Keywords : soil


Evaluation of Engineering Properties of Rocks and Soils of a Part of the Southwestern Area of Mosul City

Hadeer Adeeb; Azealdeen Jawadi; Dhiaa Salih

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2018, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 1-14
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2018.159255

The main task of this research is to study the distribution of the engineering properties of rocks and soils at the part of the area located in the south western Mosul City. The relationship of these aspects with the geology of the area and its importance of preliminary designs of structures has been studied as well. The data are collected from the reports on geological investigations and engineering laboratory testing of the proposed third canal of the South Jazirah Irrigation Project. Most of the land region is covered by the soil, that thickness ranges between 0 and nearly 20 meters and penetrated by boreholes reaching to the subsurface of evaporating, carbonate and clastic rocks of Fat’ha and Injana formations.
Data processing and evaluation of 66 boreholes are used to find the statistical relations among them. The studied area was divided into four secondary regions ( northern, southern, western and eastern). The studied engineering tests have been included the physical, mechanical and dynamic properties, which have generally low values in most areas. The distribution of the means of all properties that used in the assessment of the properties of soil and rock with the relation of the geological area has shown good properties when approaching to the anticlines of Allan, Hamam Al-Aleel, Nwaigeet, Kaliyan, Al- Shorah, Kassab and Addayah. The study shows that the relationship between the liquid limit and plasticity index is good for all data. The relationship between moisture content and dry density is also good however, the relationship between moisture content and the ratio of dry and saturated density is better, because of the higher relationship between porosity and moisture content. The relationship between bulk density and the velocity of longitudinal waves reveales a sharp reduction of the velocity values of longitudinal waves with reducing of the bulk density values. While, the relationship between bulk density and shear wave velocity is better due to the effect of shear waves withthe porosity more than that of longitudinal waves. In order to confirm that, it has been found that the relationship between the shear waves velocity and moisture content is the best in contrast with a velocity of longitudinal waves. Generally, the relation between dynamic properties with moisture content has a higher correlation coefficient with that of the density. The distribution of most of the engineering properties has shown low values in eastern and western region in contrast with the northern and southern ones.

Characteristic Variations of Spectral Reflection of Soil and Rocks in Kand Structure Northern Iraq

Hekmat S. Al-Daghastani; Basman Y. Hameed

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2013, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 23-34
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2013.79654

Using spectral reflecting curves of selected (soil and rocks) in Kand Structure northern Iraq to emphasis visual and digital interpretation of remote sensing data. Results show high effectiveness in geologic and geomorphic analysis of the study area through identification of most lithologic units that identified from satellite images.
Seven samples taken from the study area had been analyzed using Spectro Radiometer in remote sensing center laboratory. The result of different spectral reflectance curves reflect various types of these samples due to the development stages in Kand Structure and to the exposed rocks of Fatha and Injana formations. The dominant geomorphic process and neotectonic activities play an important roles in the gemorphic evolution of these landforms, and its spectral reflection, as well as in the form and distribution of these soils throw out the study area.

Distribution of Soil Deposites in Bashiqa Structure, North of Mosul City, Using Remote Sensing Data.

Mayada M. Al-Dulaimi; Hekmat S. Al-Daghastani

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2007, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 61-74
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2007.5534

Remote sensing data were employed to study the soil distribution of Late Quaternary deposits in Bashiqa Structure, north of Mosul City. The outcome of this study distinguished three primary classes of soils depending on their morphogenetic origin. Furthermore, the first two classes encompass five subclasses related to its particular site within the study area, and in which the geomorphological factor plays an important role in the spatial distribution of soil forms; thus providings the tools of soil classification distribution map at the scale of 1/50,000.
The map produced is commensurable with the analysis of Landsat imagery at 1/100,000 scale, which resulted in the development of thematic image classified according to the relevant available computer programs. The separation of these classes accomplished through comparison of reflected spectrum of the optical pixels of the images with the spectral signature of each image pixels related to individual class.
The integration and discussion of the results and documentation of the above mentioned classification were ascertained by field and laboratory examinations in order to verify the differences among these classes and to enhance the variability of spectral reflectance from one site to another.