Keywords : Remote sensing

Detecting the Tigris River Flood and its Impact on Residential and Touristic Areas in Mosul City Using Sentinel-2 Satellite Images

Abdalrahman Qubaa; Ayman Alsayiegh

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 92-106
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2020.170348

Iraq is one of the countries with water abundance because it contains water sources distributed between permanent and seasonal flow. The Tigris River is considered as one of these the most important sources, which requires the necessity to monitor the changes that had been taken place in the course of this river and to study the environmental, climatic and erosional changes that were responsible to change the morphodynamic properties of this resource, especially in the rainy years that cause floods and human disasters, such as what happened in the accident of the sinking of the ferry in the city of Mosul. Consequently, the main objective of the current study is based on observing a selected section of the Tigris River basin at the beginning of its entry into Mosul city and studying the effects of changing the water level during different seasons on the banks of the river and its effects on random housing construction near the river. A new European satellite (Sentinel) is used which has high spatial resolution of up to 10 m per pixel, which was the last launch of its series in April 2018. The new QGIS program is also used to process the satellite data, using digital processing methods for interpretation, and to monitor changes in the studied section of the river. Two satellite images are adopted for two consecutive periods (2018 and 2019), corrected and geographically referenced.
The conclusion is that there is an increase of 1.105 km2 in the area of the studied river section between the rainy year and the less rainy year, i.e. an approximate increase in excess of 50%. Therefore, the researchers recommend preventing the construction of any residential or touristic projects on the both Tigris River banks within at city of Mosul, and add to the forbidden areas a distance of not less than 50% of the surface area of  at any section of the river inside the city.

Using Surveying and Computer Techniques to Calculate (R.A) & (RMSE) for Digital map of Technical Institute/Mosul

Mohammed Al–Taee

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2019, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 1-14
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2019.170273

The aim of the present research is to calculate the Relative Accuracy (R.A) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) for the location of Technical Institute, Mosul in Nineveh Governorate, Iraq.  at the northern part of Mosul city by using surveying Instruments (GPS 1230 , Total Station 06 & Level NAK2), to calculate the coordinates and elevations of (16) Ground Control Points which covered the study area.
The field data, remote sensing techniques and GIS software (Arc Map GIS10.3) are used to check the digital map of study area that helped the administrator to take the correct decision, determining positions of the future expansionist for buildings, roads, measuring lengths, areas and there coordinates, directions as well as the total costs estimation needed for any development from the final map.
The gradient percentage between the highest and lowest points is calculated to be (9.954%). Relative accuracy for the based measured points (R.A) = 1:60000), and Root Mean Square error in Easting coordinates (RMSE) = ± 0.102m, in Northing coordinates (RMSN) = ± 0.096m, the Root Mean Square for the resultant (RMSR) = ± 0.099m, and Root Mean Square for Elevations ( RMSRL)= ± 0.005m.
We Matched and correlated (10) measured points from study area with their graphic data positions on the aerial photo, determining the offsets for position and elevations as follows: (RMSE = ± 0.076m), (RMSN = ± 0.125m), (RMSR = ± 0.088m), and (Root Mean Square for Elevations = RMSRL= ± 0.045m).
This research enable us after checking the results to produce new maps from Aerial photograph or Digital Image to use it for land uses and future extensions in whole study area.

Using Remote Sensing Data in Gully Erosion in the Area Between Mosul City and Hammam Al-Alil Northern Iraq

Aiman T. Mohammad AL-Sayegh

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2011, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 33-46
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2011.5502

The summary of this research is the preparation of surface drainage network map as interpreted from normal color satellite image at a scale of (1:100.000), recorded in 2001. The study area reflects the existence of different types of drainage systems such as (Dendritic, subparallel and pinnate) resulted from the differences in rock type and degree of slopes.
The gully erosion maps of study area which taken from the surface drainage network were compiled using the Surfer 8 program depending upon (Bergsma, 1982) system. The research region was affected by gully erosion and classified into three zones. Zone of slight erosion at rate of 21.17%, medium erosion zone at rate of 58.39%, and severe zone at rate of 20.44%.

Land Use and Land Cover Map of Ninevah GovernorateUsing Remote SensingData

Hekmat S. Al-Daghastani

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2008, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 17-26
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2008.5479

Changes in the nature of land use activities, in time and space, often result in land cover changes and, as such, are an indication of land management activities. This research represents an attempt to evaluate the ability of using the new version of Anderson's classification system up to the third level in the land use and land cover classifications of Ninevah Governorate using Landsat TM7 imagery. The study area represents one of the most varied and complex geomorphic landscapes in Iraq, and characterized by irregular land use and different land cover in the geomorphic distribution of landforms. Geomorphic agent represent the main factors in the spatial distribution of soil types, lithological escarpments, and the existing land use patterns. The land use and land cover map shows the whole of the apparent activities up to the third level according to the USGS system, and 27 classes of land use are shown in the final map. The results show that visual analyses of satellite images, applying methods similar to those commonly used for aerial photo analysis, are sufficient for observing features shown on 1:100,000 scale Landsat images. Digital classification is appropriate for some applications, but it was found that land use and land cover mapping projects of the type described here are not among them. These data were utilized to draw a new regional land use and land cover map of Ninevah Governorate at a scale of 1:250,000 .

Study and Analysis of Landforms and its Application in the area Between Tiara and Allan anticline,North of Iraq using Remote Sensing Data

Hekmat S.Al-Daghstani; Mohamud F.Hussein Bassman Y.Al-Ta

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2006, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 1-16
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2006.41314

Remote sensing data are used as one of the new tools to draw a series of thematic maps to evaluate the suitability of land areas for a variety of landuse and economic planning in the area between tiara and allan anticlines, north of Iraq. Geomorphological analysis has shown nine geomorphological units, which reflects the impact of geological and geomorphological processes of each landforms and its genetic origin. Landuse and landcover maps depending on (usgs) system showed all the apparent activities up to the third level. (19) classes of landuse have been shown of these different classes were measured together with their percentages within the total are of study.
Our emphasis in this study is to determine the impact of sinhareeb dam upon all the apparent landuse and land cover activities. The area of different classes, which will be going to sub merge under lake level s were measured together with there percentages within the total area of study, in order to be utilized as information datum upon which future decisions will be made.

Morphotectonic of Mushora-Dagh Structure North Western of Iraq Using Remote Sensing and Field Data

Hekmat Al-Daghstani; Ramzi Kh. Al-Nasir; Mumtaz M. AL-Jarjary

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2005, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 1-15
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2005.40980

A detaild morphotectonic study has been carried out for the Mushora Dagh Anticline. This anticline is situated to the northwestern part of Iraq about (95) km from Mosul City. The morphotectonic map deduced from the enhanced space imagery showing the existence of seven morphotectonic units, differences in their lithologic and morphologic characteristics, which has been affected by local and regional tectonic movements.
The morphotectonical analysis method included: first, study of directional analysis of structural lineaments and relation between their direction and the tectonic movements through the successive geological periods. Furthermore, upward concavity of the longitudinal profiles represents evidence of the appearance of some anomalies that can be attributed to a number of geologic and tectonical factors. Finally, three high anomaly values appeared while determining the index sinuosity of the Tigris River. These values agree with the first appearance of the surfaces of the transverse and longitudinal faults of Mushora-Dagh Anticline and the axis of this anticline.

The Investigation of Oil Pollution Using Remote Sensing Data and Geochemical Criteria in Qarah Chauq Area, Northern Iraq

Torhan M. Al-Mifty; Abdul-Hadi Y. Alsayegh; Hekmat S. Al-Daghastani

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2003, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 46-57
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2003.36683

The study area is situated near Makhmour district, crossing the Lesser Zab River in (NW-SE) direction and covering an area of about (2000) square kilometers. Using thematic mapper (TM) and thermal band techniques, it was possible to observe thermal spots on the southern part of Qarah Chauq structure and at Wadi Kendinawa. Field samples collected from the southern part of Qarah Chauq structure contained no hydrocarbons. However, using Adope Photo Shop Program, Kendinawa samples showed evidence of hydrocarbons, which were reflected as colour phenomena within the study area. Using the same program, colour separation of hydrocarbons from sulphate minerals was carried out. The present study proves that, it is possible to carry out reliable colour measurements, by the use of thermal band technique, for the investigation of oil pullution in other parts of the country.