About Journal

The Iraqi National journal of Earth Science is one of the Iraqi Academic Scientific Journals (IASJ) and within the group of Mosul University journals.  In general, it received the entire range of earth science topics, in addition to the Remote Sensing that related to earth science. It focuses, especially, on the Geology of Iraq and the Middle East and it may receive any manuscript related to the geology of the world. The journal is peer-reviewed, open access, and electronic version. The journal is established in 2001 supporting by the Ministry of High Education and Scientific Research of Iraq...
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Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Qulqula Limestone in Shenrui, Halabja Governorate, Northeastern Iraq

Nian Samin

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 1-14
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2021.170382

      This study focuses on the mineralogy and geochemistry of the limestone unit of the Qulqula Formation (Early Cretaceous). The age and stratigraphic position of this formation are controversial because of insufficient studies and the complex structure of the occurrence area. Twenty samples were selected and analyzed which represent six sections: Sarkan, Awera, Griana1, Griana2, Hawar, and Hawara Kon at the Mount of Shenrui in Halabja area located in Kurdistan Region, northeastern Iraq near the Iraqi-Iranian borders. The mineralogical study by the X-ray diffraction technique shows that the samples are composed of 70.14 % calcite, and 28.07% quartz. The geochemical analysis shows that CaO is abundant in most of the studied samples, the increases of (SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, TiO2, and K2O), and the decrease in (CaO and MgO) leads to the change of limestone to siliceous type. The limited dolomitization can be confirmed by the low concentration. The component Sr has a negative correlation for both major and trace elements. On the other hand, (Cr, Co, Ni, V, and Zr) have a positive correlation with (MgO, Fe2O3, SiO2, Al2O3, K2O, and TiO2), thismay indicate the effect of the basic rocks in surrounding areas enriching limestone with these elements.

The Influence of Shell Permeability on Stability of Upstream Slope during Rapid Drawdown – Khassa Chai Earth Dam as a Case Study

Krikar Noori; Sirwan Salim

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 15-28
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2021.170383

Several factors affect the stability of earth dam during sudden drawdowns such as permeability and mechanical properties of soil, upstream side slope, drawdown ratio, and drawdown rate. This paper investigates the influence of shell permeability on earth dam upstream slope stability and its role in the change of pore water pressure at different locations of the embankment during the sudden drawdown, using different limit equilibrium methods. To accomplish the objective of this study, (Geo Studio 2012 Software) as one of the powerful geotechnical programs was used for the modeling and numerical analysis. The study shows that decreasing in the shell permeability resulted in the reduction of pore water pressure dissipation and variation of shell hydraulic conductivity plays a vital role in the overall stability of the upstream slope under rapid drawdown conditions.

Assessment of Avroman Limestone Formation for Portland Cement Industry, Halabja Area, Kurdistan Region, NE-Iraq

Chro Fatah; Tola Mirza

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 29-48
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2021.170384

Limestone is the main constituent of the raw materials used in manufacturing cement. In this study, the limestone deposits from the Avroman Formation are evaluated by using chemically and mineralogical techniques for their suitability to be used as a raw material for the cement industry.
Twenty-one samples of limestone are collected from different beds of the Avroman Formation for petrographic study which shows that the limestone samples consist mainly of crystalline calcite. Physical and mechanical tests are performed in addition to the mineralogical and geochemical analysis using x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray fluorescence (XRF). Geological review and obtained results show that there is a good potential for industrial-grade limestone. The major clay minerals in the clay samples are chlorite, illite, montmorillonite, were as kaolinite appears as minor clay minerals. The geochemical analysis indicates that the limestone of Avroman formation has a wide range of CaO (46.13-56.00), Al2O3 (0.01-0.86), SiO2 (0.00-1.51), Fe2O3 (0.00-1.25), MgO (0.24-0.71), K2O, Na2O, TiO2, and MnO are traces. The physical properties (water absorption and moisture content) and chemical-mineralogical composition of the formation reflect that the dry process is preferable for the production of Portland cement. Mechanical analyses, especially compressive strength show that the quarrying and crushing will be competitive economically during manufacturing. From the results of the analyses, we conclude that the limestone of the formation and clay material of the study area are of good quality and fulfill the international standards of Portland cement.

Planktic Foraminiferal Biostratigraphy of the Upper Part of the Damlouk Member, Ratga Formation, Western Desert, Iraq

Imad Ghafor; Basim Al-Qayim

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 49-62
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2021.170385

The basinal part of the Damlouk Member upper sedimentary cycle of the Ratga Formation exposed in the Qaim area of the Iraqi western desert is examined. The studied section consists of marlstone, marly and phosphatic limestone, and planktic foraminifera-rich limestone beds. Detailed study of the planktic foraminiferal assemblages of these rocks revealed the occurrences of (30) species belonging to (11) genera. The stratigraphic distribution of these species permits the recognition of three biozones. These are from the lower to upper part of the section: - Acarinina bullbrooki Zone, (Middle Lutetian), Morozovelloides lehneri Zone, (Late Lutetian), Globigerinatheca semiinvolutaHantkenina alabamensis Zone, (Early Bartonian). These zones indicate that the studied section of the Ratga Formation (Damlouk Member) is of Middle-Late Lutetian to Early Bartonian age. These biozones are correlated with different local and regional studies.

Morphometric Characteristics of Erosion Activity in the Komel River Basin

Mahmoud Hamrawi; Ibrahim Ibrahim

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 1-16
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2021.170386

The study area is represented by the Komel River basin, which is located in Duhok Governorate, northern Iraq. Several secondary basins are selected in the northeast of Sheikhan district within the main Komel River basin. This basin is located between longitudes (43º 29´ 00= – 43º 10´ 30=) east, and latitudes (36º 57´ 30= – 36º 46´ 30=) north. The study aims to determine the erosion activity of the main Komel River basin and the secondary basins that make up the basin, by finding the morphometric characteristics and the shape of the hypsometric curve for these basins using the WMS7.1 Watershed Modeling System program. The results of the morphometric analysis are represented by the value of (Hi) and the shape of the hypsometric curve of the Great Komel River basin and its secondary basins showing a discrepancy in erosion activity from one basin to another. The topographical variation of the basins such as the rocky discoveries and the vegetation cover of each basin has been seen. The morphometric characteristics of the basins in general and the main basin, in particular, show the possibility of exploiting the main Komel basin in the water harvesting, as it is a basin in the maturity stage presented by the (Hi) value of (0.40) and is compatible with its hypsometric curve shape. The validity of the Komel River basin in the field of water harvesting is an encouraging conclusion for the development of planting this area with forest trees, pastoral plants, and crops. In a manner that suits the climatic environment of the region, especially if we take into account the basin area of (536,253) square kilometers, which will make the area a facility Tourist.

Specifying the Vegetation Cover Changes in Komel River River Using Remote Sensing Techniques

Mahmoud Hamrawi; Ibrahim Ibrahim

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 17-26
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2021.170387

This study aims to specify the changes that occurred in the vegetation cover of the Komel River basin located in the northeastern Shikan distract in the Duhok –Kurdistan region in Iraq with a total area equal 536.000 km2. Two images from LANDSAT 8 represent the study area for two different periods: the first one on 7/4/2018 during the spring period and the second one on 2/10/2020 during the autumn period. In this study, the vegetation cover is analyzed for the two periods taking into account the differences in annual temperature and rainfall. The final result of this study shows that there is an agreement between the distribution of the vegetation cover and the annual temperature and rainfall, this compatibility is evident by the study of the area topography and its slopes in addition to rocks and soil types where the correlation coefficient, r =0.61.

Reservoir Characterization of the Middle Cretaceous Mishrif Formation in the Buzurgan Oilfield, Southern Iraq

Muneef Mohammed; Hameed Salih; Kadhim Mnaty

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 63-77
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2021.170388

The Mishrif Formation is considered the main oil reservoir in the Buzurgan oilfield, southern Iraq. This study aims to characterize and evaluate the reservoir properties of the Mishrif Formation based on the interpretation of well logs data. The logs data for six wells have been analyzed and interpreted by using Techlog 2015.3 software. The lithology of the Mishrif Formation was determined by using the M-N cross plot method based on the interpretation of density, neutron, and sonic logs. The results showed that the Mishrif Formation is mainly composed of limestone. The shale volume in the Mishrif Formation has been estimated from the gamma-ray log. The results illustrated that the shale volume is about 20% of the bulk volume, and may increase to reach the highest value at the upper part of the MA unit of the formation. The porosity of the Mishrif Formation was calculated based on the interpretation of neutron, density, and sonic logs. To achieve accurate values of porosity, the log-derived porosity has been correlated with the core-derived porosity, and the comparison showed a good correlation between the two types of porosity. The results showed that the Mishrif Formation is characterized by low to medium porosity (about 5% to 18%). The secondary porosity of the formation is most dominant in the MB21 unit compared with the other stratigraphic units of the Mishrif Formations. This indicates that the MB21 unit was affected by the diagenesis processes. The MB21 unit of the Mishrif Formation represents the most dominant reservoir because it was delineated by high effective porosity and high oil saturation.

Study of the Mineral and Chemical Variation of the Raw Material Mix Used for Production of the Clinker and the Sulfate Resistant Portland Cement of Al-Hadbaa Plant, Hammam Al-Alil, Iraq

Safaa Al-Jubouri; Sahra Al-Maadhidee

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 27-42
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2021.170389

Twenty-four samples (6 samples of raw material mix slurry, 9 samples of cement clinker, 9 samples of sulfate resistant cement) are collected during four months from the production line of Al-Hadbaa Cement Plant, which operates in a wet production method, in Hammam Al-Alil district, south of Mosul city. Some of the studied samples are analyzed for mineral diagnosis by X-ray diffraction device, chemical analysis by X-ray fluorescence device, gravimetric titrimetric chemical methods, and petrographic study for the clinker samples by reflected light microscope and using etching solutions. The research aims to study the variation of the mineral and chemical content in the studied samples.
The mineral and petrographical study show that there is no significant difference in the mineral content between the samples of the same type and that the difference is in the percentage of the presence of minerals. The raw materials mix mainly contains calcite and quartz. As for clinker and cement, it contains a lite phase C3S with a stable growth (pure) type with a monoclinic crystal system and a type of unstable growth (impure and containing inclusions) with a trigonal crystal system. In addition to the belite phase C2S of shapes β, α, and ᾱ, the aluminate phase C3A and C12A7 type and the alkaline type containing Na, the ferrite phase C4AF and C2F and the phase of fine crystalline glass. The chemical study indicates that the content of most of the main components SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, CaO, MgO, SO3, Na2O, K2O, TiO2, MnO, P2O5, Cl, and LOI for the raw materials mix, clinker, and cement are close to the samples of the same type of the studied samples. It confirms the proposed specifications by some researchers, except for the deviation in K2O, Fe2O3. It is noticed from comparing the expected clinker content with the actual clinker, as well as calculating some of the qualitative control modules (lime saturation factor, silica, and alumina modulus) to the presence of relative stability in the content of the raw mix and cement produced in the studied cement plant.

Evaluation of Sulphate Resistant Cement and Oil-well Cement Produced in Al-Hadbaa Cement Plant

Safaa Al-Jubouri; Sahra Al-Maadhidee

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 43-59
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2021.170391

Twenty-three samples are collected (9 samples of sulfate-resistant cement, 7 samples for each of the oil-well cement, class B and G) during four months from the production line of Al-Hadbaa cement plant, which operates in the wet production method, in Hammam Al-Alil district south of Mosul city. The research aims to evaluate the chemical and physical properties of sulfate-resistant cement and oil-well cement produced in the studied plant according to the approved standard specifications. Some of the samples are analyzed by X-ray diffraction device, and chemically by X-ray fluorescence and gravimetric titrimetric chemical methods. The results of physical tests are obtained (fineness by Blaine method and sieves, water-cement ratio, setting time (initial and final), soundness by autoclave method, and compressive strength) for cement of three types according to the requirements of the Iraqi Standard Specification (no.5, 1984). As well as the results of physical tests (mixing water percent, fineness, slurry density, thickening time, free fluid content, compressive strength, and dry cement density) for oil-well cement are according to the requirements of the American Petroleum Institute specifications for the samples taken from Al-Hadbaa cement plant, which is carried out within the requirements of quality control overproduction.
The study concludes that the results of chemical analysis, calculating some of the chemical moduli, percent of mineral phases, and results of physical tests for three types of cement are close in their values, ​​and conforming to the limits of chemical and physical requirements of the Iraqi Standard Specification (no.5, 1984). Except that the aluminate phase C3A content, which is more than the required limit. The results of chemical analysis, calculating the percent of mineral phases, and the results of physical tests for the studied oil-well cement are in conformity to the limits of chemical and physical requirements of the American Petroleum Institute Specifications (API 10A, 2010), for the cement type of moderate resistant for sulfate (class B and G). Except for the values ​​​​of alite phase C3S content, and alkalis (sodium) equivalent Na2OEQ for class G, which are not conforming to specifications.

Groundwater Vulnerability Evaluation in the Nineveh Plain, Northern Iraq, using a GIS-based DRASTIC Model

Ali Al-Ozeer علی; Alaa Al-Abadi

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 78-92
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2021.170392

The goal of this study is to determine the vulnerability of groundwater in northern Iraq's Nineveh Plain by utilizing the DRASTIC method and geographic information systems (GIS). In the context of human or environmental systems, vulnerability refers to the potential for harm as a result of stress or disturbance, it may be related to a particular system, hazard, or group of hazards. The vulnerability map includes three vulnerability categories: very low, low, and medium. Following the results of the spatial analysis, it can be concluded that the southern and northeastern portions of the study area have been the most vulnerable to contamination under the medium vulnerability group. According to statistics acquired by removing one DRASTIC element at a time and analyzing the effect on the calculated vulnerability index, the impact of the vadose zone is the most sensitive factor (the mean value is 3.00). The aquifer type, topography, and hydraulic conductivity all have the same mean value of 1.5. The soil factor has a mean value of 0.5, making it the least effective. The research recommends the necessity of using groundwater vulnerability maps in the process of planning future lands and the protection of the Nineveh Plain area from pollution.

Evaluation of Engineering Properties of Rocks and Soils of a Part of the Southwestern Area of Mosul City

Hadeer Adeeb; Azealdeen Jawadi; Dhiaa Salih

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2018, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 1-14
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2018.159255

The main task of this research is to study the distribution of the engineering properties of rocks and soils at the part of the area located in the south western Mosul City. The relationship of these aspects with the geology of the area and its importance of preliminary designs of structures has been studied as well. The data are collected from the reports on geological investigations and engineering laboratory testing of the proposed third canal of the South Jazirah Irrigation Project. Most of the land region is covered by the soil, that thickness ranges between 0 and nearly 20 meters and penetrated by boreholes reaching to the subsurface of evaporating, carbonate and clastic rocks of Fat’ha and Injana formations.
Data processing and evaluation of 66 boreholes are used to find the statistical relations among them. The studied area was divided into four secondary regions ( northern, southern, western and eastern). The studied engineering tests have been included the physical, mechanical and dynamic properties, which have generally low values in most areas. The distribution of the means of all properties that used in the assessment of the properties of soil and rock with the relation of the geological area has shown good properties when approaching to the anticlines of Allan, Hamam Al-Aleel, Nwaigeet, Kaliyan, Al- Shorah, Kassab and Addayah. The study shows that the relationship between the liquid limit and plasticity index is good for all data. The relationship between moisture content and dry density is also good however, the relationship between moisture content and the ratio of dry and saturated density is better, because of the higher relationship between porosity and moisture content. The relationship between bulk density and the velocity of longitudinal waves reveales a sharp reduction of the velocity values of longitudinal waves with reducing of the bulk density values. While, the relationship between bulk density and shear wave velocity is better due to the effect of shear waves withthe porosity more than that of longitudinal waves. In order to confirm that, it has been found that the relationship between the shear waves velocity and moisture content is the best in contrast with a velocity of longitudinal waves. Generally, the relation between dynamic properties with moisture content has a higher correlation coefficient with that of the density. The distribution of most of the engineering properties has shown low values in eastern and western region in contrast with the northern and southern ones.

Biostratigraphy of Upper Valanginian - Upper Aptian Balambo Formation Near Barsarin Village in Rawanduz Area, Northeastern Iraq

Majid Al-Mutwali; Nabil Al-Banna; Mohammed Al-Abbasi

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2018, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 1-12
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2018.159262

The biostratigraphy of Balambo Formation has been investigated within a well-exposed section at the northeastern limb of Zozik anticline, near Barsarin Village, northeastern Iraq. The studied section consists mainly of marl, marly limestone and limestone. These rocks yielded moderately diversified planktonic foraminiferal fauna and radiolarian skeletons, in addition to some benthonic foraminifera and bioclast. The study is focusing on planktonic foraminiferal taxa, which are classified to ten species belonging to three genera. the stratigraphic distribution of the recorded species permits the recognition of five well defined biozones. These are in descending order:
. Globigerinelloides algeriana Taxon range Zone. (part)
. Globigerinelloides ferreolensis Interval Zone.
. Globigerinelloides blowi Interval Zone.
. Hedbergella sigali Interval Zone.
. Globuligerina hoterivica Interval Zone.
The planktonic foraminiferal biozones are correlated with other zonal schemes. They are considered to be extending from Late Valanginian to Late Aptian age.
. Globigerinelloides algeriana Taxon range Zone. (part)
. Globigerinelloides ferreolensis Interval Zone.
. Globigerinelloides blowi Interval Zone.
. Hedbergella sigali Interval Zone.
. Globuligerina hoterivica Interval Zone.
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The Chemical Formula of Francolite in the Phosphorite of Akashat Formation from X-Ray Diffraction Analysis

Kotayba Al-Youzbakey; Salim Al-Dabbagh

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2018, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 61-88
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2018.159265

Francolite (one of apatite group) found in marine formation sedimentary rocks. It is called carbonate-fluorapatite; owing to the substitution of CO3 for PO4 in its unit cell; Ca10(PO4CO3)6F2. Francolite unit cell composed of 4 Ca occupy the sites on ternary axis which are represent the Ca(I) sites, 6 Ca occupy the sites on hexad axis which are represent the Ca(II) sites. 6 P are joined with 24 oxygen to form 6 phosphate tetrahedrons and 2 sites occupied by F in the intermediate channel of the francolite crystal.
There is no differences will noticed along the three a-axis due to the slight effect of the substitution in the 4 Ca(I), this is may be due to the homogenous effects along the three a-axis in these sites. On the other hand, the substitution of planner carbonates for the tetrahedron phosphates cause decreasing in a-axis and slight increasing in the c-axis. These changes are reflected on the x-ray diffraction patterns; the angular distance (Δ2θ distance) between the two faces 410 and 004 will decrease, shifting in some peak positions and increasing in the width of reflecting peaks. The present study deals with the idea of the substitution of (CO32-+F-) for (PO43-) and suggests the Ca(I) sites are candidate to the substitution for large cations e.g. Sr2+, Ba2+and K+ and the Ca(II) sites for smaller cations e.g. Mg2+ .

Stratigraphy and Facies Analysis of the Govanda Formation from Western Zagros, Kurdistan Region, Northeastern Iraq

Kamal Karim

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2018, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 69-98
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2018.159266

A part of the Govanda Formation is studied in five outcrops from northeastern Iraq near the Iraqi-Iranian borders. It consists of polygenic conglomerates, detrital limestones (conglomeratic limestone), and highly fossiliferous limestones of reef- fore-reef facies with occasional interbedding of terrigenous sediments. Tectonically, the formation is important for its location in the very active Sanandij-Sirjan (Suture) Zone and for its deposition in Middle Miocene, which was assigned previously as an age of continental-continental colliding of Zagros Fold-Thrust belt. Additionally, it is overlaying different rocks units of pre-Miocene, especially resting on the Qulqula Radiolarian Formation in an angular unconformity relationship. The high-energy and tectonically active shallow and normal- marine environment is inferred from many facies such as coral framestone, pelecypod floatstone facies, coral and lithoclast rudstone, coral bufflestone, stromatolite bindstone, foraminifera and red algal bioclastic packstone–wackstone, reworked foraminiferal-lithoclast grainstone-packstone, lithoclast grainstone and terrigenous lime sandstone. The environment of The environment of The environment of The environment of The environment of The environment of The environment of The environment of The environment of The environment of The environment of The environment of The environment of The environment of The environment of The environment of the formation was hithe formation was hithe formation was hithe formation was hithe formation was hithe formation was hithe formation was hithe formation was hithe formation was hithe formation was hithe formation was hithe formation was hithe formation was hi the formation was hithe formation was hi the formation was hithe formation was hi gh energygh energy gh energygh energygh energygh energygh energy , shallow and normalshallow and normalshallow and normalshallow and normalshallow and normalshallow and normalshallow and normalshallow and normalshallow and normal shallow and normal shallow and normalshallow and normalshallow and normalshallow and normal- marine seamarine sea marine seamarine seamarine seamarine seamarine seamarine seamarine sea, which which which consist consist consistconsistconsists of of of foreforeforefore-reef, reef and backreef, reef and back reef, reef and backreef, reef and backreef, reef and backreef, reef and backreef, reef and back reef, reef and backreef, reef and backreef, reef and back reef, reef and back -reefreef reef. The tectonic and paleogeographic relations of the formation are discussed in terms of facies and boundary condition. It is confirmed that thethethe Sanandij Sanandij-Sirjan Zone w Sirjan Zone wSirjan Zone wSirjan Zone w Sirjan Zone wSirjan Zone wSirjan Zone wSirjan Zone wSirjan Zone wSirjan Zone was subjected to as subjected to as subjected to as subjected to as subjected to as subjected to as subjected to as subjected to as subjected to as subjected to as subjected to an extension not compression (continentalextension not compression (continentalextension not compression (continentalextension not compression (continentalextension not compression (continental extension not compression (continentalextension not compression (continentalextension not compression (continental extension not compression (continental extension not compression (continentalextension not compression (continental extension not compression (continentalextension not compression (continentalextension not compression (continentalextension not compression (continentalextension not compression (continentalextension not compression (continentalextension not compression (continentalextension not compression (continental extension not compression (continentalextension not compression (continental extension not compression (continental extension not compression (continentalextension not compression (continentalextension not compression (continentalextension not compression (continental extension not compression (continentalextension not compression (continental-continental colliding) continental colliding)continental colliding)continental colliding)continental colliding)continental colliding)continental colliding) continental colliding)continental colliding)continental colliding)continental colliding) continental colliding)continental colliding)continental colliding) continental colliding)continental colliding)continental colliding), as cited in some studies as cited in some studiesas cited in some studies as cited in some studiesas cited in some studiesas cited in some studies as cited in some studiesas cited in some studies as cited in some studiesas cited in some studiesas cited in some studiesas cited in some studiesas cited in some studiesas cited in some studiesas cited in some studiesas cited in some studies as cited in some studiesas cited in some studiesas cited in some studies. The richness of the basin The richness of the basin The richness of the basin The richness of the basin The richness of the basin The richness of the basin The richness of the basin The richness of the basin The richness of the basin The richness of the basin The richness of the basin The richness of the basin The richness of the basin The richness of the basin The richness of the basin The richness of the basin The richness of the basin The richness of the basin The richness of the basin The richness of the basin and fauna fauna fauna fauna indicateindicate indicate indicates that it that it that it that it that it that it was was was connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea.درست جزء مزن تیزوین نوانزدا ازی ممسزة میاشزا مزن شزمار شزرق العز ا رق بزالدرا مزن الحزدود الع ا رقیزة
الإی ا رنیززةو وتتززملا مززن الحجززر الجیززر) المت تززت یالحجززر الجیززر) المززدممیع ل والحجززر الجیززر) ززالع محتززو مززن
Stratigraphy and Facies Analysis of the Govanda Formation from…………….
71
المتحج ا رت ال ا رجعة الزع الشزعاا المرجانیزة و مدزدمت،ا ا والمزدممیات المتعزدد الاصزر مزا التزدامات العر زیة
لمرسوبیات الداریزةو تکتونیزااالتکوین م،زم وقو زف ازی ن زاق سزنندج سزرجان العالیزة النشزا یمز الالتحزامل و ز ال -
لترسّززبف اززی المایوسززین اطوسزز ا والزز ) ا تبززرت سززابدقا کعمززر اصزز دام قززار) قززار) لحزز ا ءم ال یززات و ال والززق -
الانءلاقیةو بالإ ااة إلى ل ا اإنف یدا ازوق وحزدات الصزمور الممتم زة و مزر مزا قبزر المیوسزینا وماصزة یدزا
اوق تکوین قولدولة ا ردیولاریتیة ای اقة زدم التواازق الز ا ءو)و اسزتنت ال اقزة العالیزة وتیتونیزة النشز ة لمبی زة
البحریزززة الا تیادیزززة لمتیزززوینو و ززز ا البی زززة ال ا رجعزززة الزززع الشزززعاا المرجانیزززة والجء زززع اطمزززامی اولمم زززی لشزززعاا
الاستنتاجو تم من مار د ا رسة سمنات دید مثر:
coral framestone, pelecypod floatstone, coral and lithoclast rudstone, coral bufflestone, stromatolite bindstone, foraminifera and red algal bioclastic packstone–wackstone, reworked foraminiferal-lithoclast grainstone-packstone, lithoclast grainstone and terrigenous lime sandstone facies
وتم مناقشة العاقات التکتونیة والجغ ا رایة الددیمة لمتکوین من مار السمنات و اقات الحدودیةو أکدت
أن الجء المدروس من من دة ن اق سنندج سرجان م ا لمتمدید ولیس الان غا یالاص دام الدار)- -
الدار)لا کما ورد ای بعض الد ا رسات السابدةو غنى الحوض بالحیوانات البحریة الا تیادیة یشیر إلى أنف
حو ف کان متصا بالمحی ال،ند) والبحر اطبیض المتوس .

The Relationship Between Chemical Index of Alteration andSome Major and Trace Elements Content in Rocksof Injana Formation of Northern Iraq

Salim. M. Al-Dabbagh; Sahra M. Othman; Hisham Y. Dhannoun

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2011, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 1-22
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2011.5501

The average CIA value for the Injana Formation (Late Miocene) sampled across a section consisting of alternating mudstones, siltstones and sandstones deposited mainly in fresh water environment is rather low value (45.6) indicating the very low level of chemical alteration which the source rocks have suffered which is mainly due to semi-arid to arid climate of weathering and also due to nearby position of the basin of deposition. No overall variation in climatic condition was observed along the section from bottom to top .The variation of major and trace elements involved in this study with mean values of CIA for the sandstone, siltstone and mudstone lithologies was attributed to either mobility of the element concerned (Na, K and Rb) or to gravity fractionation of minerals that host the element or to climate of weathering and deposition (P2O5, Ni, Co & TiO2). Major contribution of recycled argillaceous or clay rich sediments to the Injana Formation do not agree with the results reached in the present study.

Using Remote Sensing Techniques on the Study of Desertification and the Sand Dunes Movements in Biji Area Northern Iraq

Namik A. Daood; Waleed Y. Alubide

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2012, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 29-40
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2012.36289

Remote sensing techniques had been used to identify the total areas of the land covered with sand dunes for the region to the east of Lake Al-Thar Thar and towards Biji industrial town, and detecting the direction of its movement based on data obtained from the satellite images Landsat-5 (TM) 1990, and Landsat-7
(ETM +) 2000, also specify the land use of the region through the identification of sites of industrial plants, roads, water, rock, soils, and others. The results showed that the sand dunes presence as a characteristics bands as well as the possibility of determining the total area that covered by sand dunes during the specified interval time.
The results showed the great variety of the areas for the region covered with sand dunes and it ranging between (249.89) km2 in the year 1990 and about (643.92) km2 in 2000.The increases of the area covered by the sand dunes was due to the movement of sand dunes to the east of (Biji) and south-east towards Tikrit city, also many of the industrial establishment in the region was affected and exposed to the problem of sand drifting. This make the determination of the direction and the speed of movement of sand dunes taking into consideration when we planning for expansion of urban and industrial future of the industrial city of Biji.

The Use of the Seismic Refraction Tomography Survey Method and the Multi-Channel Analysis Technique of Surface Waves in the Geotechnical Assessment of the Al-Amal Apartments Site in Kirkuk, Northern Iraq Ali

Ali Al-Nuaiemy; Bashar Al-Juraisy; Mahmood Al-Mafraji

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2018, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 89-104
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2018.159260

The current study conducted a seismic refraction survey using seismic refraction tomography (SRT), and the use of the multi-channel analysis technique of surface waves (MASW) at the site of Al-Amal apartments in Kirkuk Governorate ( northern Iraq) in order to determine the thickness, depth and velocity of the sub-surface layers. Moreover, a geotechnical assessment is measured in addition to determining the characteristics of these layers and specifying the appropriate layer for establishing the project.The data are processed and interpreted by using SeisImager™/SW software to obtain the velocity of longitudinal waves (VP) represented in the form of a seismic tomography section. The velocity of shear waves (VS ) is extracted from the phase velocity of Rayleigh surface waves using MASW method. The 2D seismic tomography sections represent longitudinal velocity (VP) and the depth of the survey lines. It also has been got three one-dimensional sections representing shear waves (VS ) with the depth. The results show the presence of three layers, and through dynamic flexibility parameters are calculated, and two of geotechnical parameters are applied for the three layers based on the seismic velocity of longitudinal, shear and density. According to these geotechnical parameters, the third layer has better geotechnical specifications than the layers above it, which is suitable for the engineering project. .

Mathematical Model of Ground Water Flow of Bashiqa Area,Northern Iraq

Taha H.Alsalim; Mahamad Faozy

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2004, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 84-98
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2004.37742

Models of ground water are one of most important techniques and powerful tools for solving problems or questions of ground water. Mathematical model was designed for the verification of ground water system in Bashiqa area northern Iraq which situated between latitude , and longitude , .
The total area involved in the mathematical model was 95km by using Finite Difference Method (FDM) for presenting the model. The results of model application was the determining ground water level in the study area and the direction of flow of ground water. The future behavior of ground water of the research area has been predicted, in the case of drilling new wells.

The Relationship Between Chemical Index of Alteration andSome Major and Trace Elements Content in Rocksof Injana Formation of Northern Iraq

Salim. M. Al-Dabbagh; Sahra M. Othman; Hisham Y. Dhannoun

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2011, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 1-22
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2011.5501

The average CIA value for the Injana Formation (Late Miocene) sampled across a section consisting of alternating mudstones, siltstones and sandstones deposited mainly in fresh water environment is rather low value (45.6) indicating the very low level of chemical alteration which the source rocks have suffered which is mainly due to semi-arid to arid climate of weathering and also due to nearby position of the basin of deposition. No overall variation in climatic condition was observed along the section from bottom to top .The variation of major and trace elements involved in this study with mean values of CIA for the sandstone, siltstone and mudstone lithologies was attributed to either mobility of the element concerned (Na, K and Rb) or to gravity fractionation of minerals that host the element or to climate of weathering and deposition (P2O5, Ni, Co & TiO2). Major contribution of recycled argillaceous or clay rich sediments to the Injana Formation do not agree with the results reached in the present study.

The Use of Normalized Differences Vegetation Index in the Determination and Evaluation of Degradation Status of Vegetation Cover in Sinjar Mountain / Ninevah Governorate

Abas M. Al-Hasan Abdul-kareem M. Jassim; Jassim K. Shallal

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences, 2007, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1-14
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2007.39243

Sinjar Mountain is situated to the north-west of Iraq, which is one of the important sites of the range lands in the country. Many recent studies and researches in the world have shown the possibility of using means and technology of remote sensing in the determination and evaluation of cases of vegetation cover degradation depending on the normalized differences vegetation index (NDVI) and on the other vegetation indexes.
The study included the use of visual interpretation methods in the analysis of landsat images with (MSS) and (TM) systems, which are taken in different periods of time during the year seasons and with different spectral bands (1,2,3,4,7) for Sinjar Mountain and Badyat Al-Jazeera. The correlation between vegetation indexes such as simple ratio (SR), vegetation index (VI), normalized differences vegetation index (NDVI) and soil adjusted vegetation index (SAVI) were studied through the calculation of spectral reflectences values with different wave lengths.
The results showed the presence of strong relation between the density of vegetation cover and the evaluation of deterioration state with the reflection values with the red spectral band. It has also been found that there is a strong correlation between the values of (NDVI) and the density of vegetation cover and the degradation of range lands, in addition to the influence of sloping degree and direction in Sinjar Mountain on the (NDVI) calculated values.

Publisher: Mosul University

Email:  injes.journal@gmail.com

Editor-in-chief: Professor Dr. Nabeel Qader Baker Al-Azzawi

Print ISSN: 1682-3222

Online ISSN: 2664-2816

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