Keywords : GIS

Application of Remote Sensing and GIS to Mapping Groundwater Potential Zones of Khazir River Basin, Northern Iraq

Jalal Younis; Chiman I. Ahmed

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 209-230
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2022.176650

The Khazir River Basin is among the most important areas in terms of agricultural importance and diversity of agricultural crops; therefore, groundwater is extensively pumped in this area which is the main resource of water for domestic and agricultural purposes. The purpose of this research was to locate and map this crucial and significant water resource in order to better understand the occurrence and distribution of groundwater potential in the basin. This can be achieved through utilizing remote sensing data from Sentinel-2B with 10m resolution for obtaining Land use/Landcover (LULC) maps and lineament density., DEM (30m resolution) was used for drainage density and estimating the slope map of the area.  In addition, the geological map and interpolated rainfall data were used as well.  GIS has also been used for running the model to obtain Groundwater Potential Zones (GWPZs) map. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method is used for mapping the potential groundwater zones. The results indicate that approximately 89% of the studied region falls inside a zone with a high or very high groundwater potential.

Groundwater Vulnerability Evaluation in the Nineveh Plain, Northern Iraq, using a GIS-based DRASTIC Model

Ali Al-Ozeer علی; Alaa Al-Abadi

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 78-92
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2021.170392

The goal of this study is to determine the vulnerability of groundwater in northern Iraq's Nineveh Plain by utilizing the DRASTIC method and geographic information systems (GIS). In the context of human or environmental systems, vulnerability refers to the potential for harm as a result of stress or disturbance, it may be related to a particular system, hazard, or group of hazards. The vulnerability map includes three vulnerability categories: very low, low, and medium. Following the results of the spatial analysis, it can be concluded that the southern and northeastern portions of the study area have been the most vulnerable to contamination under the medium vulnerability group. According to statistics acquired by removing one DRASTIC element at a time and analyzing the effect on the calculated vulnerability index, the impact of the vadose zone is the most sensitive factor (the mean value is 3.00). The aquifer type, topography, and hydraulic conductivity all have the same mean value of 1.5. The soil factor has a mean value of 0.5, making it the least effective. The research recommends the necessity of using groundwater vulnerability maps in the process of planning future lands and the protection of the Nineveh Plain area from pollution.

Selection of the Optimum Sites for the Wind Turbines Installation in Nineveh Governorate by using GIS

Ghada Younis; Sabah Ali

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 1-16
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2021.170376

Green energy, including wind energy, becomes a vital component of reducing air pollution and enhancing its sustainability. Wind energy production increases rapidly due to its significant turbine technologies, compatible with sources of energy-environment friendly in reducing Carbon emissions. This paper presents an evaluation of wind power potential of Nineveh governorate in the northern part of Iraq based on the GIS technique using 20 years daily wind speed and direction at elevation 10m, 50m on earth surface covering the period of 2000 to 2019 obtained from NASA agency. It is observed that Nineveh Governorate and its surrounding have a wind speed between 2.8 and 3.7m/s at 10m, and wind speed between 3.9 and 5.3m/s at 50m. The annual mean power density ranges from 54 to 124 W/m2 at 50m.These results indicate that the monthly variation recorded for the speed is maximum 3.7m/s at 10m and a value of 5.3 m/s at 50m in the northwest direction in Hadhar site which matched with the results obtained by GIS/ IDW interpolation map of the power density.

Field Electrical Conductivity (EC) Mapping of a Selective Irrigated Units at Northern Al-Jazirah Irrigation Project, Iraq Using GIS and GPS Techniques

Sabah Ali; Ayman Ahmed; Namik Daood

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2019, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 46-56
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2019.170266

The application of apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) to agriculture is due to the soil salinity measurement, which represents a problem in arid areas associated with irrigated agricultural land and shallow aquifers.
The purpose of this paper is to apply the modern geo-referenced technology by using LandMapper ERM-02 device and GPS receiver to measure manually the soil ECa of (50) sites in the irrigated units N15 and N16 at Northern Al-Jazirah Irrigation Project. The remote sensing data, the map of Northern Al-Jazirah Irrigation Project and GIS are utilized to support the analysis and the spatial information of the measured ECa data. A kriging interpolation method is adopted to predict the ECa values at non-surveyed location and to create the final soil ECa map. The results of the field measurements show that the ECa in the study area varies between 2.66 to 51.74 dS/m. The results of the geostatistical analysis and the regression function of the ECa data indicate a decrease in the errors associated with the soil ECa interpolated map with increasing the values of soil ECa in the study area.
However, the studied method is less accurate than the laboratory based soil sample analysis method, but for a quick estimate of soil salinity, this method is highly satisfied.

Using of GIS Software for Mapping the Climatic Data Obtained from Internet Network: Iraq Case Study

Sabah Ali

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2018, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 35-48
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2018.159264

Nowadays, the long-term climatic data supplied by the famous internet sites, plays an important role in analyzing and mapping of various climatic features (temperature, precipitation, solar radiation … etc.). Precipitation is one of the important elements in agriculture. It is a major field in climatological studies. Studying precipitation is important to identify precipitation characteristics; temporal and spatial variability.
In the present study, extract for each (0.5*0.5) degree grid cell of the monthly precipitation data for the year 2016 except the summer months (June - July - August) using the GPCC Visualizer website is applied for Iraq country. Kriging interpolation method within the environment of ArcGIS10.3 program, the average monthly and seasonal precipitation maps are drawn. The study revealed the possibility to use the more popular website sources of historical climate datasets to compensate the lack of climate data available from the meteorological stations in Iraq, which is often difficult to obtain recent data..

Geomorphic Indices of Tectonic Activity Through the Analysis of the Drainage Systems in Pera Magroon Anticline, Northeastern Iraq

Sarah Mohammed; Azhar Bety; Manal Al-Kubaisi

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2018, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 99-112
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2018.159267

The study area (Pera Magroon) is located within Kurdistan Region, Sulaimaniyah Governorate, north and northwest of Sulaimaniyah city northeastern Iraq. Arc GIS, hydro tool is used to extract the drainage network in the area under study by using digital elevation models (DEM). The study area is covered by dendritic and parallel drainage patterns and divided into twenty sub-basins.
Three geomorphic indices, Mountain-front sinuosity (Smf), Stream-gradient index (SL) and Valley floor width-valley height ratio (Vƒ) were calculated for sub- basins.
Through averaging these three indices, we obtained index of active tectonics (IAT). The values of the index were divided into classes to define the degree of active tectonics. Therefore, relative tectonic activity is calculated and their values are classified and analyzed in three groups. The sub-basins were identified as very high, high and moderate levels..

Using of Image Processing for a Multi-Spectral Bands Image to Specify the Rock Units in Gara Barran Anticline/ Duhok Northern Iraq

Nabeel K. Al-Azzawi; Rayan G. Al- Banaa; Muthanna M. Thabit

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2018, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 165-183
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2018.159275

A variety of image processing techniques were applied by the use of ENVI 5 program, on Landsat 7 ETM+ for a part of Bekhair anticline which is called Gara Barran anticline. It is located in the north of Duhok city, northern Iraq. Image processing methods were carried on (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7) image bands included: numerous false color combinations (RGB composites of three bands) were applied, and the best (741 RGB) was chosen. It was used as a base image for the two types of classification and geological mapping. It was comparted with a published geological map for the same area to indicate the name of the exposed geological formations in Gara Barran anticline which was identified at the field. Several image ratios were applied, and the best (2/3, 3/1, 2/5, 4/3, 5/7, 7/3 7/5) were chosen. In addition, the principal component analysis (PCA) (for all bands of Landsat7 image) was applied, only three of the resulted six components (PC3,PC4,PC5) were better and more useful than the other to discriminate some of the geological formations at Gara Barran anticline. Visual interpretation was applied on resulted images to identify the geological formation outcrops in Gara Barran anticline and the vegetation covered areas were also detected. Then all results were used to identify the exact training areas which were used in the supervised classification. Digital geological map was produced by the use of resulted images which were overlaid in Arc GIS 10.1 program and the transparency of the upper image was increased to 50%. By this way, the effect of vegetation cover was defeated then a digital geological map was exactly detected the geological formations with its contactsاستخدم برنامج ENVI 5 لتطبیق المعالجات الرقمیة المختمفة عمى مرئیة لاندسات 7 ETM+ لتحدید
الوحدات الصخریة فی طیة کا ا ربا ا رن والتی تعد جزءا من طیة بیخیر الکبیرة والواقعة شمال مدینة دىوک فی
شمالی الع ا رق. تضمنت المعالجات ال م نفذة عمى حزم المرئیة (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7) مایأتی: عممیة الدمج
الممون الکاذب بعدة تولیفات، واختیار أفضل تولیفة والمتمثمة ب 741 RGB) (. إذ تم اتخاذىا کأساس فی
عممیتی التصنیف والترسیم الخ ا رئطی ومقارنتیا بخریطة جیولوجیة منشورة لذات المنطقة لمتعرف عمى أسماء
التکاوین الجیولوجیة المنکشفة فی طیة کا ا ربا ا رن والتی تم تمیزىا الزیارة حقمی اً. تطبیق المرئیات التناسبیة
بصیغ مختمفة وکانت أفضمیا (2/3, 3/1, 2/5, 4/3, 5/7, 7/3, 7/5) . وتحمیل المرکبات الأساسیة لجمیع
حزم مرئیة لاندسات 2، لینتج عنیا ستة مرکبات أساسیة، کانت أکثرىا فائدةً فی تحدید امتدادات بعض
التکاوین الجیولوجیة فی طیة کا ا ربا ا رن المرکبات الأساسیة (PC3, PC4, PC5) . تم تفسیر نتائج المعالجات
الرقمیة المختمفة بصریاً لتحدید امتدادات التکاوین الجیولوجیة المنکشفة فی طیة کا ا ربا ا رن وتحدید
مناطق انتشار الغطاء النباتی الذی یغطی أج ا زء من المکاشف الصخریة فی الطیة. استخدمت
المرئیات الناتجة من المعالجة الرقمیة فی تحدید عینات مناطق التدریب لکل تکوین جیولوجی بدقة
)استنادا الى المرئیات المستحصمة من المعالجات فی أعلاه( لاستخدامیا فی عممیة التصنیف الموجو. ولرسم
وانتاج الخریطة الجیولوجیة الرقمیة، تم تطبیق العدید من عممیات المطابقة (Overlays) لممرئیات الناتجة
من المعالجة الرقمیة مع تنظیم مستوى الشفافیة (Transparency) لممرئیة العمیا الى 11 % من خلال
برنامج نظم المعمومات الجغ ا رفیة ArcGIS10.1 مما ساعد فی التغمب عمى تأثی ا رت الغطاء النباتی فی
نبیل قادر الع ا زوی ریان غازی البناء مثنى محمد ثابت
قسم عموم الأرض مرکز التحسس النائی قسم عموم الأرض
کمیة العموم جامعة الموصل کمیة العموم
جامعة الموصل جامعة الموصل
نبیل قادر بکر الع ا زوی و آخرون
حجب الرؤیة فی بعض أج ا زء طیة کا ا ربا ا رن ورسم خریطة جیولوجیة رقمیة حددت بدقة إمتدادات التکاوین
الجیولوجیة والحدود الفاصمة فیما بینیا.

Using of ASD Spectral Reflectance and GIS Techniques for Mapping and Analyzing of some Salt Soils Distributed in the Northern Al-Jazirah Irrigation Project

Sabah H. Ali; Waleed Y. Al-Ubide; Namik A. Daood

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2013, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 35-44

Saline soil problems are one of the most common land processes and reflects severe environmental hazard. In order to study the spectral reflectance characteristics of the soil salinity levels, an area located in the Northern Al-Jazirah Irrigation Project was selected. The main objective of this study is to investigate the potential of identifying and predicting salt content in soils at various irrigated areas according to the spectral reflectance characteristics of the soils Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD) spectroradiometer (in contact probe mode) with spectral range from 350 nm to 2500 nm was used to measure the spectral reflectance characteristics of the collected soil samples.
Laboratory measurements have indicated that saline soils have higher reflectance characteristics than do nonsaline soils. The near and middle infrared bands were superior to the visible bands in detecting different soil salinity levels. The supervised classification of the available ETM+ image demonstrated that spectral separation of different soil salinity levels and various land cover types is an efficient, reliable and dependable tool of using remote sensing to map soil salinity.

using GIS for studying morphometric and artificial re-charging properties of quwaisi valley basin, northwestren iraq

Bashar m.Alshekarchi

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2005, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 103-113
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2005.41154

A data base using (Arc view v.3.3) soft ware was prepared for the morphometric analysis, studying the properties of quwaisi valley which is located on the northern limb of Sinjar anticline, north west of iraq, feasibility of such properties in making the artificial re-charging of aquifers below this basin. Its evident from studying the possible relations of the basin morphometric properties represented by the spatial, shape, topographic, and the fluvial characteristics that this basin has typical properties for establishing artificial re-charging project below this basin by seasonal runoff waters, which lost in the form of evaporated or surface run off out side the Iraqi borders.