Keywords : Tigris river


The Use of Factor Analysis in Defining Factors Responsible for the Variation of the Concentrations of Dissolved Major Ions in Tigris River Water from Fishkabur to Baghdad

Hisham Yahya Dhannoun; Hazim Mahmood

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2019, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 1-18
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2019.170268

The current study is based on the use of statistical techniques to study and identify factors controlling the concentrations of dissolved major elements in Tigris River water within a wide range of the river course, starting from Fishkabur region in the north to Baghdad city in the south.
The Results show that the rock compositions of the river basin mainly control the concentrations of the dissolved major ions in the river water with limited effect of anthropogenic factor, represented by human activities, that controls the nitrate ion concentration. The results also indicate the presence of spatial and temporal variations in the dissolved major ions concentrations, along the study area.  

Hydrogeochemistry of Selected Wells on Both Banks of the Tigris River in Mosul Area/ Northern Iraq

Oday M. S. O. Al-Bachachi

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2014, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 1-18
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2014.87483

The present study included the evaluation of ground water at two areas; Gobba on the left and Hawi Al-Kaneesa on the right bank of the Tigris River at city of Mosul. Water evaluation was carried out through the comparison of the analytical dataofwater samples collected from wells at the two areas and the determination of their suitability for irrigation, as the two areas are within the utilized agricultural areas in Mosul governorate.
Chemical analysis for the major cations (Ca+2, Mg+2,Na+1, K+1) and the anions (HCO3-1, Cl-1,SO4-2) were carried out. Also, some physical and chemical properties related to water specification, like hydrogen ion Concentration (pH), electrical conductivity (EC), total hardness (TH) and total dissolved salts (TDS) were determined.
For the purpose of evaluation of water quality for irrigation, some water classifications were carried out. Results have shown that most of Hawi AL- Kaneesa well water were relatively rich in the determined cations and anions. This is attributed to the relatively high solubility of Fatha formation evaporates. These well- waters are considered to be a mixture of recent deposits and Fatha formation ground waters. Also, rain waters rinse and dissolved the outcrops of this formation in this area. There is also the effect of the sulphur springs present at or near the study area like Ain–Kibrit (sulphur spring) and other springs along the fault of Hawi AL-Kaneesa that result in increasing (SO4-2) as significantly observed.

Hydrochemistry of Tigris River Water from its Iraqi‘s Territory Entry to Baghdad city

Hisham Yahya Dhannoun; Hazim Jumaa Mahmood

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2014, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 67-89
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2014.87490

The present work deals with hydrochemistry of the major elements in Tigris River water, along the area stretching from the beginning of the river entry into Iraqi territory in the north, and to Baghdad city in the south.
The results revealed an increase in the concentrations of the major elements in general, during the trajectory of the river to the south, as well as a relative increase in the concentrations of the elements during the winter, compared with their concentrations during the summer. The result also clarified that the composition of the river basin rocks plays the main control of the major elements hydrochemistry. The results indicated that the controlling rocks type of the Tigris main reservoirs are rang between carbonate and silicate compositions.

The Use of Hydrograph Analysis to Evaluate the Groundwater Contribution to Tigris River Flow at Mosul City

Mohammed F. Omar khattb; Thabit D. Mahder-Bashi

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2009, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 73-84
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2009.40600

The flow regime of the River Tigris has been studied during ten successive years from 1975 - 1984. The annual hydrographs of the river were analyzed to determine the ground water components by considering the general form of the river regime, and the minimum flows during recession.
Master recession curve was derived from the river flow records of the studied catchment area by combining the characteristics of various recession records, and used to check the separation of components contributing to the river flow and also indicate the number of aquifers involve in contributing the ground water to the river.
Four major aquifers outside the study area and within the Turkish territory appeared from the analysis contributing ground water of about 58% to 75% percent of the total flow during the ten years period.
The total volume of water in storage from the beginning of recession was also determined along the ten years and was varying between 1.0 x 109 – 6.0 x 10 9 m3/ year.

The Qualitative Characteristics and the Trace Elementsfor Tigris River Water in Mosul City

Yasir M. Al-yazichi; Hazim J. Mahmood

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2008, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 33-49
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2008.5483

. The present study is concerned with the characteristics and quality of Tigris water passing through in Mosul city. Twelve samples were collected from the river in the area between upstream and down stream of the city. Six samples in Summer and (6) samples in Winter, as well as, sample of the rain water falling on the city were collected. The physical and chemical analyses showed relative increase in most of the concentrations of the principle components of the river, as well as high concentrations of the trace elements through downstream Mosul city, where a large quantities waste water is drained to (around 500000 m3/day) the river. The results also show that chemical major ions concentrations during rainy season is less from there than dry one this because of the lightening factor and the spreading of falling rain water with low concentrations of ions and also the slightness of the evaporation processing during this season. Results shows that Tigris water is generally are not within the world standard levels of drinking water.

Adverse Impact of Al-Khoser River upon Tigris River at Outfall Area

Hazi m J . Al-Nuaimy; Mohammed F.O. Khattab; Mazin N. Fadhel

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2008, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 41-55
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2008.39226

The present study included assessing current pollution of Al-Khoser by heavy metals and bacteria, which is one of the largest tributaries of the Tigris river in the left bank within Mosul city. The samples were collected from five estuary locations of the khosar river and actually two duplicate samples from each location and through two seasons had been taken, the first in April (spring) and the second in August (summer) 2006.
The first collected samples used in the analyses of heavy metals included (Zn), (Cd), (Cu), (Co), and (Pb). While the second collection were used in the calculation of the total bacterial count (TBC) and measure the concentrations of nutrients nitrate and phosphate.
The analyses of heavy metals showed higher values relative with in comparison with Tigris River. Both cadmium and copper were found over the limits for drinking water. This is resulting in a significant risk to living organisms in general. The analysis of bacterial count reflects the contamination of Al- Khosar river water.
The interpretation of the results revealed an affection of Tigris river water by Al-Khosar river water and this cause a risk limits within 300 meters down stream its estuary.