underlying formation is not known as the lower boundary is not exposed. Lithologically, the formation consists mainly of pure limestone and no dolomite and marly limestone as previously mentioned. Microfacies include; grainstone, packstone and wackestone with association of oncoids, pelets, oolith and bioclasts. The fossils are relatively rare (except stromatolite or oncoids) and include gastropods, pelecypod green algae, echinoderms and forams. Environmentally, the formation was deposited in shallow isolated platform which was characterized by agitating warm normal marine water.

Some Sedimentary and Structural Evidences of Ppossible Graben in Mawat-Chuarta Area, NE -Iraq

Kamal H.kareem

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2005, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 9-18
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2005.41157

Mawat –chuarta area has a complex geological setting, which is manifested by highly deformed mixture of all type of rocks, sedimentary , metamorphic and igneous. Through the area these rocks have penetrated, as tongue, in to the autochthonous rocks. In the southeast and northwest of the area two large normal faults are identified which have more than 500m of throw. The area between these faults (chuarta-mawat area) has suiffered clear subsidence as compared to the neighboring areas. This subsidence is attributed to the normal faulting accompanying graben. Much structural and sedimentological evidence are given to prove the presence of a graben . the evidence is striation. Slickenside, triangular facet , bitumen seepage, nappe of sedimentary and ophiolite rocks and thick accumulation of conglomerates.

Lithostratigraphy and Microfacies Analysis of the Serikagni Formation Type Section, in Bara Village, Sinjar Area, NW Iraq

Nabil Y. Al-Banna

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2004, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 23-30
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2004.37756

The type section of Serikagni Formation is studied near Bara village, northwestern Iraq. Thin section study and field observations allow the recognition of four sedimentary facies and two sedimentary cycles. Their correlation with other geological sections in Sinjar basin permits the lower cycle to be affiliated to Ibrahim Formation and the upper cycle representing Serikagni Formation.

Stratigraphy of Sadi Formation ( Santonian) and its Relationship toKometan Formation from North and Mid Part of Iraq

Marwan A. Al-Eisa; Kahtan M. Al-Jubory

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2004, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 62-75
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2004.37743

The litho-facies of Sa'di Formation is characterized by chalky and marly limestone with thick-wall rotaliids and algal facies of shallow marine environments of Santonian age. These facies are distributed in the mid -secter of Iraq, which is parallel to the Tigris river. While in Late Santonian the upper facies of Sa'di Formation was replaced by extensive Globotruncanal facies of pelagic environment of Kometan Formation, due to sea level change, which is accordant with in changing of paleo-topography of basin configuration.
Two biozones are defined for the complete section of Sadi formation as:
1- Rotalia skourensis Zone (Late Santonian).
2- Dissocladella undulata Zone (Early Santonian).
The second one is changing laterally to the Dicarinella concavata Zone for the same formation. Overplayed by Dicarinella asymetrica Zone from Late Santonian of Kometan Formation. While the Sadi Formation was disappear in the eastern part of the Iraq and replaced by kometan formation.

Mathematical Model of Ground Water Flow of Bashiqa Area,Northern Iraq

Taha H.Alsalim; Mahamad Faozy

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2004, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 84-98
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2004.37742

Models of ground water are one of most important techniques and powerful tools for solving problems or questions of ground water. Mathematical model was designed for the verification of ground water system in Bashiqa area northern Iraq which situated between latitude , and longitude , .
The total area involved in the mathematical model was 95km by using Finite Difference Method (FDM) for presenting the model. The results of model application was the determining ground water level in the study area and the direction of flow of ground water. The future behavior of ground water of the research area has been predicted, in the case of drilling new wells.

Geomorphology of Kand Structure North of Iraq Using Remote Sensing Data

Rayan G. Al-Banaa; Hekmat S. Al-Daghastani; Amer D. Nader

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2004, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 58-73
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2004.37764

Remotly sensed data were used in the study of the morphotectonic of the Kand Structure in north of Iraq .The present study showed that the landforms can be interpreted and analyzed depending on the aerial photographs (scale 1/38,000). The landforms were analyzed and classified in the study area according to their gensis through the interpretation of the aerial photographs. Ten geomorphological units were recognized which were represented on a map prepared for this purpose. This map is regarded as a database in the improvement of the modern structural concepts for Kand Fold through its enhancement of the presence of four domes and the conformation of a fifth dome present in the far east part of the structure which are not dealt with in previous studies, so this study proposed a name for this dome (Badrian) relative to the Badrian village adjacent to it.
Results of morphotectonic analysis concluded that the geomorphological modifications of the surface valley system crossing Kand Fold at many sites have developed in conjugation with the effective growth of this structure, where the clear proofs which are due to the tectonic effects in these valleys represented by the longitudinal sections and the abnormal senuousity. In addition to the morphology of the valleys and the river terraces affected by the directions and sites of tectonic uplifting along the valleys crossing Kand structure all of which proved that these valleys are matching the hypothesis of Antecedent valleys and that Kand Structure is still continuing in the phase of growth.

Weathering of Rock Outcrops and Its Effect on The Geochemical Properties in Kersi Area of Sinjar Anticline Northwest, Iraq

Salim A. K. Fanoosh

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2003, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 58-66
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2003.36684

Four outcrop samples of Shiranish and Sinjar Formations in Kersi basin on the northern limb of Sinjar Anticline were chosen. These samples are composed of marl, calci marl and dolomitic limestone, in addition to four soil samples were taken from a neighbouring sites.
The study dealt with the effect of weathering on the samples using diluted oxalic acid (0.01M), and the study of the hydrologic activity of Kersi basin using morphometric analysis.
The results showed that there is a linear conformal course for both calcium and iron released from the soil with their equivalent, which are released from the rocks. This was confirmed statistically by a significant correlation coefficient, while magnesium, sodium potassium and manganese do not show neither linear conformal course, nor a significant correlation coefficient between the release of these elements from soil and rocks. Also, the results of morphometric analysis from the shape of hypsometric curve showed that kersi basin is regarded as hydrologically immature basin which means that weathering was active and is related directly to erosion factors occurring in this basin.