Keywords : Fold development


The Structural Development of Folds Shapes in the Western Zagros Fold/Thrust Belt of Iraq Using Fourier Analysis

Nabeel Al-Azzawi; Nazar Numan

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2019, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 26-41
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2019.170283

Depending upon the geometrical shapes of the fold profiles, the Western Zagros Fold/ Thrust Belt of Iraq has been subdivided into different geometrically distinctive and genetically significant four sectors using Fourier ratios suggested by Hudleston classification. Furthermore, the same belt has been subdivided into eight sectors using Singh and Gairola's classification. The sector names of the former are chevronic–sinusoidal, sinusoidal–parabolic, parabolic–semi elliptical and semi elliptical–box fold styles. Whereas in the later division, the sectors are almost chevronic, chevronic–sinusoidal, almost sinusoidal, sinusoidal–parabolic, almost parabolic, parabolic–semi elliptical, almost semi elliptical and semi elliptical–box fold styles.
         The investigation involves harmonic analysis (Fourier analysis) of the fold profiles by solving Fourier equations using the Gauss elimination method, determination of Fourier coefficients and Fourier ratios for forty major anticline structures that cover fairly evenly the Western Zagros Fold/ Thrust region. The procedure of harmonic analysis is carried out with FOLDN, a GWBASIC program written for this purpose. Fourier ratios are utilized for distinguishing different types of fold shapes.
         In general, the map of these sectors shows that the folds become progressively more developed in shape towards the north and northeast. The arrangement of the obtained fold sectors in the studied area, matches the folds initiated first near the Alpine Suture and with time, they propagated south and southwestward across the axis of orogeny. In addition, probably the process is still going on.