About Journal

About  Journal The Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science (INJES) is one of the Iraqi Academic Scientific Journals (IASJ). Publishing under the license of Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY), this journal is published biannually by the College of Science, University of Mosul, Iraq since January 2002, supported by the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research of Iraq. and within the group of Mosul University journals. The journal is not financially supported by any non-governmental organization. It focuses, especially, on the Geology of Iraq and the Middle...
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Geomorphological Assessment Using Geoinformatics Applications of the Sloping System of Al-Ashaali Drainage Basin at Iraqi Southern Desert

Bashar Maaroof

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 38-54
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2022.133146.1009

: The research dealt with the study of the slope systems of the Ashaali drainage basin in the southern Iraqi desert, using the geoinformatics technique, digital elevation models (DEM), satellite images of the Landsat ETM+8, topographic, geological, and hydrological maps. The slope systems of the study area were studied through 4 topographic sectors (longitudinal and transverse) that represented the stages of geomorphological development of the drainage basin according to the Davis erosion cycle, as well as by knowing the regression categories according to the young classification, the direction of the slopes, the sloping parts and the types of slopes (straight, convex, concave). The results showed an increase in the area of the slope category 5-10, which reached 25.499%, as well as an increase in the percentage of the direction of the southwestern slopes, which reached 16.277%, which is the highest percentage. As for the sloping parts, the maturity area recorded the highest percentage, estimated at 251 slope parts. In addition, the results showed that there is variation in the types of slopes, and the central basin area (maturity stage) of the geomorphological cycle represented all types.

Detection of the Bathymetry and Shoreline of Terkos Lake- Turkey Using Digital Image Processing and GIS

Khansaa Abdulelah AHMED

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 55-64
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2022.133434.1011

ABSTRACT
Bathymetry can be defined as the study of water depth, in other words, it is the topography of the bed of sea, ocean and lake floor. In this study, the bathymetry of Terkos lake northern of Istanbul-Turkey was prepared using field work points and remote sensing data. More than 70,000 eco-sound points were collected; manipulated and entered to GIS geodatabase in order to create the bathymetric map, digital Image processing for remote sensing data was also used to produce the map. The shoreline of the lake was detected using Iso Cluster unsupervised classification tool in spatial analyst arc tool from the most recent satellite image captured by Landsat 9 in 25th of March 2022. ARCGIS geodatabase was built in order to create a 0.5m interval bathymetric contour lines showing the bathymetry of the Terkos Lake bed. The Lake level, surface area, water volume curve for the lake was drawn using the results of lake water budget analysis. Results show the possibility of using remote sensing data as an aid to assist in field work related to the production of bathymetric maps, these maps give an indication to decision maker for the amount of sediment in the lake, water bodies data bank also provides a dynamic database of related measurements as surface area, water volume knowing the water level.

Determination of the Petrophysical Properties of the Khasib Reservoir, East Baghdad Oil Field, Middle Iraq

Muneef Mohammed; Ashraf Naif Hameed; Hussain Najem Abd

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 65-75
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2022.133567.1013

This study aims to determine and evaluate the petrophysical characteristics of the Khasib Formation, which represents the main oil-producing reservoir in the East Baghdad oilfield. To accomplish the aim of the study, the log data for five wells have been interpreted using the Schlumberger Techlog 2015.3 software. The main lithology of the Khasib Formation has been determined as limestone based on the interpretation of neutron, density, and sonic logs and using the M-N cross plot method. The shale volume was determined based on the gamma ray log, and the results showed that the shale volume in the Khasib Formation ranges from about 15% to about 27%, and this value increases toward the top of the formation. The total porosity of the Khasib Formation has been determined based on the density and neutron logs, and it is value ranges from about 12% to 23%. The effective porosity was calculated depending on the relationship between the total porosity and shale volume, and the value of this type of porosity ranges from 8% to 18%. The study showed that the B and C units of the Khasib Formation represent the best hydrocarbon-bearing zones, where these units are characterized by high values of effective porosity and oil saturation.

The Effect of Terrain on the Variation in Rainfall Between Mountainous and Plains Areas in Northern Iraq

Asaad Ahmed Al-Hussein; Mohammed Ali Sulaiman; Safa Ahmed Khalil

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 27-45
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2022.133832.1015

تعتبر التضاریس أحد أهم العوامل المؤثرة على تباین کمیة التساقط المطری فی أی مکان فی العالم، ویظهر تأثیرها بشکل واضح فی منطقة الدراسة، لذا جاء هذا البحث لیسلط الضوء على دراسة التباین فی کمیات الأمطار المتساقطة على المناطق الجبلیة والسهلیة للمحافظات الشمالیة من العراق. واظهرت النتائج زیادة تدریجیة فی کمیات الأمطار من الجنوب الغربی إلى الشمال الشرقی لمنطقة الدراسة والزیادة تتناسب مع ازدیاد المسافة والارتفاع. وبالمقارنة ما بین المُدد الزمنیة الثلاث لمحطات منطقة الدراسة تبین وجود اتجاه عام واضح جداً نحو الانخفاض فی قیم التساقط المطری خلال المدة الثانیة فی کل محطات منطقة الدراسة فی المناطق الجبلیة والسهلیة، وظهر خلال المدة الثالثة تباین ما بین المحطات فبعضها سجلت ارتفاعاً فی قیم التساقط والبعض الآخر سجلت انخفاضاً مستمراً خلال هذه المدة والبعض الاخر اظهرت استقراراً فی قیم التساقط المطری.
بعد تطبیق معادلة الانحراف المعیاری لوحظ بان هنالک علاقة طردیة ما بین معدلات الأمطار السنویة والانحراف المعیاری، حیث کلما زادت معدلات الأمطار کلما ادت إلى الزیادة فی الانحراف المعیاری، ویزداد الانحراف المعیاری تدریجیاً کلما ابتعدنا عن المناطق السهلیة المنخفضة واقتربنا من المناطق الجبلیة بسبب زیادة کمیات التساقط المطری فی المناطق المرتفعة. وبعد تطبیق معادلة معامل التذبذب فی قیم التساقط المطری اتضح بان هنالک علاقة عکسیة ما بین معدلات التساقط المطری ونسب التذبذب المطری، حیث کلما زادت معدلات التساقط المطری السنویة قلت معامل التذبذب والعکس الصحیح، وبصورة عامة تقل معامل التذبذب تدریجیاً کلما اتجهنا نحو الشمال الشرقی من منطقة الدراسة. وبتطبیق معادلة معامل الارتباط لقیاس علاقة التساقط المطری بالارتفاع بلغت نسبة الارتباط (0.7)، وتشیر إلى ارتباط قوی بین التساقط والارتفاع.

Calculation of Mineralogical and Chemical Weathering Indices (Xd, MIA and CIA) and their Significance in Soils at Selected Areas in Northern Iraq

Muhamad Aswad

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 1-14
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2022.174660

This study is conducted using data analysis of minerals gained from X-ray diffraction (XRD) as well as by using the data of chemical analysis of the main elements measured by the X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) at selected areas in northern Iraq Thirty samples (twenty soil and ten rock samples) are collected distributed through five regions (Qayarah, Hamam Alil, Tel kaif, Duhok, and Zakho) with four depths and two rock samples for each section in order to calculate the index of weathering mineral (Xd) and mineralogy index of alteration (MIA) as well as chemical index of alteration (CIA). The aim is to measure the amount of decomposition relative to the resistant minerals in soils and rocks, as well as to assess the amount and capability of these soils as evidence of the degree of development, and then the possibility of classification depending on the degree of resistance to weathering processes. The results show transaction weathering in these areas varying in degree and ability of these soils in resisting weathering processes at different locations and the nature of the original material. The study shows that Zakho soil samples have a high degree of weathering; on the contrary, Qayarah soil samples have a very low degree of weathering due to different topographical and climatic conditions of these two regions. The remaining areas are intermediate in the degree of weathering, considering that these areas have received variable amounts of rain precipitation ranging between 1,000 mm / year as in Zakho and 250 mm / year in Qayarah area. The topography of these areas is different being high in Zakho and low in Qayarah area

Using Remote Sensing Techniques and GIS to Study of PM2.5 and PM10 Concentrations in the Atmosphere of Mosul City, Iraq

Amina Basil Mohammad; Sabah Hussein Ali; Riyad Fathi

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 15-26
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2022.174661

In the current study, remote sensing dataset and GIS are used for measuring the spatial distribution of the concentration levels of PM2.5 and PM10 in a selected area of Mosul City (right and left sides) for the period of September 2020 to February 2021, then compared these measured concentrations with the Iraqi and international standards. These pollutants have a negative impact on the environment, human and societal health. Temtop monitor (model: M2000) was used for measuring the concentration levels of PM2.5 and PM10 in the selected areas whose geographical positions (latitude and longitude) were determined using a GPS (Global Positioning System) instrument (model: GPSmap76CSx). For the purpose of comparison with satellite data, dataset of (PM2.5, PM10) is downloaded from the (European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites: EUMETSAT) which are mainly based on Copernicus that supervised by the (European Space Agency: ESA). The results reveal that all PM10 concentration levels have exceeded the limits set given by WHO as well as the Iraqi standards around all sampling stations except in Al-Maidan and Nergal neighborhoods. The results also showed the high concentrations of (PM2.5 and PM10) measured locally with the data taken from the (CAMS) website based on the satellite dataset.

Planktonic Foraminiferal Biostratigraphy of Shiranish Formation in Sara Anticline in Dokan Area, Northeastern Iraq

Yassen Hassan; S. AL-Hadidi S. AL-Hadidi

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 1-14
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2022.174662

Planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy of Shiranish Formation was studied in Sarah's anticline at the Dokan area, Sulaymania governate in, northeastern Iraq. The studied section consists of marl and marly limestone, Sixty-three Planktonic foraminiferal species belonging to seventeen genera have been recognized which permits the recognition of six zones; these are from older at the base
6- Abathomphalus mayaroensis interval zone (Part).
5- Gansserina gansseri interval zone.
4- Globotruncana aegyptiaca interval zone.
3-Globotruncanella havanensis interval zone.
2- Globotruncanita calcarata total range zone.
1-Globotruncana ventricosa interval zone (Part).
The Planktonic foraminiferal zones were correlated with other zonal schemes in and outside Iraq. They are considered to be extending from Middle Campanian to Late Early Maastrichtian.

Ostracoda Assemblages of the Hartha Formation (Late Campanian - Early Maastrichtian) from Balad (8) well, Central Iraq

Muhanad Zuhair Hamid; Ibrahim Younis Al-Shareefi

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 15-37
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2022.174663

Fundamentally, the current study is concerned with the investigation and diagnosing of Ostracoda fossils from the subsurface section of the Hartha Formation (Late Campanian - Early Maastrichtian) from (Ba-8) well at central Iraq. Fifty-nine Ostracoda species belonging to (29) genera/ subgenera from (13) families are diagnosed and classified to their ranks according to the standard systematic paleontology. Whereat (57) species are attributed to species previously described from local and regional studies. Two species are left under open zoological nomenclature basically because of lack of specimens. As a result, the study inferred that the species diagnosed in the Hartha Formation belong to the Late Campanian - Early Maastricht. As These species are very similar in terms of the external appearance and geologic age to the same species that were compared with them and which were previously described in the regions of East, West, and North Africa as well as the Arabian Gulf region.

Evaluation of Engineering Properties of Rocks and Soils of a Part of the Southwestern Area of Mosul City

Hadeer Adeeb; Azealdeen Jawadi; Dhiaa Salih

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2018, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 1-14
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2018.159255

The main task of this research is to study the distribution of the engineering properties of rocks and soils at the part of the area located in the south western Mosul City. The relationship of these aspects with the geology of the area and its importance of preliminary designs of structures has been studied as well. The data are collected from the reports on geological investigations and engineering laboratory testing of the proposed third canal of the South Jazirah Irrigation Project. Most of the land region is covered by the soil, that thickness ranges between 0 and nearly 20 meters and penetrated by boreholes reaching to the subsurface of evaporating, carbonate and clastic rocks of Fat’ha and Injana formations.
Data processing and evaluation of 66 boreholes are used to find the statistical relations among them. The studied area was divided into four secondary regions ( northern, southern, western and eastern). The studied engineering tests have been included the physical, mechanical and dynamic properties, which have generally low values in most areas. The distribution of the means of all properties that used in the assessment of the properties of soil and rock with the relation of the geological area has shown good properties when approaching to the anticlines of Allan, Hamam Al-Aleel, Nwaigeet, Kaliyan, Al- Shorah, Kassab and Addayah. The study shows that the relationship between the liquid limit and plasticity index is good for all data. The relationship between moisture content and dry density is also good however, the relationship between moisture content and the ratio of dry and saturated density is better, because of the higher relationship between porosity and moisture content. The relationship between bulk density and the velocity of longitudinal waves reveales a sharp reduction of the velocity values of longitudinal waves with reducing of the bulk density values. While, the relationship between bulk density and shear wave velocity is better due to the effect of shear waves withthe porosity more than that of longitudinal waves. In order to confirm that, it has been found that the relationship between the shear waves velocity and moisture content is the best in contrast with a velocity of longitudinal waves. Generally, the relation between dynamic properties with moisture content has a higher correlation coefficient with that of the density. The distribution of most of the engineering properties has shown low values in eastern and western region in contrast with the northern and southern ones.

Biostratigraphy of Upper Valanginian - Upper Aptian Balambo Formation Near Barsarin Village in Rawanduz Area, Northeastern Iraq

Majid Al-Mutwali; Nabil Al-Banna; Mohammed Al-Abbasi

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2018, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 1-12
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2018.159262

The biostratigraphy of Balambo Formation has been investigated within a well-exposed section at the northeastern limb of Zozik anticline, near Barsarin Village, northeastern Iraq. The studied section consists mainly of marl, marly limestone and limestone. These rocks yielded moderately diversified planktonic foraminiferal fauna and radiolarian skeletons, in addition to some benthonic foraminifera and bioclast. The study is focusing on planktonic foraminiferal taxa, which are classified to ten species belonging to three genera. the stratigraphic distribution of the recorded species permits the recognition of five well defined biozones. These are in descending order:
. Globigerinelloides algeriana Taxon range Zone. (part)
. Globigerinelloides ferreolensis Interval Zone.
. Globigerinelloides blowi Interval Zone.
. Hedbergella sigali Interval Zone.
. Globuligerina hoterivica Interval Zone.
The planktonic foraminiferal biozones are correlated with other zonal schemes. They are considered to be extending from Late Valanginian to Late Aptian age.
. Globigerinelloides algeriana Taxon range Zone. (part)
. Globigerinelloides ferreolensis Interval Zone.
. Globigerinelloides blowi Interval Zone.
. Hedbergella sigali Interval Zone.
. Globuligerina hoterivica Interval Zone.
-

The Chemical Formula of Francolite in the Phosphorite of Akashat Formation from X-Ray Diffraction Analysis

Kotayba Al-Youzbakey; Salim Al-Dabbagh

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2018, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 61-88
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2018.159265

Francolite (one of apatite group) found in marine formation sedimentary rocks. It is called carbonate-fluorapatite; owing to the substitution of CO3 for PO4 in its unit cell; Ca10(PO4CO3)6F2. Francolite unit cell composed of 4 Ca occupy the sites on ternary axis which are represent the Ca(I) sites, 6 Ca occupy the sites on hexad axis which are represent the Ca(II) sites. 6 P are joined with 24 oxygen to form 6 phosphate tetrahedrons and 2 sites occupied by F in the intermediate channel of the francolite crystal.
There is no differences will noticed along the three a-axis due to the slight effect of the substitution in the 4 Ca(I), this is may be due to the homogenous effects along the three a-axis in these sites. On the other hand, the substitution of planner carbonates for the tetrahedron phosphates cause decreasing in a-axis and slight increasing in the c-axis. These changes are reflected on the x-ray diffraction patterns; the angular distance (Δ2θ distance) between the two faces 410 and 004 will decrease, shifting in some peak positions and increasing in the width of reflecting peaks. The present study deals with the idea of the substitution of (CO32-+F-) for (PO43-) and suggests the Ca(I) sites are candidate to the substitution for large cations e.g. Sr2+, Ba2+and K+ and the Ca(II) sites for smaller cations e.g. Mg2+ .

Stratigraphy and Facies Analysis of the Govanda Formation from Western Zagros, Kurdistan Region, Northeastern Iraq

Kamal Karim

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2018, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 69-98
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2018.159266

A part of the Govanda Formation is studied in five outcrops from northeastern Iraq near the Iraqi-Iranian borders. It consists of polygenic conglomerates, detrital limestones (conglomeratic limestone), and highly fossiliferous limestones of reef- fore-reef facies with occasional interbedding of terrigenous sediments. Tectonically, the formation is important for its location in the very active Sanandij-Sirjan (Suture) Zone and for its deposition in Middle Miocene, which was assigned previously as an age of continental-continental colliding of Zagros Fold-Thrust belt. Additionally, it is overlaying different rocks units of pre-Miocene, especially resting on the Qulqula Radiolarian Formation in an angular unconformity relationship. The high-energy and tectonically active shallow and normal- marine environment is inferred from many facies such as coral framestone, pelecypod floatstone facies, coral and lithoclast rudstone, coral bufflestone, stromatolite bindstone, foraminifera and red algal bioclastic packstone–wackstone, reworked foraminiferal-lithoclast grainstone-packstone, lithoclast grainstone and terrigenous lime sandstone. The environment of The environment of The environment of The environment of The environment of The environment of The environment of The environment of The environment of The environment of The environment of The environment of The environment of The environment of The environment of The environment of the formation was hithe formation was hithe formation was hithe formation was hithe formation was hithe formation was hithe formation was hithe formation was hithe formation was hithe formation was hithe formation was hithe formation was hithe formation was hi the formation was hithe formation was hi the formation was hithe formation was hi gh energygh energy gh energygh energygh energygh energygh energy , shallow and normalshallow and normalshallow and normalshallow and normalshallow and normalshallow and normalshallow and normalshallow and normalshallow and normal shallow and normal shallow and normalshallow and normalshallow and normalshallow and normal- marine seamarine sea marine seamarine seamarine seamarine seamarine seamarine seamarine sea, which which which consist consist consistconsistconsists of of of foreforeforefore-reef, reef and backreef, reef and back reef, reef and backreef, reef and backreef, reef and backreef, reef and backreef, reef and back reef, reef and backreef, reef and backreef, reef and back reef, reef and back -reefreef reef. The tectonic and paleogeographic relations of the formation are discussed in terms of facies and boundary condition. It is confirmed that thethethe Sanandij Sanandij-Sirjan Zone w Sirjan Zone wSirjan Zone wSirjan Zone w Sirjan Zone wSirjan Zone wSirjan Zone wSirjan Zone wSirjan Zone wSirjan Zone was subjected to as subjected to as subjected to as subjected to as subjected to as subjected to as subjected to as subjected to as subjected to as subjected to as subjected to an extension not compression (continentalextension not compression (continentalextension not compression (continentalextension not compression (continentalextension not compression (continental extension not compression (continentalextension not compression (continentalextension not compression (continental extension not compression (continental extension not compression (continentalextension not compression (continental extension not compression (continentalextension not compression (continentalextension not compression (continentalextension not compression (continentalextension not compression (continentalextension not compression (continentalextension not compression (continentalextension not compression (continental extension not compression (continentalextension not compression (continental extension not compression (continental extension not compression (continentalextension not compression (continentalextension not compression (continentalextension not compression (continental extension not compression (continentalextension not compression (continental-continental colliding) continental colliding)continental colliding)continental colliding)continental colliding)continental colliding)continental colliding) continental colliding)continental colliding)continental colliding)continental colliding) continental colliding)continental colliding)continental colliding) continental colliding)continental colliding)continental colliding), as cited in some studies as cited in some studiesas cited in some studies as cited in some studiesas cited in some studiesas cited in some studies as cited in some studiesas cited in some studies as cited in some studiesas cited in some studiesas cited in some studiesas cited in some studiesas cited in some studiesas cited in some studiesas cited in some studiesas cited in some studies as cited in some studiesas cited in some studiesas cited in some studies. The richness of the basin The richness of the basin The richness of the basin The richness of the basin The richness of the basin The richness of the basin The richness of the basin The richness of the basin The richness of the basin The richness of the basin The richness of the basin The richness of the basin The richness of the basin The richness of the basin The richness of the basin The richness of the basin The richness of the basin The richness of the basin The richness of the basin The richness of the basin and fauna fauna fauna fauna indicateindicate indicate indicates that it that it that it that it that it that it was was was connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean connected to Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea.درست جزء مزن تیزوین نوانزدا ازی ممسزة میاشزا مزن شزمار شزرق العز ا رق بزالدرا مزن الحزدود الع ا رقیزة
الإی ا رنیززةو وتتززملا مززن الحجززر الجیززر) المت تززت یالحجززر الجیززر) المززدممیع ل والحجززر الجیززر) ززالع محتززو مززن
Stratigraphy and Facies Analysis of the Govanda Formation from…………….
71
المتحج ا رت ال ا رجعة الزع الشزعاا المرجانیزة و مدزدمت،ا ا والمزدممیات المتعزدد الاصزر مزا التزدامات العر زیة
لمرسوبیات الداریزةو تکتونیزااالتکوین م،زم وقو زف ازی ن زاق سزنندج سزرجان العالیزة النشزا یمز الالتحزامل و ز ال -
لترسّززبف اززی المایوسززین اطوسزز ا والزز ) ا تبززرت سززابدقا کعمززر اصزز دام قززار) قززار) لحزز ا ءم ال یززات و ال والززق -
الانءلاقیةو بالإ ااة إلى ل ا اإنف یدا ازوق وحزدات الصزمور الممتم زة و مزر مزا قبزر المیوسزینا وماصزة یدزا
اوق تکوین قولدولة ا ردیولاریتیة ای اقة زدم التواازق الز ا ءو)و اسزتنت ال اقزة العالیزة وتیتونیزة النشز ة لمبی زة
البحریزززة الا تیادیزززة لمتیزززوینو و ززز ا البی زززة ال ا رجعزززة الزززع الشزززعاا المرجانیزززة والجء زززع اطمزززامی اولمم زززی لشزززعاا
الاستنتاجو تم من مار د ا رسة سمنات دید مثر:
coral framestone, pelecypod floatstone, coral and lithoclast rudstone, coral bufflestone, stromatolite bindstone, foraminifera and red algal bioclastic packstone–wackstone, reworked foraminiferal-lithoclast grainstone-packstone, lithoclast grainstone and terrigenous lime sandstone facies
وتم مناقشة العاقات التکتونیة والجغ ا رایة الددیمة لمتکوین من مار السمنات و اقات الحدودیةو أکدت
أن الجء المدروس من من دة ن اق سنندج سرجان م ا لمتمدید ولیس الان غا یالاص دام الدار)- -
الدار)لا کما ورد ای بعض الد ا رسات السابدةو غنى الحوض بالحیوانات البحریة الا تیادیة یشیر إلى أنف
حو ف کان متصا بالمحی ال،ند) والبحر اطبیض المتوس .

The Relationship Between Chemical Index of Alteration andSome Major and Trace Elements Content in Rocksof Injana Formation of Northern Iraq

Salim. M. Al-Dabbagh; Sahra M. Othman; Hisham Y. Dhannoun

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2011, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 1-22
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2011.5501

The average CIA value for the Injana Formation (Late Miocene) sampled across a section consisting of alternating mudstones, siltstones and sandstones deposited mainly in fresh water environment is rather low value (45.6) indicating the very low level of chemical alteration which the source rocks have suffered which is mainly due to semi-arid to arid climate of weathering and also due to nearby position of the basin of deposition. No overall variation in climatic condition was observed along the section from bottom to top .The variation of major and trace elements involved in this study with mean values of CIA for the sandstone, siltstone and mudstone lithologies was attributed to either mobility of the element concerned (Na, K and Rb) or to gravity fractionation of minerals that host the element or to climate of weathering and deposition (P2O5, Ni, Co & TiO2). Major contribution of recycled argillaceous or clay rich sediments to the Injana Formation do not agree with the results reached in the present study.

The Use of the Seismic Refraction Tomography Survey Method and the Multi-Channel Analysis Technique of Surface Waves in the Geotechnical Assessment of the Al-Amal Apartments Site in Kirkuk, Northern Iraq Ali

Ali Al-Nuaiemy; Bashar Al-Juraisy; Mahmood Al-Mafraji

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2018, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 89-104
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2018.159260

The current study conducted a seismic refraction survey using seismic refraction tomography (SRT), and the use of the multi-channel analysis technique of surface waves (MASW) at the site of Al-Amal apartments in Kirkuk Governorate ( northern Iraq) in order to determine the thickness, depth and velocity of the sub-surface layers. Moreover, a geotechnical assessment is measured in addition to determining the characteristics of these layers and specifying the appropriate layer for establishing the project.The data are processed and interpreted by using SeisImager™/SW software to obtain the velocity of longitudinal waves (VP) represented in the form of a seismic tomography section. The velocity of shear waves (VS ) is extracted from the phase velocity of Rayleigh surface waves using MASW method. The 2D seismic tomography sections represent longitudinal velocity (VP) and the depth of the survey lines. It also has been got three one-dimensional sections representing shear waves (VS ) with the depth. The results show the presence of three layers, and through dynamic flexibility parameters are calculated, and two of geotechnical parameters are applied for the three layers based on the seismic velocity of longitudinal, shear and density. According to these geotechnical parameters, the third layer has better geotechnical specifications than the layers above it, which is suitable for the engineering project. .

Using Remote Sensing Techniques on the Study of Desertification and the Sand Dunes Movements in Biji Area Northern Iraq

Namik A. Daood; Waleed Y. Alubide

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2012, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 29-40
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2012.36289

Remote sensing techniques had been used to identify the total areas of the land covered with sand dunes for the region to the east of Lake Al-Thar Thar and towards Biji industrial town, and detecting the direction of its movement based on data obtained from the satellite images Landsat-5 (TM) 1990, and Landsat-7
(ETM +) 2000, also specify the land use of the region through the identification of sites of industrial plants, roads, water, rock, soils, and others. The results showed that the sand dunes presence as a characteristics bands as well as the possibility of determining the total area that covered by sand dunes during the specified interval time.
The results showed the great variety of the areas for the region covered with sand dunes and it ranging between (249.89) km2 in the year 1990 and about (643.92) km2 in 2000.The increases of the area covered by the sand dunes was due to the movement of sand dunes to the east of (Biji) and south-east towards Tikrit city, also many of the industrial establishment in the region was affected and exposed to the problem of sand drifting. This make the determination of the direction and the speed of movement of sand dunes taking into consideration when we planning for expansion of urban and industrial future of the industrial city of Biji.

Mathematical Model of Ground Water Flow of Bashiqa Area,Northern Iraq

Taha H.Alsalim; Mahamad Faozy

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2004, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 84-98
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2004.37742

Models of ground water are one of most important techniques and powerful tools for solving problems or questions of ground water. Mathematical model was designed for the verification of ground water system in Bashiqa area northern Iraq which situated between latitude , and longitude , .
The total area involved in the mathematical model was 95km by using Finite Difference Method (FDM) for presenting the model. The results of model application was the determining ground water level in the study area and the direction of flow of ground water. The future behavior of ground water of the research area has been predicted, in the case of drilling new wells.

The Relationship Between Chemical Index of Alteration andSome Major and Trace Elements Content in Rocksof Injana Formation of Northern Iraq

Salim. M. Al-Dabbagh; Sahra M. Othman; Hisham Y. Dhannoun

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2011, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 1-22
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2011.5501

The average CIA value for the Injana Formation (Late Miocene) sampled across a section consisting of alternating mudstones, siltstones and sandstones deposited mainly in fresh water environment is rather low value (45.6) indicating the very low level of chemical alteration which the source rocks have suffered which is mainly due to semi-arid to arid climate of weathering and also due to nearby position of the basin of deposition. No overall variation in climatic condition was observed along the section from bottom to top .The variation of major and trace elements involved in this study with mean values of CIA for the sandstone, siltstone and mudstone lithologies was attributed to either mobility of the element concerned (Na, K and Rb) or to gravity fractionation of minerals that host the element or to climate of weathering and deposition (P2O5, Ni, Co & TiO2). Major contribution of recycled argillaceous or clay rich sediments to the Injana Formation do not agree with the results reached in the present study.

The Use of Normalized Differences Vegetation Index in the Determination and Evaluation of Degradation Status of Vegetation Cover in Sinjar Mountain / Ninevah Governorate

Abas M. Al-Hasan Abdul-kareem M. Jassim; Jassim K. Shallal

Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 2007, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1-14
DOI: 10.33899/earth.2007.39243

Sinjar Mountain is situated to the north-west of Iraq, which is one of the important sites of the range lands in the country. Many recent studies and researches in the world have shown the possibility of using means and technology of remote sensing in the determination and evaluation of cases of vegetation cover degradation depending on the normalized differences vegetation index (NDVI) and on the other vegetation indexes.
The study included the use of visual interpretation methods in the analysis of landsat images with (MSS) and (TM) systems, which are taken in different periods of time during the year seasons and with different spectral bands (1,2,3,4,7) for Sinjar Mountain and Badyat Al-Jazeera. The correlation between vegetation indexes such as simple ratio (SR), vegetation index (VI), normalized differences vegetation index (NDVI) and soil adjusted vegetation index (SAVI) were studied through the calculation of spectral reflectences values with different wave lengths.
The results showed the presence of strong relation between the density of vegetation cover and the evaluation of deterioration state with the reflection values with the red spectral band. It has also been found that there is a strong correlation between the values of (NDVI) and the density of vegetation cover and the degradation of range lands, in addition to the influence of sloping degree and direction in Sinjar Mountain on the (NDVI) calculated values.

Publisher: College of Science / University of Mosul

Email:  injes@uomosul.edu.iq

Editor-in-chief: Professor Dr. Rayan Ghazi Thannoun

Print ISSN: 1682-3222

Online ISSN: 2664-2816

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