Keywords : Iraq


Ostracoda Assemblages of the Hartha Formation (Late Campanian - Early Maastrichtian) from Balad (8) well, Central Iraq

Muhanad Zuhair Hamid; Ibrahim Younis Al-Shareefi

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 15-37
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2022.174663

Fundamentally, the current study is concerned with the investigation and diagnosing of Ostracoda fossils from the subsurface section of the Hartha Formation (Late Campanian - Early Maastrichtian) from (Ba-8) well at central Iraq. Fifty-nine Ostracoda species belonging to (29) genera/ subgenera from (13) families are diagnosed and classified to their ranks according to the standard systematic paleontology. Whereat (57) species are attributed to species previously described from local and regional studies. Two species are left under open zoological nomenclature basically because of lack of specimens. As a result, the study inferred that the species diagnosed in the Hartha Formation belong to the Late Campanian - Early Maastricht. As These species are very similar in terms of the external appearance and geologic age to the same species that were compared with them and which were previously described in the regions of East, West, and North Africa as well as the Arabian Gulf region.

Planktic Foraminiferal Biostratigraphy of the Upper Part of the Damlouk Member, Ratga Formation, Western Desert, Iraq

Imad Ghafor; Basim Al-Qayim

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 49-62
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2021.170385

The basinal part of the Damlouk Member upper sedimentary cycle of the Ratga Formation exposed in the Qaim area of the Iraqi western desert is examined. The studied section consists of marlstone, marly and phosphatic limestone, and planktic foraminifera-rich limestone beds. Detailed study of the planktic foraminiferal assemblages of these rocks revealed the occurrences of (30) species belonging to (11) genera. The stratigraphic distribution of these species permits the recognition of three biozones. These are from the lower to upper part of the section: - Acarinina bullbrooki Zone, (Middle Lutetian), Morozovelloides lehneri Zone, (Late Lutetian), Globigerinatheca semiinvolutaHantkenina alabamensis Zone, (Early Bartonian). These zones indicate that the studied section of the Ratga Formation (Damlouk Member) is of Middle-Late Lutetian to Early Bartonian age. These biozones are correlated with different local and regional studies.

Planktonic Foraminiferal Biosatratigraphy of the Eocene – Oligocene Boundary at Sinjar Area, NW Iraq

Hiba Al-Rubai; Majid Al-Mutwali

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 1-18
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2020.170355

The present study deals with the lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy and chronostratigraphy of the Eocene- Oligocene boundary in three surface sections in Sinjar anticline, northwestern Iraq. Jaddala Formation composed of marl, marly limestone represents deep Eocene facies, Palani, and Tarjil formations represent Early and Late Oligocene sequences. Sixty-two planktonic foraminiferal species belonging to sixteen genera have been recognized which permit the recognition of four Zones; these are from older at the base:  
  Globorotalia opima opima Total- Range Zone (P21)
  Globigerina ampliapertura partial- Range Zone (P20)
  Pseudohastigerina micra Interval Zone (P 19)
Globigerinatheka subconglobata subconglobata Partial Range Zone (P11) (Part).
      
The Eocene- Oligocene boundary in Sinjar area represents disconformity surface, where the deposition ceased in the Middle Eocene (Lutetian) at the end of Jaddala Formation, then deposition started at the Upper Early Oligocene due to rapid wide transgression, leading to the  deposition of Palani (Rupelian) and Tarjil (Chatian) formations, which consist of thinly laminated hard white-pale brown intercalation of marly limestone and marl beds.

Effect of Tectonostratigraphic Units in Evolving Aqra Anticline Model

Mahmood Al-Sumaidaie; Nabeel Al-Azzawi; Rabeea Znad

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 126-147
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2020.170374

In the current study, a tectonic model for the structure of Aqra Anticline was proposed. The model was dependent on the rock properties, stratigraphic relationships and thickness variations as well as, the model was correlated with other previous studies. The study area is located within the Iraqi Zagros fold/ thrust belt (ZFTB) which represents the northeastern margin of the Arabian Plate.
Stratigraphically, the anticline comprises of formations that are deposited between Early Cretaceous to Pliocene periods. These formations are the Sarmord, Qamchuqa, Aqra, Kolosh/Khurmala, Gercus, Pila Spi, Fat'ha, Injana, and the Makdadiya formations. they were deposited during four Tectonostratigraphic Megasequences (TMS). The older TMS contains formations that were deposited prior the development of the Zagros Foreland Basin, whereas the formations of other three Megasequences were deposited within Zagros Foreland Basin. During those times, the foreland basin was divided into three distinct parts. these are fore deep, bulge, and fore-bulge, which   were discriminated via listric faults, which played as normal and reverse displacements after and before ophiolite obduction.
Some contributions to the tectonostratigraphic model of the area are adopted. They are stages of basin development, determining the time of extension period of the listric faults and detecting the tectonic inversion of these faults. This model is described within the compressional tectonic framework between the Arabian and Eurasian plates.

Biostratigraphy and Systematic Palaeontology of Late Cretaceous Heterohelicidae Foraminifera from Kurdistan Region North-eastern Iraq

Rawand Jaff; Fadhil Lawa

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 33-63
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2020.170360

The biostratigraphical importance and systematic palaeontology of Early Turonian to Early Maastrichtian Heterohelicidae Planktic foraminifera from Kurdistan region, NE Iraq are described. Some 24 species from 11 genera are recorded. Species abundance and diversity increase from the Early Turonian to Early Maastrichtian, perhaps signifying cooler sea temperatures in the Arabian sector of the Tethys Ocean during the Early Maastrichtian. Despite the long biostratigraphical ranges of some species, the importance of the biserial and multiserial Planktic foraminifers in Late Cretaceous biostratigraphy is emphasized. From a biostratigraphic perspective, heterohelicids are important for the definition of the Campanian-Maastrichtian boundary in Kurdistan region, with Planoglobulina species being especially important in this respect, as they are in Iran, Turkey and North Africa.

Paleoenvironmental Study of Khurmala Formation by Ostracoda in Shaqlawa and Dohuk area, Northern Iraq

Mahfoudh Al-Hadeedy; Saleh Khalaf

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 148-164
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2020.170375

   A detail paleoenvironmental study of ostracods fauna to investigated the paleoenvironment of Khurmala Formation for two section Northern Iraq; the first (Hjran section) lies near Shaqlawa city, and the second (Dohuk section) lies near Dohuk city. Based on ostracods study conclude that Khurmala Formation were deposited in shelf environment, about (30 – 200) meter in depth.

Inferred Inversely Reactivated Listric Fault at Chia Gara Anticline, Northern Iraq

Ibrahim Aljumaily; Nazar Abdullah

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2019, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 11-25
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2019.170280

Chia Gara anticline is an E-W extending doubly plunged fold, parallel to the Taurus Mountains having about (80) km length and (12) km width. It is located within the high folded zone of northern Iraq. The exposed rocks range in age from Late Triassic to Late Miocene. Structural analysis of the anticline performed through three traverses transverse to the general fold trend from western plunge zone towards east. Geometrical analysis of fold elements shows that Chia Gara anticline is asymmetrical vergingtowards north in both first and third traverses, whereas it is more or less symmetrical in the second traverse. Meanwhile, results of Fourier analysis demonstrates that the fold form is more developed in the northern limb of the anticline than in its southern limb, in the first and third traverses. Nevertheless, in the second traverse, the fold form seems more developed in the southern limb compared with the northern limb. The northern vergence of the anticline and its advance development in northern limb in the first and third traverses may reflect the impact of a suture vergent reversely slipped listric fault beneath the anticline sectors in these traverses. However, the obscure of such listric fault in the second traverse may be due to the effect of a sinistral (BF1) and a dextral (BF2) subsurface strike-slip faults transverse to the trend of Chia Gara anticline on either side of the second traverse. The surface expressions of them, as well as others like Zewa and Deralok faults (dextral) are evident in satellite image of the area. The southward pushing of the wedge between (BF1) and (BF2) had opposed the northward reverse displacement of the proposed listric fault beneath thesecond traverse. The effects of these strike-slip faults (BF1) and (BF2) are evident also in anticlockwise deflection of both axial plane and fold axis attitudes from first to the second traverse, and vice versa from second to the third traverse.

Calcareous Nannofossils Biostratigraphy of Shiranish Formation (K-306) well, Northern Iraq

Maryam Al-Maamari; Omar Al-Badrani

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2019, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2019.170278

Twenty Samples of Shiranish Formation from the well (K-306), Kirkuk area, northern Iraq, are collected and studied on the basis of stratigraphic ranges of the recorded calcareous nannofossils. Eighty-nine species in the studied section reveals five biozones arranged from oldest to youngest as follows:
1.Quadrum trifidum Interval Biozone (CC22) Part
2.Tranolithus phacelosus Interval Biozone (CC23)
3.Rienhardtites lives Interval Biozone (CC24)
4. Arkhangelskilla cymbiformis Interval Biozone (CC25)
5. Nephrolithus frequens Rang Biozone (CC26) Part
These Biozones are correlated with other calcareous nannofossils biozones, from both local and regional sections, leading to conclude the age of Campanian- Maastrichtian.

The Structural Development of Folds Shapes in the Western Zagros Fold/Thrust Belt of Iraq Using Fourier Analysis

Nabeel Al-Azzawi; Nazar Numan

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2019, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 26-41
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2019.170283

Depending upon the geometrical shapes of the fold profiles, the Western Zagros Fold/ Thrust Belt of Iraq has been subdivided into different geometrically distinctive and genetically significant four sectors using Fourier ratios suggested by Hudleston classification. Furthermore, the same belt has been subdivided into eight sectors using Singh and Gairola's classification. The sector names of the former are chevronic–sinusoidal, sinusoidal–parabolic, parabolic–semi elliptical and semi elliptical–box fold styles. Whereas in the later division, the sectors are almost chevronic, chevronic–sinusoidal, almost sinusoidal, sinusoidal–parabolic, almost parabolic, parabolic–semi elliptical, almost semi elliptical and semi elliptical–box fold styles.
         The investigation involves harmonic analysis (Fourier analysis) of the fold profiles by solving Fourier equations using the Gauss elimination method, determination of Fourier coefficients and Fourier ratios for forty major anticline structures that cover fairly evenly the Western Zagros Fold/ Thrust region. The procedure of harmonic analysis is carried out with FOLDN, a GWBASIC program written for this purpose. Fourier ratios are utilized for distinguishing different types of fold shapes.
         In general, the map of these sectors shows that the folds become progressively more developed in shape towards the north and northeast. The arrangement of the obtained fold sectors in the studied area, matches the folds initiated first near the Alpine Suture and with time, they propagated south and southwestward across the axis of orogeny. In addition, probably the process is still going on.

Calcareous Nannofossils Biostratigraphy of Aaliji Formation in Well (K- 116), Northern Iraq

Raghda Saad Al-Hyaly; Omar Ahmed Al-Badrani

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2019, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 35-45
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2019.170265

Thirteen samples of Aaliji Formation from the well (K-116), Kirkuk area, Northern Iraq, are studied on the basis of the stratigraphic ranges of the recorded calcareous nannofossils for sixty species, the studied section reveals five biozones arranged from oldest to youngest as follows:

Fasciculithus tympaniformis Interval Biozone (CP4)
Heliolithus kleinpellii Interval Biozone (CP5)
Discoaster mohleri Interval Biozone (CP6)
Discoaster nobilis Interval Biozone (CP7)

5. Discoaster multiraditus Interval Biozone (CP8)
These biozones are correlated with other calcareous nannofossils biozones from both local and regional sections leading to conclude the age of Middle Paleocene to Early Eocene.

Using of GIS Software for Mapping the Climatic Data Obtained from Internet Network: Iraq Case Study

Sabah Ali

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2018, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 35-48
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2018.159264

Nowadays, the long-term climatic data supplied by the famous internet sites, plays an important role in analyzing and mapping of various climatic features (temperature, precipitation, solar radiation … etc.). Precipitation is one of the important elements in agriculture. It is a major field in climatological studies. Studying precipitation is important to identify precipitation characteristics; temporal and spatial variability.
In the present study, extract for each (0.5*0.5) degree grid cell of the monthly precipitation data for the year 2016 except the summer months (June - July - August) using the GPCC Visualizer website is applied for Iraq country. Kriging interpolation method within the environment of ArcGIS10.3 program, the average monthly and seasonal precipitation maps are drawn. The study revealed the possibility to use the more popular website sources of historical climate datasets to compensate the lack of climate data available from the meteorological stations in Iraq, which is often difficult to obtain recent data..

Spectral Signature Extraction of Pegmatite Intrusions and Determine it by Using Supervised Classification, Bulfat Complex, Qala Deza, NE Iraq

Rayan Gh. Al-Banaa; Shareef Th. Al-hamed; Nabaz R. H. Aziz

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2018, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 11-28
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2018.159277

Pegmatite intrusions represent one of the distinguished geological features which are exposed in the north western part of Zagros Suture Zone-ZSZ whose forms appear like dikes and its contain of Volcano-Sedimentary units. In order to determine these features in some areas northern Iraq, remote sensing techniques were used by applying selective image processing methods for determining the spectral signature of these intrusions. Lithological samples were collected and analyzed geochemically and specify Mode analysis of minerals phases and consequently determination the suitable samples for spectral extraction. Depending on the extracted spectral, digital classification was applied on the corrected satellite images to extract the compatible spectral signatures between pegmatite intrusions (in satellite images) and pegmatite field samples. The results showed coincident between this two pegmatite and also determine another zones of pegmatite out of studied area. The density of pegmatite is more in the zone which is located northwestern part from samples area and low density in the other area. The research method gave good efficiency in pegmatite investigation by clarifying these features on the satellite images.ً.

Some Ostracoda Species of Tanjero Formation (Late Campanian- Maastrichtian) of Diana Area, NE Iraq.

Nisreen M. Aziz

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2018, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 27-40
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2018.159270

Eleven ostracode species belonging to eight genera were described and illustrated for the first time from Tanjero Formation (Late Campanian- Maastrichtian) at Diana, North East Iraq, which six species are new: Cytherella suranensis sp. nov.; Cytherella omarians sp. nov.; Bairdia dianaensis sp. nov.; Bythocypris sirwanensis sp. nov.; Bairdoppilata halabijaensis sp. nov. and Limburgina kaniensis sp. nov.:
Cytherella suranensis sp. nov. ; Cytherella omarians sp. nov.; Bairdia dianaensis sp. nov.;Bythocypris sirwanensis sp. nov.; Bairdoppilata halabijaensis sp. nov. and Limburgina kaniensis sp. Nov

Rock Magnetic Properties during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM): Records from P/E boundary Sections (Sinjar, Shaqlawa) in Iraq

Ahmed Al-Fattah; Ali Al-Juboury; Imad Ghafor

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2018, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 55-74
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2021.170031

Rock magnetic properties have been investigated across the Paleocene/Eocene
boundary in two distally separate sections of Paleogene marine sedimentary rocks
from Iraq, namely the Sinjar and the Shaqlawa sections. The sediments at the
studied sections belong to the Aaliji and the Kolosh formations respectively, which
were previously examined for their biostratigraphy by the authors using planktonic
and benthonic foraminifera to delineate the Paleocene/Eocene (P/E) transition.
Measured magnetic properties include; bulk magnetic susceptibility, hysteresis
cycles, isothermal remnant magnetization (IRM) acquisition, and thermomagnetic
curves analysis. Rock-magnetic results (i.e. low magnetic coercivity component)
indicate greigite as the main magnetic phase at Aaliji rocks, while a mixture of
magnetite and greigite with high magnetic coercivity has been observed at Kolosh
clastics. Magnetic susceptibility is induced by related to both biogenic minerals
(mainly at Aaliji Formation) and transported terrigenous material sources. Multi
varied magnitude phases of high bulk rock magnetic susceptibility observed in
both formations along PETM lithosomes are attributed to two sources: greigite or
biogenic iron oxides source and increase in terrigenous discharge source as
inferred by anoxic to suboxic iron - sulfate-reducing conditions and lithological
change respectively. Both sources referred to some of environmental conditions
associated with Paleocene - Eocene thermal maximum events such as methane
dissociation, water stratification, enhanced hydrological and weathering cycles.

Rock Magnetic Properties during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM): Records from P/E boundary Sections (Sinjar, Shaqlawa) in Iraq

Ahmed N. Al-Fattah; Ali Al-Juboury; Imad M. Ghafor

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2018, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 55-74
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2018.159279

Rock magnetic properties have been investigated across the Paleocene/Eocene boundary in two distally separate sections of Paleogene marine sedimentary rocks from Iraq, namely the Sinjar and the Shaqlawa sections. The sediments at the studied sections belong to the Aaliji and the Kolosh formations respectively, which were previously examined for their biostratigraphy by the authors using planktonic and benthonic foraminifera to delineate the Paleocene/Eocene (P/E) transition. Measured magnetic properties include; bulk magnetic susceptibility, hysteresis cycles, isothermal remnant magnetization (IRM) acquisition, and thermomagnetic curves analysis. Rock-magnetic results (i.e. low magnetic coercivity component) indicate greigite as the main magnetic phase at Aaliji rocks, while a mixture of magnetite and greigite with high magnetic coercivity has been observed at Kolosh clastics. Magnetic susceptibility is induced by related to both biogenic minerals (mainly at Aaliji Formation) and transported terrigenous material sources. Multi varied magnitude phases of high bulk rock magnetic susceptibility observed in both formations along PETM lithosomes are attributed to two sources: greigite or biogenic iron oxides source and increase in terrigenous discharge source as inferred by anoxic to suboxic iron - sulfate-reducing conditions and lithological change respectively. Both sources referred to some of environmental conditions associated with Paleocene - Eocene thermal maximum events such as methane dissociation, water stratification, enhanced hydrological and weathering cycles..

Hypogene Processes of the Gypsum Beds in Sangaw Sinkholes, Kurdistan Region, NE-Iraq

Bakhtyar M. Ameen

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2011, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 51-64
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2011.5550

The Sangaw region is located at the western part of Zagros orogenic belt at the boundary between Low and High Folded Zones, Sulaimani governorate in Kurdistan region. The area characterized by low amplitude folds that are trending northwest southeast and arranged in en echelon pattern. The exposed formations are Eocene Pila Spi (limestone), middle Miocene Fat`ha(lagoon) and Upper Fars (clastics) formations. Many large and small sinkholes are found around Ashdagh anticline; some of them about 50 m in diameter and about 30 m deep. Some are developed into complicated cave systems with collaps blocks and breccias in addition to narrow passages and fissures. The largest of them is located directly to the west of Darzilla village at the southeastern plunge of Ashdagh anticline. The sinkholes occur in Fat`ha and in the Pila Spi Formations. The walls of the sinkholes are covered by secondary gypsum, sulfur, bitumen and secondary calcite. Inside the cave collapse, breccias and blocks with lensoidal stratified clayey sediments as weathering product could be seen. The water is acidic (pH=4) inside the caves and discharges as large spring (200L/S) with white milky color; it is called in the local Kurdish language, “Awa Spi “which means white stream. The weathering of the carbonate rocks is intense inside the cave and appears as honeycombs and rills mark which have very rough surface with dull color. The sinkholes were produced from the dissolution of thick gypsum and limestone beds. The origin of these caves has been proposed to be hypogenic speleogenesis due to the presence of gypsum and bitumen. These materials with the aid of bacteria enrich the water with H2S which aciditfies the water and precipitates the sulfur and secondary gypsum on the cave wall. The formation of H2SO4 by oxidaton of H2S is the main reason that aid the sinkhole hypogene generation in Sangaw area. A realistic model is drawn to interpret and connect the following:1- The stratigraphy and structure of the area encourage the generation of underground stagnant pond suitable for reacting with the emanating H2S necessary for the hypogene generation of the sinkholes and precipitation of secondary native sulfur and gypsum.2- dissolution of gypsum and its reduction by bacteria. 3- upward migration of bitumen from nearby oil traps(hydrocarbon accumulation).

Nannobiostratigrphy of Shiranish Formation in Balad Well No. 8, Northern Baghdad, Iraq

Omar A. Al-Badrani

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2011, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 65-80
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2011.5551

ABSTRACTEight samples of Shiranish Formation were obtained from Balad well No. 8, (northern Baghdad) central Iraq. Details investigated carried out identify calcareous nannofossils, where identified sixteen species; eleven descried from other region and five left under open name because of lack of material or rare of samples, On the basis of stratigraphic distribution of the species, two biozones proposed these are :

Tectonostratigraphy of Lower Cretaceous in Southern Iraq

Wathiq GH. AL-mutury; Rafed A. AL-Muhammad; Kaise Al-Bayatee

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2010, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 29-44
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2010.5517

Stratigraphic units during Lower Cretaceous in southern of Iraq
were affected largely by tectonic agent. Neo-Tethys ocean
occupied the distance between passive margins of Arabian and
Iranian plates. South of Iraq represented the continental shelf of
passive margin of Arabian plate. This tectonic situation made the
sediments in eastern parts of passive margin in south of Iraq
effected by marine agents, and the sediments in western parts was
effected by continental agents, whereas the middle parts was
effected by both agents. As result of that, three sediment regions
were formed in south of Iraq. First, marine sediment region that
occupy the eastern part of south of Iraq near the Iraq-Iran borders.
Second, mixed sediment region that occupy Basra area and extend
toward north. Third, continental sediment region that occupy
western part of Basra near the western desert. Half graben basins
that formed by listric faults in the passive margin caused the local
changes in distribution of sediments in south of Basra. These three
sediment regions formed all during Lower Cretaceous and maybe
extend toward the middle of Iraq and north of Baghdad

Paleoecology of some Upper Cretaceous Formations from Selected Wells Northwest and Middle Iraq

Ibrahim Al-Shareefi; Saleh K. Khalaf; Marwan A. Al-Eisa

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2010, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 67-96
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2010.5523

On the basis of the biocontents, lithological features and analysis of the microfacies, an attempt is made to establish the nature of paleoecology and depositional environments of some Upper Cretaceous formations from northwest and middle Iraq ,of which the successions are represented by the formations from the oldest to the youngest are Khasib, Tanuma, Sa'di, Mushorah, Hartha and Shiranish.A wide spectrum of environmental types distributed between deep and shallow marine environments. The implication of paleoecological interpretations for different Ostrscode species and other fossils recorded in the studied sections highlights the strong correlation between the environmental parameters in particular the depths and the lifestyle of these organisms including specific morphologies and faunal abundance.In addition to that from palaeocological point view the identified biocontents represent a southern shelf tythes fauna.

Planktonic Foraminiferal Biostratigrapy of Shiranish Formation in Makhmur Well No. (1), Makhmur Area, Northern Iraq

Abdullah Al-Hahidi

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2010, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 19-28
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2010.5516

Planktonic foraminifera is studied from Shiranish Formation in Makhmur
well No. (1), North Iraq between the depth interval (657-620) m. Three
biostratigraphy Zones are recognized in these formation:
1. Globotruncanita elevata–Rosita fornicata Zone.
2. Globotruncana aegyptiaca Zone.
3. Gansserina gansseri Zone.
20 عبد الله سلطان شهاب الحدیدی
The results of this study are compared with the work of others inside and
outside Iraq. The age of the Shiranish Formation in the said well is Late
Companian to Early Maastrichtian.

The Application of Color Composite Image in Detecting and Delineation Difference Reflection of Gypsum in Surface Soil of Al-Jazeera Area in Nineveh Governorate Iraq

Namik A. Daood

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2009, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 17-26
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2009.40347

This work represents an attempt to recognize and delineate the area of different reflection of gypsum in the surface soil of Al- Jazeera region in the Ninevah Governorate, depending on the variations in the spectral reflectance of the gypsum and other landform features in the study area. This investigation utilized the three bands (TM1, TM4
and TM7) of the Landsat7 immerging together by using the ERDAS program to produce single color composite image, including the use of three primary colors (Red ,Green
and Blue) respectively. Given these conditions, the basic principles of visual interpretation of images are all that is required of interpreter to implement them by using the color theory and the available field references about the area. The present study concluded the presence of three different levels of gypsum in the top soil surface of the Al- Jazeera North Western Iraq. which are recognized in the color composite image. These results are confirmed by both field visits and laboratory analysis of soil sample.

A Rapid Graphical Solution for Determining the Presence of Remnant Magnetization in the Basement Rocks of Western Iraq

Abdaladeem M. Al Mashhadani

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2008, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2008.5477

A graphical method of determining the possible presence of a remanent component of magnetization in two dimensional igneous masses within the basement is described. It is required to assume that the same source produces well defined gravity and magnetic anomalies. The method involves taking the ratios of distance between peaks of maximum values of gravity and magnetic for various angles of field inclinations. Ratio of maximum positive and maximum negative values for various angles of field inclinations are also used. These ratios are plotted against field inclinations. Examples of anomalies are taken from the western desert area of the stable shelf in Iraq.

Stratigraphic sequence of late Paleozoic era in Iraq

Ali I. Al-Juboury; Marwan Al-Eisa; Aboosh H. Al-Hadide

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2002, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 28-42
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2002.43830

The study put stratigraphic frame work of late Paleozoic era (Devonian – permian ) in Iraq, which include six formation from older (pirispiki, kaista, ora, Harur, ga'ara and chai Zairi) which are examined in eight borehole sections distributed in north, south west and western part of Iraq. These section have been compared with type section, which mostly lies in north Iraq.
The studied sequences manily composed of siliciclastic and mixed ( carbonate – silliciclastic) which belongs to two megasequences each of them corresponding to the 1st order cycle of global sea level change.
These megasequences are Kaskaskia sequence (late Devonian-early carboniferious) which represented by the pirispiki, kaista, ora and harur formation.
The lower part of absaroka sequence (late carboniferious-permian) which represented by ga'ara and chaizairi formations.
Time lines don’t match with the facies boundary and different from age of type section for some
formations