Keywords : Physical Properties


Assessment of Avroman Limestone Formation for Portland Cement Industry, Halabja Area, Kurdistan Region, NE-Iraq

Chro Fatah; Tola Mirza

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 29-48
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2021.170384

Limestone is the main constituent of the raw materials used in manufacturing cement. In this study, the limestone deposits from the Avroman Formation are evaluated by using chemically and mineralogical techniques for their suitability to be used as a raw material for the cement industry.
Twenty-one samples of limestone are collected from different beds of the Avroman Formation for petrographic study which shows that the limestone samples consist mainly of crystalline calcite. Physical and mechanical tests are performed in addition to the mineralogical and geochemical analysis using x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray fluorescence (XRF). Geological review and obtained results show that there is a good potential for industrial-grade limestone. The major clay minerals in the clay samples are chlorite, illite, montmorillonite, were as kaolinite appears as minor clay minerals. The geochemical analysis indicates that the limestone of Avroman formation has a wide range of CaO (46.13-56.00), Al2O3 (0.01-0.86), SiO2 (0.00-1.51), Fe2O3 (0.00-1.25), MgO (0.24-0.71), K2O, Na2O, TiO2, and MnO are traces. The physical properties (water absorption and moisture content) and chemical-mineralogical composition of the formation reflect that the dry process is preferable for the production of Portland cement. Mechanical analyses, especially compressive strength show that the quarrying and crushing will be competitive economically during manufacturing. From the results of the analyses, we conclude that the limestone of the formation and clay material of the study area are of good quality and fulfill the international standards of Portland cement.

The effects of weathering on limestone used for building the cemetery wall in Tel Kaif-North Iraq

Azealdeen Al-Jawadi; Thanoon . Al-Dabbagh

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 65-74
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2020.170331

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of weathering on rocks used in construction during a defined period of these rocks. The field study involves weathering and rock strength measurements using a geological hammer. Laboratory testing for both wall limestone and fresh quarry limestone was performed to determine the bulk density, the porosity and absorption of water, and the durability test was performed for fresh quarry limestone. A polarized microscope and scan electron microscope, petrographic analysis has been conducted for various weathering rates.
Field notes explain the moderate and high degree of weathering and low strength in the bottom of the wall, whilst the top is slightly weathered and high strength. Laboratory notes through stone crushing show a change from white to beige for slightly weathered samples to moderately and highly weathered samples in powder color. Increasing weathering reduces bulk density and insoluble residues, from 13% in non-weathered rocks to 25% in high-weathered rocks the level of insoluble residue increases. Water absorption in non-weathered rocks and high weathering rocks rises from 6% to 14% and porosity from 14% to 27% respectively. Durability tests show that calcarenite exceeds very high durability, high durability calcirudite and calcilutite, and moderately durable calcisiltite. Four types of porosity, intergranular, intragranular, mold and microfracture appear in the petrographic study using a polarized microscope. Clay minerals and iron oxides surrounding the pores appear in weathered specimens, not in fresh, calcite crystal oxidation and secondary calcite growth on the inner surface of voids have also been shown in the scanning of electron microscopes.