Keywords : Iraq

Using of GIS Software for Mapping the Climatic Data Obtained from Internet Network: Iraq Case Study

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2018, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 35-48

Nowadays, the long-term climatic data supplied by the famous internet sites, plays an important role in analyzing and mapping of various climatic features (temperature, precipitation, solar radiation … etc.). Precipitation is one of the important elements in agriculture. It is a major field in climatological studies. Studying precipitation is important to identify precipitation characteristics; temporal and spatial variability.
In the present study, extract for each (0.5*0.5) degree grid cell of the monthly precipitation data for the year 2016 except the summer months (June - July - August) using the GPCC Visualizer website is applied for Iraq country. Kriging interpolation method within the environment of ArcGIS10.3 program, the average monthly and seasonal precipitation maps are drawn. The study revealed the possibility to use the more popular website sources of historical climate datasets to compensate the lack of climate data available from the meteorological stations in Iraq, which is often difficult to obtain recent data..

Rock Magnetic Properties during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM): Records from P/E boundary Sections (Sinjar, Shaqlawa) in Iraq

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2018, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 55-74

Rock magnetic properties have been investigated across the Paleocene/Eocene boundary in two distally separate sections of Paleogene marine sedimentary rocks from Iraq, namely the Sinjar and the Shaqlawa sections. The sediments at the studied sections belong to the Aaliji and the Kolosh formations respectively, which were previously examined for their biostratigraphy by the authors using planktonic and benthonic foraminifera to delineate the Paleocene/Eocene (P/E) transition. Measured magnetic properties include; bulk magnetic susceptibility, hysteresis cycles, isothermal remnant magnetization (IRM) acquisition, and thermomagnetic curves analysis. Rock-magnetic results (i.e. low magnetic coercivity component) indicate greigite as the main magnetic phase at Aaliji rocks, while a mixture of magnetite and greigite with high magnetic coercivity has been observed at Kolosh clastics. Magnetic susceptibility is induced by related to both biogenic minerals (mainly at Aaliji Formation) and transported terrigenous material sources. Multi varied magnitude phases of high bulk rock magnetic susceptibility observed in both formations along PETM lithosomes are attributed to two sources: greigite or biogenic iron oxides source and increase in terrigenous discharge source as inferred by anoxic to suboxic iron - sulfate-reducing conditions and lithological change respectively. Both sources referred to some of environmental conditions associated with Paleocene - Eocene thermal maximum events such as methane dissociation, water stratification, enhanced hydrological and weathering cycles..

Spectral Signature Extraction of Pegmatite Intrusions and Determine it by Using Supervised Classification, Bulfat Complex, Qala Deza, NE Iraq

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2018, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 11-28

Pegmatite intrusions represent one of the distinguished geological features which are exposed in the north western part of Zagros Suture Zone-ZSZ whose forms appear like dikes and its contain of Volcano-Sedimentary units. In order to determine these features in some areas northern Iraq, remote sensing techniques were used by applying selective image processing methods for determining the spectral signature of these intrusions. Lithological samples were collected and analyzed geochemically and specify Mode analysis of minerals phases and consequently determination the suitable samples for spectral extraction. Depending on the extracted spectral, digital classification was applied on the corrected satellite images to extract the compatible spectral signatures between pegmatite intrusions (in satellite images) and pegmatite field samples. The results showed coincident between this two pegmatite and also determine another zones of pegmatite out of studied area. The density of pegmatite is more in the zone which is located northwestern part from samples area and low density in the other area. The research method gave good efficiency in pegmatite investigation by clarifying these features on the satellite images.ً.

Some Ostracoda Species of Tanjero Formation (Late Campanian- Maastrichtian) of Diana Area, NE Iraq.

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2018, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 27-40

Eleven ostracode species belonging to eight genera were described and illustrated for the first time from Tanjero Formation (Late Campanian- Maastrichtian) at Diana, North East Iraq, which six species are new: Cytherella suranensis sp. nov.; Cytherella omarians sp. nov.; Bairdia dianaensis sp. nov.; Bythocypris sirwanensis sp. nov.; Bairdoppilata halabijaensis sp. nov. and Limburgina kaniensis sp. nov.:
Cytherella suranensis sp. nov. ; Cytherella omarians sp. nov.; Bairdia dianaensis sp. nov.;Bythocypris sirwanensis sp. nov.; Bairdoppilata halabijaensis sp. nov. and Limburgina kaniensis sp. Nov

Nannobiostratigrphy of Shiranish Formation in Balad Well No. 8, Northern Baghdad, Iraq

Omar A. Al-Badrani

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2011, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 65-80

ABSTRACTEight samples of Shiranish Formation were obtained from Balad well No. 8, (northern Baghdad) central Iraq. Details investigated carried out identify calcareous nannofossils, where identified sixteen species; eleven descried from other region and five left under open name because of lack of material or rare of samples, On the basis of stratigraphic distribution of the species, two biozones proposed these are :

Hypogene Processes of the Gypsum Beds in Sangaw Sinkholes, Kurdistan Region, NE-Iraq

Bakhtyar M. Ameen

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2011, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 51-64

The Sangaw region is located at the western part of Zagros orogenic belt at the boundary between Low and High Folded Zones, Sulaimani governorate in Kurdistan region. The area characterized by low amplitude folds that are trending northwest southeast and arranged in en echelon pattern. The exposed formations are Eocene Pila Spi (limestone), middle Miocene Fat`ha(lagoon) and Upper Fars (clastics) formations. Many large and small sinkholes are found around Ashdagh anticline; some of them about 50 m in diameter and about 30 m deep. Some are developed into complicated cave systems with collaps blocks and breccias in addition to narrow passages and fissures. The largest of them is located directly to the west of Darzilla village at the southeastern plunge of Ashdagh anticline. The sinkholes occur in Fat`ha and in the Pila Spi Formations. The walls of the sinkholes are covered by secondary gypsum, sulfur, bitumen and secondary calcite. Inside the cave collapse, breccias and blocks with lensoidal stratified clayey sediments as weathering product could be seen. The water is acidic (pH=4) inside the caves and discharges as large spring (200L/S) with white milky color; it is called in the local Kurdish language, “Awa Spi “which means white stream. The weathering of the carbonate rocks is intense inside the cave and appears as honeycombs and rills mark which have very rough surface with dull color. The sinkholes were produced from the dissolution of thick gypsum and limestone beds. The origin of these caves has been proposed to be hypogenic speleogenesis due to the presence of gypsum and bitumen. These materials with the aid of bacteria enrich the water with H2S which aciditfies the water and precipitates the sulfur and secondary gypsum on the cave wall. The formation of H2SO4 by oxidaton of H2S is the main reason that aid the sinkhole hypogene generation in Sangaw area. A realistic model is drawn to interpret and connect the following:1- The stratigraphy and structure of the area encourage the generation of underground stagnant pond suitable for reacting with the emanating H2S necessary for the hypogene generation of the sinkholes and precipitation of secondary native sulfur and gypsum.2- dissolution of gypsum and its reduction by bacteria. 3- upward migration of bitumen from nearby oil traps(hydrocarbon accumulation).

Planktonic Foraminiferal Biostratigrapy of Shiranish Formation in Makhmur Well No. (1), Makhmur Area, Northern Iraq

Abdullah S. Sh. Al; Hadiedi

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2010, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 19-28

Planktonic foraminifera is studied from Shiranish Formation in Makhmur
well No. (1), North Iraq between the depth interval (657-620) m. Three
biostratigraphy Zones are recognized in these formation:
1. Globotruncanita elevata–Rosita fornicata Zone.
2. Globotruncana aegyptiaca Zone.
3. Gansserina gansseri Zone.
20 عبد الله سلطان شهاب الحديدي
The results of this study are compared with the work of others inside and
outside Iraq. The age of the Shiranish Formation in the said well is Late
Companian to Early Maastrichtian.

The Application of Color Composite Image in Detecting and Delineation Difference Reflection of Gypsum in Surface Soil of Al-Jazeera Area in Nineveh Governorate Iraq

Namik A. Daood

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2009, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 17-26

This work represents an attempt to recognize and delineate the area of different reflection of gypsum in the surface soil of Al- Jazeera region in the Ninevah Governorate, depending on the variations in the spectral reflectance of the gypsum and other landform features in the study area. This investigation utilized the three bands (TM1, TM4
and TM7) of the Landsat7 immerging together by using the ERDAS program to produce single color composite image, including the use of three primary colors (Red ,Green
and Blue) respectively. Given these conditions, the basic principles of visual interpretation of images are all that is required of interpreter to implement them by using the color theory and the available field references about the area. The present study concluded the presence of three different levels of gypsum in the top soil surface of the Al- Jazeera North Western Iraq. which are recognized in the color composite image. These results are confirmed by both field visits and laboratory analysis of soil sample.

A Rapid Graphical Solution for Determining the Presence of Remnant Magnetization in the Basement Rocks of Western Iraq

Abdaladeem M. Al Mashhadani

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2008, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 1-10

A graphical method of determining the possible presence of a remanent component of magnetization in two dimensional igneous masses within the basement is described. It is required to assume that the same source produces well defined gravity and magnetic anomalies. The method involves taking the ratios of distance between peaks of maximum values of gravity and magnetic for various angles of field inclinations. Ratio of maximum positive and maximum negative values for various angles of field inclinations are also used. These ratios are plotted against field inclinations. Examples of anomalies are taken from the western desert area of the stable shelf in Iraq.