Keywords : GIS

Geomorphic Indices of Tectonic Activity Through the Analysis of the Drainage Systems in Pera Magroon Anticline, Northeastern Iraq

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2018, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 99-112

The study area (Pera Magroon) is located within Kurdistan Region, Sulaimaniyah Governorate, north and northwest of Sulaimaniyah city northeastern Iraq. Arc GIS, hydro tool is used to extract the drainage network in the area under study by using digital elevation models (DEM). The study area is covered by dendritic and parallel drainage patterns and divided into twenty sub-basins.
Three geomorphic indices, Mountain-front sinuosity (Smf), Stream-gradient index (SL) and Valley floor width-valley height ratio (Vƒ) were calculated for sub- basins.
Through averaging these three indices, we obtained index of active tectonics (IAT). The values of the index were divided into classes to define the degree of active tectonics. Therefore, relative tectonic activity is calculated and their values are classified and analyzed in three groups. The sub-basins were identified as very high, high and moderate levels..

Using of GIS Software for Mapping the Climatic Data Obtained from Internet Network: Iraq Case Study

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2018, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 35-48

Nowadays, the long-term climatic data supplied by the famous internet sites, plays an important role in analyzing and mapping of various climatic features (temperature, precipitation, solar radiation … etc.). Precipitation is one of the important elements in agriculture. It is a major field in climatological studies. Studying precipitation is important to identify precipitation characteristics; temporal and spatial variability.
In the present study, extract for each (0.5*0.5) degree grid cell of the monthly precipitation data for the year 2016 except the summer months (June - July - August) using the GPCC Visualizer website is applied for Iraq country. Kriging interpolation method within the environment of ArcGIS10.3 program, the average monthly and seasonal precipitation maps are drawn. The study revealed the possibility to use the more popular website sources of historical climate datasets to compensate the lack of climate data available from the meteorological stations in Iraq, which is often difficult to obtain recent data..

Using of Image Processing for a Multi-Spectral Bands Image to Specify the Rock Units in Gara Barran Anticline/ Duhok Northern Iraq

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2018, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 165-183

A variety of image processing techniques were applied by the use of ENVI 5 program, on Landsat 7 ETM+ for a part of Bekhair anticline which is called Gara Barran anticline. It is located in the north of Duhok city, northern Iraq. Image processing methods were carried on (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7) image bands included: numerous false color combinations (RGB composites of three bands) were applied, and the best (741 RGB) was chosen. It was used as a base image for the two types of classification and geological mapping. It was comparted with a published geological map for the same area to indicate the name of the exposed geological formations in Gara Barran anticline which was identified at the field. Several image ratios were applied, and the best (2/3, 3/1, 2/5, 4/3, 5/7, 7/3 7/5) were chosen. In addition, the principal component analysis (PCA) (for all bands of Landsat7 image) was applied, only three of the resulted six components (PC3,PC4,PC5) were better and more useful than the other to discriminate some of the geological formations at Gara Barran anticline. Visual interpretation was applied on resulted images to identify the geological formation outcrops in Gara Barran anticline and the vegetation covered areas were also detected. Then all results were used to identify the exact training areas which were used in the supervised classification. Digital geological map was produced by the use of resulted images which were overlaid in Arc GIS 10.1 program and the transparency of the upper image was increased to 50%. By this way, the effect of vegetation cover was defeated then a digital geological map was exactly detected the geological formations with its contactsاستخدم برنامج ENVI 5 لتطبيق المعالجات الرقمية المختمفة عمى مرئية لاندسات 7 ETM+ لتحديد
الوحدات الصخرية في طية كا ا ربا ا رن والتي تعد جزءا من طية بيخير الكبيرة والواقعة شمال مدينة دىوك في
شمالي الع ا رق. تضمنت المعالجات ال م نفذة عمى حزم المرئية (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7) مايأتي: عممية الدمج
الممون الكاذب بعدة توليفات، واختيار أفضل توليفة والمتمثمة ب 741 RGB) (. إذ تم اتخاذىا كأساس في
عمميتي التصنيف والترسيم الخ ا رئطي ومقارنتيا بخريطة جيولوجية منشورة لذات المنطقة لمتعرف عمى أسماء
التكاوين الجيولوجية المنكشفة في طية كا ا ربا ا رن والتي تم تميزىا الزيارة حقمي اً. تطبيق المرئيات التناسبية
بصيغ مختمفة وكانت أفضميا (2/3, 3/1, 2/5, 4/3, 5/7, 7/3, 7/5) . وتحميل المركبات الأساسية لجميع
حزم مرئية لاندسات 2، لينتج عنيا ستة مركبات أساسية، كانت أكثرىا فائدةً في تحديد امتدادات بعض
التكاوين الجيولوجية في طية كا ا ربا ا رن المركبات الأساسية (PC3, PC4, PC5) . تم تفسير نتائج المعالجات
الرقمية المختمفة بصرياً لتحديد امتدادات التكاوين الجيولوجية المنكشفة في طية كا ا ربا ا رن وتحديد
مناطق انتشار الغطاء النباتي الذي يغطي أج ا زء من المكاشف الصخرية في الطية. استخدمت
المرئيات الناتجة من المعالجة الرقمية في تحديد عينات مناطق التدريب لكل تكوين جيولوجي بدقة
)استنادا الى المرئيات المستحصمة من المعالجات في أعلاه( لاستخداميا في عممية التصنيف الموجو. ولرسم
وانتاج الخريطة الجيولوجية الرقمية، تم تطبيق العديد من عمميات المطابقة (Overlays) لممرئيات الناتجة
من المعالجة الرقمية مع تنظيم مستوى الشفافية (Transparency) لممرئية العميا الى 11 % من خلال
برنامج نظم المعمومات الجغ ا رفية ArcGIS10.1 مما ساعد في التغمب عمى تأثي ا رت الغطاء النباتي في
نبيل قادر الع ا زوي ريان غازي البناء مثنى محمد ثابت
قسم عموم الأرض مركز التحسس النائي قسم عموم الأرض
كمية العموم جامعة الموصل كمية العموم
جامعة الموصل جامعة الموصل
نبيل قادر بكر الع ا زوي و آخرون
حجب الرؤية في بعض أج ا زء طية كا ا ربا ا رن ورسم خريطة جيولوجية رقمية حددت بدقة إمتدادات التكاوين
الجيولوجية والحدود الفاصمة فيما بينيا.

Using of ASD Spectral Reflectance and GIS Techniques for Mapping and Analyzing of some Salt Soils Distributed in the Northern Al-Jazirah Irrigation Project

Sabah H. Ali; Waleed Y. Al-Ubide; Namik A. Daood

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2013, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 35-44

Saline soil problems are one of the most common land processes and reflects severe environmental hazard. In order to study the spectral reflectance characteristics of the soil salinity levels, an area located in the Northern Al-Jazirah Irrigation Project was selected. The main objective of this study is to investigate the potential of identifying and predicting salt content in soils at various irrigated areas according to the spectral reflectance characteristics of the soils Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD) spectroradiometer (in contact probe mode) with spectral range from 350 nm to 2500 nm was used to measure the spectral reflectance characteristics of the collected soil samples.
Laboratory measurements have indicated that saline soils have higher reflectance characteristics than do nonsaline soils. The near and middle infrared bands were superior to the visible bands in detecting different soil salinity levels. The supervised classification of the available ETM+ image demonstrated that spectral separation of different soil salinity levels and various land cover types is an efficient, reliable and dependable tool of using remote sensing to map soil salinity.

using GIS for studying morphometric and artificial re-charging properties of quwaisi valley basin, northwestren iraq

Bashar m.Alshekarchi

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2005, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 103-113

A data base using (Arc view v.3.3) soft ware was prepared for the morphometric analysis, studying the properties of quwaisi valley which is located on the northern limb of Sinjar anticline, north west of iraq, feasibility of such properties in making the artificial re-charging of aquifers below this basin. Its evident from studying the possible relations of the basin morphometric properties represented by the spatial, shape, topographic, and the fluvial characteristics that this basin has typical properties for establishing artificial re-charging project below this basin by seasonal runoff waters, which lost in the form of evaporated or surface run off out side the Iraqi borders.